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Mechanism placebo effect

Arzu Tatar, Mukadder Korkmaz, Muhammed Yayla, Elif Polat, Hakan Uslu, Zekai Halici, Secil N Parlak
INTRODUCTION: For the treatment of rhinosinusitis antibiotics are used frequently. Concerns have been raised regarding the adverse effects of antibiotics and growing resistance. The lack of discovery of new antibiotic compounds has increased the necessity for exploration of non-antibiotic compounds that have antibacterial activity. Amlodipine is a non-antibiotic compound with anti-inflammatory activity. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to investigate the potential role of amlodipine in treatment of rhinosinusitis by evaluating its effects on tissue oxidative status, mucosal histology and inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Khaled Sinjab, Nouf Zimmo, Guo-Hao Lin, Ming-Pang Chung, Lujain Shaikh, Hom-Lay Wang
BACKGROUND: The use of statins on adult chronic patients showed a positive effect on their periodontal status. However, The effect of locally delivered statins on periodontal treatment has not yet been systematically analyzed. Hence, the present systematic review and meta-analyses aimed to evaluate the efficacy of statins on treating localized periodontal intrabony defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search of 3 databases (1965-2016 March 1(st)), including PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and a hand search of peer-reviewed journals for relevant articles were performed...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Wojciech Kosmala, Aleksandra Rojek, Monika Przewlocka-Kosmala, Leah Wright, Andrzej Mysiak, Thomas H Marwick
BACKGROUND: Impaired functional capacity is a hallmark of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite the association of HFpEF with reduced myocardial compliance attributed to fibrosis, spironolactone has not been shown to alter outcomes-perhaps reflecting the heterogeneity of underlying pathological mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to identify improvement in exercise capacity with spironolactone in the subset of patients with HFpEF with exercise-induced increase in ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') reflecting elevation of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Brian J Martin, Chris McGlory, Martin J MacInnis, Mary K Allison, Stuart M Phillips, Martin J Gibala
We reported that supplementation with green tea extract (GTE) lowered the glycemic response to an oral glucose load following exercise but via an unknown mechanism. Here we examined the effect of supplementation with GTE on plasma glucose kinetics upon ingestion of a glucose beverage during exercise recovery. Eleven healthy, sedentary men (21±2 y; BMI=23±4 kg•m(-2), VO2peak=38±7 ml•kg(-1)•min(-1); mean±SD) ingested GTE (350 mg) or placebo (PLA) thrice daily for 7-d in a double-blind, crossover design...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Kentaro Nobutani, Daisuke Sawada, Shigeru Fujiwara, Yuki Kuwano, Kensei Nishida, Jiro Nakayama, Hiromu Kutsumi, Takeshi Azuma, Kazuhito Rokutan
AIMS: To clarify the effects of Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (CP2305) on quality of life and clinical symptoms and its functional mechanisms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS AND RESULTS: After the patients were administered CP2305 daily for 4 weeks, the IBS-severity index score was significantly improved compared with that of the placebo group, and this improvement was accompanied by a reduction of health-related worry and changes in intestinal microbiota...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Karla Zanolla Dias de Souza, Fabiene Bernardes Castro Vale, Selmo Geber
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and evaluate its effect on the serum levels of testosterone. METHODS: We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, during 18 months. A total of 45 healthy sexually active postmenopausal women reporting diminished libido were selected to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to receive 750 mg/d of T terrestris or placebo for 120 days...
October 10, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Sui Cheung Man, Xian-Bin Li, Huai-Hai Wang, Hai-Ning Yuan, Hua-Ning Wang, Rui-Guo Zhang, Qing-Rong Tan, Hei Kiu Wong, Grainne M McAlonan, Chuan-Yue Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
OBJECTIVES: An herbal preparation called peony-glycyrrhiza decoction (PGD) may have the potential in reducing antipsychotic-related hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL). This double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study aimed to reevaluate the efficacy of PGD against antipsychotic-related hyperPRL. METHODS: Ninety-nine schizophrenic women who were under antipsychotic therapy and had symptomatic hyperPRL were randomly assigned to additional treatment with placebo (n = 50) or PGD (n = 49, 45 g/d) for 16 weeks...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Rose G Radin, Lindsey A Sjaarda, Neil J Perkins, Robert M Silver, Zhen Chen, Laurie L Lesher, Noya Galai, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Sunni L Mumford, Enrique F Schisterman
CONTEXT: Among women with a single, recent pregnancy loss, daily preconception low-dose aspirin (LDA) increased the live birth rate with no effect on pregnancy loss. The mechanism underlying this effect is unclear, but it may work through ovulation. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the effect of LDA on the per-cycle risk of anovulation among eumenorrheic women. DESIGN: The Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial, a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of daily LDA on reproductive outcomes...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Namhun Lee, Suk-Hoon Lee, Ho-Ryong Yoo, Hwa Seung Yoo
OBJECTIVES: Ginseng saponin is known to have biological activities in maintaining homeostasis and enhancing vital energy. Enzyme-modified ginseng extract (EMGE) was designed to increase the content of its active constituents and to intensify biological activity. The present study investigated the anti-fatigue effects of EMGE in healthy adults in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. DESIGN: Fifty-two healthy subjects met the diagnostic criteria and were randomly allocated into one of two groups: EMGE (2,000 mg/day) or placebo...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Bin Wang, Qianqian Sun, Yingsha Li, Peng Li, Weijie Xia, Daoyan Liu, Zhiming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to improve metabolic status in animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human, especially in prehypertensive participants. DESIGN AND METHOD: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on metabolic parameters, such as blood pressure (BP) levels, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), ankle brachial index (ABI)/toe brachial index (TBI), BMI and biochemical parameters in prehypertensive participants...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Shahbaz R Arain, Julie K Freed, Jutta Novalija, Paul S Pagel, Thomas J Ebert
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism of perioperative hypotension in patients taking an angiotensin-receptor blocker up to the time of surgery remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that short-term angiotensin-receptor blocker treatment attenuated the sympathetic and vascular responses to autonomic stimuli in volunteers undergoing anesthesia. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover, blinded, pilot design. SETTING: Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Robert Gabriel Coumine Riis, Marius Henriksen, Louise Klokker, Cecilie Bartholdy, Karen Ellegaard, Elisabeth Bandak, Bjarke Brandt Hansen, Henning Bliddal, Mikael Boesen
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-study were to: i) describe and compare the changes in MRI-measures of synovitis following an exercise program preceded by an intra-articular injection of either corticosteroid or isotonic saline and ii) investigate if any of the changes in patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) were associated with changes in MRI-measures of synovitis. DESIGN: We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating the effects of intra-articular corticosteroid vs...
October 13, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Andrew Vo, Ken N Seergobin, Penny A MacDonald
Dopaminergic therapy has been shown to worsen some cognitive functions, particularly learning, in Parkinson's disease (PD). This has been attributed to dopamine overdose of brain regions that are relatively dopamine replete. Dopamine dosages are titrated to the severely depleted dorsal striatum (DS). According to this account, dopaminergic therapy should worsen cognitive functions in healthy young adults who have normal dopamine levels. As a critical test of the dopamine overdose hypothesis, we tested the effect of levodopa on learning stimulus-response associations and on performing stimulus-specific responses once these associations were learned...
October 12, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Kyung Hye Lee, Sang Jin Ha, Jong-Shin Woo, Gi-Ja Lee, So-Ra Lee, Jung Wook Kim, Hun Kuk Park, Weon Kim
BACKGROUND: Exenatide exerts cardioprotective effects by attenuating ischaemic reperfusion injury, possibly through activating the opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate changes in mitochondrial morphology and properties in order to assess exenatide-mediated cardioprotection in IR injury. METHODS: We used an in vivo Sprague-Dawley rat IR model and ex vivo Langendorff injury model. In the left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion model, animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated rats (Sham, n=5), IR-injured rats treated with placebo (IR, n=6), and IR-injured treated with exenatide (IR + EXE, n=6)...
September 23, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Ben Lewis, Jeff Boissoneault, Ian Frazier, Sara Jo Nixon
BACKGROUND: Driver age and blood alcohol concentration are both important factors in predicting driving risk; however, little is known regarding the joint import of these factors on neural activity following socially relevant alcohol doses. We examined age and alcohol effects on brain oscillations during simulated driving, focusing on 2 region-specific frequency bands implicated in task performance and attention: parietal alpha power (PAP; 8 to 12 Hz) and frontal theta power (FTP; 4 to 7 Hz)...
October 14, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Gabriele Saccone, Vincenzo Berghella
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroids given at ≥34 weeks' gestation. DESIGN:  Systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:  Electronic databases were searched from their inception to February 2016. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION:  Randomized clinical trials comparing antenatal corticosteroids with placebo or no treatment in women with a singleton pregnancy at ≥34 weeks' gestation...
October 12, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Norbert J Tripolt, Felix Aberer, Regina Riedl, Barbara Hutz, Jasmin Url, Gudrun Dimsity, Andreas Meinitzer, Tatjana Stojakovic, Ronald Hödl, Marianne Brodmann, Franz Hafner, Harald Sourij
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are at increased risk for macrovascular events as well as for microvascular complications. There is evidence that in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), about 35 % suffer from manifest T2DM. Early glucose-lowering intervention in subjects with T2DM has been demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of cardiovascular risk reduction. But thus far, no data are available regarding investigating the impact of linagliptin treatment in patients with early diabetes on cardiovascular endpoints or surrogate parameters...
October 13, 2016: Trials
Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Nigel Armstrong, Ramesh Arjunji, Rob Riemsma, Gill Worthy, Rita Ganguly, Jos Kleijnen
Our aim was to establish the comparative effectiveness of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) biologics, using a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The systematic review used randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with RA who failed treatment with conventional disease-modifying agents for rheumatoid disease (cDMARDs). We compared the effectiveness of abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, certolizumab pegol, golimumab, and rituximab to tocilizumab, a recent biologic with a different mechanism of action (anti-IL-6 receptor)...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Jesse Aidan Dinh, Danial Baker, Manpreet Chahal
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the efficacy, tolerability, drug interactions, dosing, and administration issues associated with enzalutamide, abiraterone, and radium-223 for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Web of Science were used to search for relevant articles using a key-word search (enzalutamide, abiraterone, radium-223, and phase 3). No restriction was placed on the date of publication...
2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
E Carlino, A Piedimonte, F Benedetti
Placebos have long been considered a nuisance in clinical research, for they have always been used as comparators for the validation of new treatments. By contrast, today they represent an active field of research, and, due to the involvement of many mechanisms, the study of the placebo effect can actually be viewed as a melting pot of concepts and ideas for neuroscience. There is not a single placebo effect, but many, with different mechanisms across different medical conditions and therapeutic interventions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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