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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029049/intraoperative-naloxone-reduces-remifentanil-induced-postoperative-hyperalgesia-but-not-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
C-H Koo, S Yoon, B-R Kim, Y J Cho, T K Kim, Y Jeon, J-H Seo
Background: Intraoperative use of a high-dose remifentanil may induce postoperative hyperalgesia. Low-dose naloxone can selectively reverse some adverse effects of opioids without compromising analgesia. We thus hypothesized that the intraoperative use of a high-dose remifentanil combined with a low-dose naloxone infusion reduces postoperative hyperalgesia compared with the use of remifentanil alone. Methods: Patients undergoing elective thyroid surgery were randomly assigned into one of three groups, depending on the intraoperative effect-site concentration of remifentanil, with or without a continuous infusion of naloxone: 4 ng ml-1 remifentanil with 0...
October 3, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028079/potency-on-lowering-serum-uric-acid-in-gout-patients-a-pooled-analysis-of-registrative-studies-comparing-febuxostat-vs-allopurinol
#2
M Cutolo, M A Cimmino, F Perez-Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: Hyperuricemia leading to urate crystal formation in tissues represents the pathophysiological mechanism of gout. Guidelines recommend a therapeutic target of serum urate concentration (sUA) <6 mg/dL, or even lower (≤5 mg/dL) in patients with large deposits. We conducted an analysis with the aim to achieve additional insights into the urate-lowering efficacy of two xanthine oxidase inhibitors, allopurinol and febuxostat. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a pooled analysis of phase III trials on allopurinol and febuxostat, including 4101 patients with gout and hyperuricemia...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026603/downregulation-of-mucosal-mast-cell-activation-and-immune-response-in-diarrhoea-irritable-bowel-syndrome-by-oral-disodium-cromoglycate-a-pilot-study
#3
Beatriz Lobo, Laura Ramos, Cristina Martínez, Mar Guilarte, Ana M González-Castro, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Marc Pigrau, Inés de Torres, Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, Eloisa Salvo-Romero, Marina Fortea, Cristina Pardo-Camacho, Danila Guagnozzi, Fernando Azpiroz, Javier Santos, María Vicario
BACKGROUND AND GOAL: Diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) exhibits intestinal innate immune and mucosal mast cell (MC) activation. MC stabilisers have been shown to improve IBS symptoms but the mechanism is unclear. Our primary aim was to investigate the effect of oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on jejunal MC activation and specific innate immune signalling pathways in IBS-D, and secondarily, its potential clinical benefit. STUDY: Mucosal MC activation (by ultrastructural changes, tryptase release and gene expression) and innate immune signalling (by protein and gene expression) were quantified in jejunal biopsies from healthy (HS; n = 16) and IBS-D subjects after six months of either treatment with DSCG (600 mg/day, IBS-D-DSCG group; n = 18) or without treatment (IBS-D-NT group; n = 25)...
October 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025878/elevated-postoperative-endogenous-glp-1-levels-mediate-effects-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-neural-responsivity-to-food-cues
#4
Jennifer S Ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Victor E A Gerdes, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Frederik Barkhof, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Madeleine L Drent, Michaela Diamant, Richard G IJzerman
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite and weight reduction, mediated via effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Secretion of GLP-1 is greatly enhanced after RYGB. We hypothesized that postoperative elevated GLP-1 levels contribute to the improved satiety regulation after RYGB via effects on the CNS...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024230/%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-oral-rinse-reduces-capsaicin-induced-burning-mouth-pain-sensation-an-experimental-quantitative-sensory-testing-study-in-healthy-subjects
#5
Y Zhang, K Wang, L Arendt-Nielsen, B E Cairns
BACKGROUND: In burning mouth patients, analgesia after oral administration of clonazepam may result from modulation of peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. METHODS: The effect of oral administration of test solutions (water, 0.5 mol/L or 0.05 mol/L GABA, 1% lidocaine) was investigated for the amelioration of pain and sensitivity induced by application of capsaicin (1%, 2 min) to the tongue of thirty healthy male and female subjects in this four-session, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over study...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023576/overexpression-of-tissue-nonspecific-alkaline-phosphatase-tnap-in-endothelial-cells-accelerates-coronary-artery-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#6
Filippo Romanelli, AnthonyMarco Corbo, Maryam Salehi, Manisha C Yadav, Soha Salman, David Petrosian, Omid J Rashidbaigi, Jesse Chait, Jes Kuruvilla, Maria Plummer, Ilian Radichev, Kenneth B Margulies, A Martin Gerdes, Anthony B Pinkerton, José Luis Millán, Alexei Y Savinov, Olga V Savinova
OBJECTIVE: Overexpression of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in endothelium leads to arterial calcification in mice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of elevated endothelial TNAP on coronary atherosclerosis. In addition, we aimed to examine endogenous TNAP activity in human myocardium. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A vascular pattern of TNAP activity was observed in human non-failing, ischemic, and idiopathic dilated hearts (5 per group); no differences were noted between groups in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023563/influence-of-platinum-harmonized-textile-on-neuromuscular-systemic-and-subjective-recovery
#7
Fridolin Zinke, Patrick Bakenecker, Daniel Hahn
The clothing manufacturer Venex Life-Science tracks the strategy to enhance recovery process through implementing platinum harmonized technology (PHT) into their Venex® Regeneration Wear. The proposed mechanisms of the regeneration wear are an increase of parasympathetic activity and an increase of the temperature due far-infrared radiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential effects of Venex regeneration wear on the recovery of neuromuscular, systemic and subjective parameters following exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020983/cxcr2-inhibition-a-novel-approach-to-treating-coronary-heart-disease-cicada-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#8
Jubin P Joseph, Eliana Reyes, Josephine Guzman, Jim O'Doherty, Hannah McConkey, Satpal Arri, Rahul Kakkar, Nicholas Beckley, Abdel Douiri, Sally F Barrington, Simon R Redwood, Albert Ferro
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence of the central role of neutrophils in both atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. Patients with lower neutrophil counts following acute coronary syndromes tend to have a greater coronary flow reserve, which is a strong predictor of long-term cardiovascular health. But so far, no data are available regarding the impact of neutrophil inhibition on cardiovascular clinical or surrogate endpoints. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of AZD5069, a cysteine-X-cysteine chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) inhibitor, on coronary flow reserve and coronary structure and function in patients with coronary artery disease...
October 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019365/blueberry-supplementation-attenuates-oxidative-stress-within-monocytes-and-modulates-immune-cell-levels-in-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Anand R Nair, Nithya Mariappan, April J Stull, Joseph Francis
BACKGROUND: Blueberries (BB) have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and endothelial function in obese and pre-diabetic humans, and decrease oxidative stress and inflammation, and ameliorate cardio-renal damage in rodents. This indicates that blueberries have a systemic effect and are not limited to a particular organ system. In order for blueberries to exert beneficial effects on the whole body, the mechanism would logically have to operate through modulation of cellular humoral factors...
October 11, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018896/hypericum-perforatum-extract-modulates-cortical-plasticity-in-humans
#10
Carmen Concerto, Hyunji Boo, Charles Hu, Priam Sandilya, Anita Krish, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Hypericum perforatum (HYP) extract is one of the most commonly used complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. Non-invasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to investigate the effect of psychoactive substances on the human brain. In this study, we explored the effect of a single dose of HYP extract (WS 5570) intake on corticospinal excitability and plasticity in humans. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy subjects were required to intake 900 mg of either HYP extract or placebo...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018894/abstinence-induced-withdrawal-severity-among-adolescent-smokers-with-and-without-adhd-disentangling-effects-of-nicotine-and-smoking-reinstatement
#11
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Sara G Balestrieri, Suzanne M Colby, Valerie S Knopik, Jennifer W Tidey
RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) start smoking earlier, are more likely to progress to nicotine dependence, and have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk, particularly at the adolescent stage. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of overnight nicotine abstinence and smoking reinstatement on subjective withdrawal states in adolescent smokers with and without ADHD...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017493/enzalutamide-versus-abiraterone-as-a-first-line-endocrine-therapy-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-enable-study-for-pca-a-study-protocol-for-a-multicenter-randomized-phase-iii-trial
#12
Kouji Izumi, Atsushi Mizokami, Mikio Namiki, Shogo Inoue, Nobumichi Tanaka, Yuko Yoshio, Kei Ishibashi, Manabu Kamiyama, Noriyasu Kawai, Hideki Enokida, Takashi Shima, Shizuko Takahara
BACKGROUND: Both enzalutamide and abiraterone have demonstrated improved radiographic progression-free and overall survival for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) compared with placebo controls before docetaxel treatment in phase III studies. These oral agents target androgen and androgen receptor signaling and are thought to be less toxic than chemotherapy. Cross-resistance to these agents was recently reported because of their similar mechanism of action, and it is important to assess which agent is more effective to use initially for CRPC...
October 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017068/allopurinol-augmentation-in-acute-mania-a-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-trials
#13
REVIEW
Alexander T Chen, Theodore Malmstrom, Henry A Nasrallah
BACKGROUND: Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor commonly used in the treatment of gout. Recent studies have also shown its promise as an adjunctive treatment for manic episodes in bipolar 1 disorder, possibly through mechanisms involving the purinergic pathway. However, its efficacy across studies has been inconsistent, so we conducted a meta-analysis of the published controlled studies with the goal of determining the efficacy profile of allopurinol as an adjunctive treatment for mania in bipolar disorder...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993261/volatile-organic-compounds-in-feces-associate-with-response-to-dietary-intervention-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Megan Rossi, Raphael Aggio, Heidi M Staudacher, Miranda C Lomer, James O Lindsay, Peter Irving, Chris Probert, Kevin Whelan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary interventions are effective in management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although responses vary. We investigated whether fecal levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associate with response to dietary interventions in patients with IBS. METHODS: Adults who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for IBS were recruited to a 2x2 factorial randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to a group counselled to follow a diet low in fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides, lactose, fructose, and polyols (low-FODMAP diet, n=46) or a group that received placebo dietary advice (sham diet, n=47) for 4 weeks...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991914/topiramate-modulates-trigeminal-pain-processing-in-thalamo-cortical-networks-in-humans-after-single-dose-administration
#15
Julia M Hebestreit, Arne May
Migraine is the sixth most common cause of disability in the world. Preventive migraine treatment is used to reduce frequency, severity and duration of attacks and therefore lightens the burden on the patients' quality of life and reduces disability. Topiramate is one of the preventive migraine treatments of proven efficacy. The mechanism of action underlying the preventive effect of topiramate in migraine remains largely unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we examined the central effects of a single dose of topiramate (100mg) on trigeminal pain in humans, compared to placebo (mannitol)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987493/risk-of-infection-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-treated-with-dupilumab-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Patrick Fleming, Aaron M Drucker
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by skin barrier defects, Th2 activation, and increased risk for cutaneous and extracutaneous infections. In clinical trials, dupilumab appeared to decrease rates of skin infections in AD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the impact of dupilumab on rates of skin and other infections in patients with moderate-to-severe AD. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dupilumab for AD...
October 4, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980935/lactobacillus-acidophilus-versus-placebo-in-the-symptomatic-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-lapibss-randomized-trial
#17
S Sadrin, S R Sennoune, B Gout, S Marque, J Moreau, J Grillasca, O Pons, J M Maixent
Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort and altered bowel habits. The use of Lactobacilli as probiotics during irritable bowel syndrome is based on their interesting mechanisms of action and their excellent safety profile but little is known about their clinical efficacy due to the lack of adequately designed clinical trials. The current clinical trial protocol aims to determine the effects of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and LAFTI L10 as probiotics to improve irritable bowel syndrome symptoms (LAPIBSS)...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974570/novel-mechanism-for-buffering-dietary-salt-in-humans-effects-of-salt-loading-on-skin-sodium-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-c-and-blood-pressure
#18
Viknesh Selvarajah, Kaisa M Mäki-Petäjä, Liliana Pedro, Sylvaine F A Bruggraber, Keith Burling, Anna K Goodhart, Morris J Brown, Carmel M McEniery, Ian B Wilkinson
High dietary sodium intake triggers increased blood pressure (BP). Animal studies show that dietary salt loading results in dermal Na(+) accumulation and lymphangiogenesis mediated by VEGF-C (vascular endothelial growth factor C), both attenuating the rise in BP. Our objective was to determine whether these mechanisms function in humans. We assessed skin electrolytes, BP, and plasma VEGF-C in 48 healthy participants randomized to placebo (70 mmol sodium/d) and slow sodium (200 mmol/d) for 7 days. Skin Na(+) and K(+) concentrations were measured in mg/g of wet tissue and expressed as the ratio Na(+):K(+) to correct for variability in sample hydration...
November 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974128/can-pleiotropic-effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-impact-residual-cardiovascular-risk
#19
John R Nelson, Wayne S True, Viet Le, R Preston Mason
Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk persists even in statin-treated patients with optimized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Other pathways beyond cholesterol contribute to CV risk and the key to reducing residual risk may be addressing non-cholesterol risk factors through pleiotropic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature relating to the potential role of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in reducing residual CV risk. The literature shows that EPA can robustly lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels without raising LDL-C levels and documents EPA to have a broad range of beneficial effects on the atherosclerotic pathway, including those on lipids, lipoproteins, inflammation, oxidation, phospholipid membranes, and the atherosclerotic plaque itself...
October 9, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973344/effect-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-on-survival-without-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Shabih U Hasan, Jim Potenziano, Girija G Konduri, Jose A Perez, Krisa P Van Meurs, M Whit Walker, Bradley A Yoder
Importance: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) occurs in approximately 40% of infants born at younger than 30 weeks' gestation and is associated with adverse pulmonary and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Objective: To test whether administration of inhaled nitric oxide to preterm infants requiring positive pressure respiratory support on postnatal days 5 to 14 improves the rate of survival without BPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This intent-to-treat study was a randomized clinical trial performed at 33 US and Canadian neonatal intensive care units...
September 25, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
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