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Mechanism placebo effect

In-Seon Lee, Stephanie Kullmann, Klaus Scheffler, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck
Background: High-fat meals are associated with dyspeptic symptoms in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. It is still unclear how fat is processed, or how FD symptoms and neuronal activities are modulated by psychological factors. Objective: We investigated brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after the ingestion of high- and low-fat foods with correct/incorrect fat information. Design: We compared 12 FD patients and 14 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
L I Aftanas, M M Gevorgyan, S Ya Zhanaeva, S S Dzemidovich, K I Kulikova, E L Al'perina, K V Danilenko, G V Idova
The parallel placebo-controlled study examined the therapeutic effects of dual-target repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex (bilaterally) and the left prefrontal cortex (dorsolaterally) on spontaneous and mitogen-stimulating synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by the blood cells and the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood serum of patients with Parkinson's disease. The significantly steeper positive clinical dynamics (assessed by UPRSD scale) observed in rTMS group in comparison with the placebo group was accompanied by a significant drop in spontaneous production of proinflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IL-17A...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Soo-Kyung Kang, Yeon-Hee Lee, Hyeji Park, Jin Y Ro, Q-Schick Auh
OBJECTIVES: This placebo-controlled randomized double-blinded clinical study assessed the analgesic efficacy of intramuscular morphine in TMD patients with myofascial pain and sex dependent responses of the morphine treatment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Men and women with TMD were treated with morphine (1.5 or 5 mg), lidocaine or saline in the masseter muscle. VAS of pain intensity, PPT and PPtol were compared between treatment groups and gender. An additional group was treated with morphine in the trapezius muscle to evaluate the systemic effect of morphine that may reduce pain in the masseter muscle...
June 19, 2018: Oral Diseases
F Petzke, K B Jensen, E Kosek, E Choy, S Carville, P Fransson, S C R Williams, H Marcus, Y Mainguy, M Ingvar, R H Gracely
Background In recent years, the prescription of serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) has increased with reports of their efficacy. The SNRI milnacipran is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of FM, yet, the mechanisms by which milnacipran reduces FM symptoms are unknown. A large number of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated altered brain function in patients with FM but the effect of milnacipran on central pain processing has not been investigated...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Mats Persson, Jan Sörensen, Björn Gerdle
Objectives The present study challenges chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD)-subjects to a pharmacological intravenous (i.v.) test with morphine, ketamine, and active placebo (midazolam). The aim was to describe the short-term responses to drugs and the assumed heterogeneity in the patterns of responses. We related the different responder groups to the results from psychometric tests. Methods The study includes 95 patients, all with chronic WAD and referred to our departments. They answered a questionnaire including the following psychometric instruments relevant for chronic pain: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Life Satisfaction Checklist, SF36 and EuroQol...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Marie Thi Dao Tran, Sine Skovbjerg, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Per Bech, Marianne Lunde, Jesper Elberling
Background Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic, disabling condition characterized by recurrent multisystem symptoms triggered by common airborne chemicals. Evidence points towards abnormal sensory processing in the central nervous system (CNS) as a likely pathophysiological mechanism. No effective treatment has yet been reported, but clinical observations suggest that as pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) is a treatment for some CNS disorders (depression and chronic pain), it may also be a treatment modality for MCS...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Maria Andrikopoulou, Stephanie E Purisch, Roxane Handal-Orefice, Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Clinical data suggests that low dose aspirin may decrease the rate of overall PTB, but investigators have speculated that this is likely due to a decrease in medically indicated PTB through its effect on the incidence of preeclampsia and other placental disease. We hypothesized that low dose aspirin may also impact the mechanism of spontaneous preterm labor. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether low dose aspirin reduces the rate of spontaneous PTB in nulliparous women without medical co-morbidities...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hao Li, Ming-Hui Chen, Joseph G Ibrahim, Sungduk Kim, Arvind K Shah, Jianxin Lin, Andrew M Tershakovec
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been identified as a causative factor for atherosclerosis and related coronary heart disease, and as the main target for cholesterol- and lipid-lowering therapy. Statin drugs inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver and are typically the first line of therapy to lower elevated levels of LDL-C. On the other hand, a different drug, Ezetimibe, inhibits the absorption of cholesterol by the small intestine and provides a different mechanism of action. Many clinical trials have been carried out on safety and efficacy evaluation of cholesterol lowering drugs...
April 18, 2018: Biostatistics
Janna N Vrijsen, Verena S Fischer, Bernhard W Müller, Norbert Scherbaum, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Only 60% of depressed patients respond sufficiently to treatment, so there is a dire need for novel approaches to improve treatment effects. Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) may be an effective and easily implemented computerized add-on to treatment-as-usual. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a positivity-attention training and a positivity-approach training compared to control trainings. METHODS: In a blinded randomized-controlled design, 139 depressed inpatients received either the CBM Attention Dot-Probe Training (DPT) or the CBM Approach-Avoidance Training (AAT), next to treatment as usual...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Elem Kocaçal Güler, Gülengün Türk
The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effect of chlorhexidine at different concentration and frequency on ventilator-associated pneumonia and microbial colonization in mechanically ventilated patients. Relevant studies in English language were identified by searching data bases between January 2010 and December 2017. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Chlorhexidine with 0.2% concentration was found to be more effective than the control group (placebo dental gel and normal saline) in preventing the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in three of the eight studies...
June 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
J D Z Chen, M Ni, J Yin
Functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are common and there are patients who are refractory to medical therapies as not all treatments work in all patients. Consequently, a large number of patients with functional GI diseases use complementary and alternative medicine, such as acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA). In this issue, Zheng et al. reported interesting results of a multi-center placebo-controlled clinical study on the use of EA for treating refractory functional dyspepsia; another study reported a multi-center clinical trial on EA for chronic functional constipation; Liang et al...
July 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Aline de Souza Pagnussat, Camila Pinto, Ritchele Rovido, Ana Paula Salazar, Manuela Galli
OBJECTIVE: to assess the effects of Automated Peripheral Stimulation (AMPS) in reducing gait variability of subjects with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) treated with AMPS and to explore the effects of this treatment on gait during a single task (walking) and a dual task (walking while attending the word-color Stroop test). DESIGN: interventional, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. SETTING: Clinical rehabilitation...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Mareike Clos, Tobias Sommer, Signe L Schneider, Michael Rose
During incidental learning statistical regularities are extracted from the environment without the intention to learn. Acquired implicit memory of these regularities can affect behavior in the absence of awareness. However, conscious insight in the underlying regularities can also develop during learning. Such emergence of explicit memory is an important learning mechanism that is assumed to involve prediction errors in the striatum and to be dopamine-dependent. Here we directly tested this hypothesis by manipulating dopamine levels during incidental learning in a modified serial reaction time task (SRTT) featuring a hidden regular sequence of motor responses in a placebo-controlled between-group study...
2018: PloS One
Jessica Mandrioli, Roberto D'Amico, Elisabetta Zucchi, Annalisa Gessani, Nicola Fini, Antonio Fasano, Claudia Caponnetto, Adriano Chiò, Eleonora Dalla Bella, Christian Lunetta, Letizia Mazzini, Kalliopi Marinou, Gianni Sorarù, Sara de Biasi, Domenico Lo Tartaro, Marcello Pinti, Andrea Cossarizza
INTRODUCTION: Misfolded aggregated proteins and neuroinflammation significantly contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis, hence representing therapeutic targets to modify disease expression. Rapamycin inhibits mechanistic target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and enhances autophagy with demonstrated beneficial effects in neurodegeneration in cell line and animal models, improving phenotype in SQSTM1 zebrafish, in Drosophila model of ALS-TDP, and in the TDP43 mouse model, in which it reduced neuronal loss and TDP43 inclusions...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Noel M Caplice, Mary C DeVoe, Janet Choi, Darren Dahly, Theodore Murphy, Ernest Spitzer, Robert Van Geuns, Michael M Maher, David Tuite, David M Kerins, Mohammed T Ali, Imtiaz Kalyar, Eoin F Fahy, Wisam Khider, Peter Kelly, Peter P Kearney, Ronan J Curtin, Conor O'Shea, Carl J Vaughan, Joseph A Eustace, Eugene P McFadden
BACKGROUND: Residual and significant postinfarction left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, despite technically successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), remains an important clinical issue. In preclinical models, low-dose insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has potent cytoprotective and positive cardiac remodeling effects. We studied the safety and efficacy of immediate post-PCI low-dose intracoronary IGF1 infusion in STEMI patients...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
Esther M Beraha, Elske Salemink, Erwin Krediet, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Baclofen has shown promise in the treatment of alcohol dependence. However, its precise (neuro-) psychological working mechanism is still under debate. AIMS: This study aimed to get a better understanding of baclofen's working mechanism by examining the effect of baclofen on cognitive biases. It was hypothesized that baclofen, compared to placebo, would lead to weaker cognitive biases. Furthermore, given a suggested anxiolytic effect of baclofen, we expected that anxiety would moderate this effect...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Andrea W M Evers, Luana Colloca, Charlotte Blease, Marco Annoni, Lauren Y Atlas, Fabrizio Benedetti, Ulrike Bingel, Christian Büchel, Claudia Carvalho, Ben Colagiuri, Alia J Crum, Paul Enck, Jens Gaab, Andrew L Geers, Jeremy Howick, Karin B Jensen, Irving Kirsch, Karin Meissner, Vitaly Napadow, Kaya J Peerdeman, Amir Raz, Winfried Rief, Lene Vase, Tor D Wager, Bruce E Wampold, Katja Weimer, Katja Wiech, Ted J Kaptchuk, Regine Klinger, John M Kelley
BACKGROUND: Placebo and nocebo effects occur in clinical or laboratory medical contexts after administration of an inert treatment or as part of active treatments and are due to psychobiological mechanisms such as expectancies of the patient. Placebo and nocebo studies have evolved from predominantly methodological research into a far-reaching interdisciplinary field that is unravelling the neurobiological, behavioural and clinical underpinnings of these phenomena in a broad variety of medical conditions...
June 12, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
André R Brunoni, Frank Padberg, Erica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Antônio Lucio Teixeira, André F Carvalho, Paulo Andrade Lotufo, Wagner F Gattaz, Isabela Martins Benseñor
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) holds promise as a therapeutic intervention for major depressive disorder (MDD). A more precise understanding of its underlying mechanisms may aid in the identification of subsets of patients responsive to tDCS within the context of precision psychiatry. OBJECTIVE: In this ancillary investigation of the Escitalopram vs. Electrical Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS), we investigated whether plasma levels of several cytokines and neurotrophic factors associated with major depression or antidepressant response predicted tDCS effects...
June 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Blair Crewther, Konrad Witek, Piotr Zmijewski, Zbigniew Obmiński
D-aspartic acid (DAA) is promoted as a testosterone (T) enhancing supplement via mechanisms involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Here we investigated the short-term effects of DAA on serum biomarkers of the HPG-axis in male climbers. Using a single-blinded, placebo-controlled design, 16 climbers were randomly assigned to either a DAA (3 g·d-1 ) or placebo (3 g·d-1 ) supplement for two weeks. The reverse treatment commenced after a two-week washout, with all conditions administered in a balanced manner...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Somaye Arabzadeh, Atefeh Zeinoddini, Seyed-Ali Mostafavi, Mehdi Hamedi, Abolfazl Ehyaii, Ali Ghaleiha, Arefeh Zeinoddini, Shahin Akhondzadeh
Objective: Although the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is still uncertain, a variety of predisposing mechanisms have been implicated including inflammatory cascades. The present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of acetaminophen as a cyclooxygenase inhibitor in treating patients with schizophrenia. Method : A double-blind clinical trial was performed on 52 patients with chronic schizophrenia. Patients received risperidone (up to 6 mg/day) plus either acetaminophen (975mg/day) or placebo. Psychotic symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at the onset of the trial, and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post therapy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
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