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Mechanism placebo effect

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106308/measuring-expectation-of-pain-contingent-negative-variation-in-placebo-and-nocebo-effects
#1
A Piedimonte, G Guerra, S Vighetti, E Carlino
BACKGROUND: Expectation is an important mechanism underlying placebo response. Here, we analysed expectation of placebo hypoalgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia by using, for the first time, the contingent negative variation (CNV), also known as expectancy wave. METHODS: Subjects were presented a green or red cue followed by a train of either non painful or painful electrical stimuli, and expected hypoalgesia after the green and hyperalgesia after the red cue. In experiment 1, expectation was reinforced using a conditioning procedure whereby the green and red cues were paired with non painful and painful stimuli, respectively (acquisition)...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105091/effect-of-melatonin-on-the-peripheral-t-lymphocyte-cell-cycle-and-levels-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-patients-with-premature-ovarian-failure
#2
Yanmin Li, Hongli Liu, Jing Sun, Yipeng Tian, Changzhong Li
The objective of the present study was to observe the curative effect and mechanism of melatonin for suppression of premature ovarian failure (POF). From December 2014 to June 2015, 128 patients were consecutively diagnosed with POF in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. The patients were randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received melatonin tablets (1-3 mg/day), while the control group received placebo tablets. The levels of six sex hormones, percentage of T lymphocytes in the G1/M phase, and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined at four different time-points (1 day before treatment, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment) in both groups...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104253/the-effect-of-fampridine-sr-on-cognitive-fatigue-in-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-trial-in-patients-with-ms
#3
Sarah A Morrow, Heather Rosehart, Andrew M Johnson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive fatigue (CF) is a common complaint in persons with MS (PwMS). Fampridine-SR improves ambulation, fatigue and endurance, due to enhancing action potential formation by blocking potassium channels in demyelinated axons. Thus, through this same mechanism, it is hypothesized that Fampridine-SR could improve CF. OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fampridine-SR objectively improves CF in PwMS. METHODS: Sixty PwMS of any type with CF, defined as 3 or less correct responses when comparing the last third to the first third on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), were recruited from a tertiary care MS clinic in London (ON) Canada...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096677/long-term-bicycle-riding-ameliorates-the-depression-of-the-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis-by-affecting-the-levels-of-interleukin-6-and-interleukin-18
#5
Chunhui Zhao, Hui Ma, Lei Yang, Yong Xiao
PURPOSE: Hemodialysis patients with depression have a higher risk of death and hospitalization. Although there is pharmacological management for the depression of hemodialysis patients, the adverse effect of the drug limits the use. The nonpharmacological way, bicycle riding, may be an effective way for the therapy of the depression in hemodialysis patients. However, the underlying mechanism of this relationship is still not fully explained, while interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) are associated with depression and exercise...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091350/the-effects-of-flavanone-rich-citrus-juice-on-cognitive-function-and-cerebral-blood-flow-an-acute-randomised-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial-in-healthy-young-adults
#6
Daniel J Lamport, Deepa Pal, Anna L Macready, Sofia Barbosa-Boucas, John M Fletcher, Claire M Williams, Jeremy P E Spencer, Laurie T Butler
A plausible mechanism underlying flavonoid-associated cognitive effects is increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, behavioural and CBF effects following flavanone-rich juice consumption have not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of flavanone-rich juice is associated with acute cognitive benefits and increased regional CBF in healthy, young adults. An acute, single-blind, randomised, cross-over design was applied with two 500-ml drink conditions - high-flavanone (HF; 70·5 mg) drink and an energy-, and vitamin C- matched, zero-flavanone control...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#7
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087178/acupuncture-for-serum-uric-acid-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-hyperuricemia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
Yingjuan Huang, Jun Meng, Baoguo Sun, Ting Xiang, Xin Zhou, Biyu Xu, Yingzi Wu, Zexiong Chen, Shijun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia (HUA) is the most common disease associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and kidney disease. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy, mechanism, and safety of acupuncture on serum uric acid in patients with asymptomatic HUA. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial among 123 patients with asymptomatic HUA was conducted. The acupoints used in the acupuncture group were bilateral Five Shu in Spleen Meridian...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086882/differential-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-on-heart-rate
#9
REVIEW
Martin Lorenz, Francesca Lawson, David Owens, Denis Raccah, Christine Roy-Duval, Anne Lehmann, Riccardo Perfetti, Lawrence Blonde
While glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are known to increase heart rate (HR), it is insufficiently recognized that the extent varies greatly between the various agonists and is affected by the assessment methods employed. Here we review published data from 24-h time-averaged HR monitoring in healthy individuals and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with either short-acting GLP-1 RAs, lixisenatide or exenatide, or long-acting GLP-1 RAs, exenatide LAR, liraglutide, albiglutide, or dulaglutide (N = 1112; active-treatment arms)...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077379/effects-of-supplementation-with-nondigestible-carbohydrates-on-fecal-calprotectin-and-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-sfrp1-expression-in-the-large-bowel-mucosa-of-healthy-individuals
#10
Fiona C Malcomson, Naomi D Willis, Iain McCallum, Long Xie, Idoia Ibero-Baraibar, Wing C Leung, Seamus Kelly, D Michael Bradburn, Nigel J Belshaw, Ian T Johnson, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND: Hyperactive Wnt signaling is frequently observed in colorectal cancer. Higher intakes of dietary fiber [nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs)] and the fermentation product butyrate are protective against colorectal cancer and may exert their preventative effects via modulation of the Wnt pathway. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of supplementing healthy individuals with 2 NDCs [resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose] on fecal calprotectin concentrations and Wnt pathway-related gene expression...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076331/a-short-term-intervention-with-selenium-affects-expression-of-genes-implicated-in-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-prostate
#11
Dieuwertje E G Kok, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Gerald W Verhaegh, Jack A Schalken, Emile N J T van Lin, J P Michiel Sedelaar, J Alfred Witjes, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Pieter Van't Veer, Ellen Kampman, Lydia A Afman
In parallel with the inconsistency in observational studies and chemoprevention trials, the mechanisms by which selenium affects prostate cancer risk have not been elucidated. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of a short-term intervention with selenium on gene expression in non-malignant prostate tissue. Twenty-three men received 300 µg selenium per day in the form of selenized yeast (n=12) or a placebo (n=11) during 5 weeks. Prostate biopsies collected from the transition zone before and after intervention were analysed for 15 participants (n=8 selenium, n=7 placebo)...
January 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072907/symptomatic-treatments-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-motor-neuron-disease
#12
REVIEW
Louisa Ng, Fary Khan, Carolyn A Young, Mary Galea
BACKGROUND: Motor neuron disease (MND), which is also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), causes a wide range of symptoms but the evidence base for the effectiveness of the symptomatic treatment therapies is limited. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews of all symptomatic treatments for MND. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on 15 November 2016 for systematic reviews of symptomatic treatments for MND...
January 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069021/preoperative-optimization-of-patient-expectations-improves-long-term-outcome-in-heart-surgery-patients-results-of-the-randomized-controlled-psy-heart-trial
#13
Winfried Rief, Meike C Shedden-Mora, Johannes A C Laferton, Charlotte Auer, Keith J Petrie, Stefan Salzmann, Manfred Schedlowski, Rainer Moosdorf
BACKGROUND: Placebo effects contribute substantially to outcome in most fields of medicine. While clinical trials typically try to control or minimize these effects, the potential of placebo mechanisms to improve outcome is rarely used. Patient expectations about treatment efficacy and outcome are major mechanisms that contribute to these placebo effects. We aimed to optimize these expectations to improve outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: In a prospective three-arm randomized clinical trial with a 6 month follow-up, 124 patients scheduled for CABG surgery were randomized to either a brief psychological pre-surgery intervention to optimize outcome expectations (EXPECT); or a psychological control intervention focusing on emotional support and general advice, but not on expectations (SUPPORT); or to standard medical care (SMC)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067943/gamma-aminobutyric-acid-gaba-modulators-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-motor-neuron-disease
#14
REVIEW
Andrea Diana, Rita Pillai, Paolo Bongioanni, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Robert G Miller, Dan H Moore
BACKGROUND: Imbalance of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and related modulators has been implicated as an important factor in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is also known as motor neuron disease (MND). In this context, the role and mechanism of action of gabapentin and baclofen have been extensively investigated, although with conflicting results. This is the first systematic review to assess clinical trials of GABA modulators for the treatment of ALS. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of gabapentin, baclofen, or other GABA modulators in delaying the progression of ALS, and to evaluate adverse effects of these interventions...
January 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067007/vaginal-progesterone-decreases-preterm-birth-and-neonatal-morbidity-and-mortality-in-women-with-a-twin-gestation-and-a-short-cervix-an-updated-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#15
REVIEW
Roberto Romero, Agustin Conde-Agudelo, Waleed El-Refaie, Line Rode, Maria L Brizot, Elcin Cetingoz, Vicente Serra, Eduardo da Fonseca, Mohamed S Abdelhafez, Ann Tabor, Alfredo Perales, Sonia S Hassan, Kypros H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of vaginal progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality in asymptomatic women with a twin gestation and a sonographic short cervix (cervical length ≤25 mm) in the midtrimester. METHODS: Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials comparing vaginal progesterone with placebo/no treatment in women with a twin gestation and a midtrimester sonographic cervical length ≤25 mm...
January 9, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063515/the-benefits-of-%C3%AF-3-supplementation-depend-on-adiponectin-basal-level-and-adiponectin-increase-after-the-supplementation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Milena Maria de Araújo Lima Barbosa, Alexandra Lorenzzi Trinanes Raposo de Melo, Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether ω-3 supplementation improves cardiometabolic profile in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors and to determine the effect of adiponectin levels on these changes. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-mo clinical trial, we randomized 80 individuals of both sexes (mean age 52 y) with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (excess weight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or smoking) into two groups: ω-3 (supplemented with 3 g/d of fish oil containing 37% eicosapentaenoic acid and 23% docosahexaenoic acid) and placebo (3 g/d of sunflower oil containing 65% linoleic acid)...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060837/beneficial-effects-of-reconstituted-high-density-lipoprotein-rhdl-on-circulating-cd34-cells-in-patients-after-an-acute-coronary-syndrome
#17
Catherine Gebhard, Eric Rhéaume, Colin Berry, Geneviève Brand, Anne-Elen Kernaleguen, Gabriel Théberge-Julien, Mohammad Afaque Alam, Candace Y W Lee, Laurianne Boileau, Malorie Chabot-Blanchet, Marie-Claude Guertin, Marc-André Lavoie, Jean Grégoire, Réda Ibrahim, Philippe L'Allier, Jean-Claude Tardif
BACKGROUND: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) favorably affect endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Circulating progenitor cell level and function are impaired in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study investigates the short-term effects of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) on circulating progenitor cells in patients with ACS. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study population consisted of 33 patients with recent ACS: 20 patients from the ERASE trial (randomized to receive 4 weekly intravenous infusions of CSL-111 40 mg/kg or placebo) and 13 additional patients recruited as controls using the same enrolment criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056951/capromorelin-oral-solution-entyce%C3%A2-increases-food-consumption-and-body-weight-when-administered-for-4-consecutive-days-to-healthy-adult-beagle-dogs-in-a-randomized-masked-placebo-controlled-study
#18
Bill Zollers, Linda Rhodes, Ernst Heinen
BACKGROUND: Dogs can suffer from inappetence caused by a variety of medical conditions. This may present as anorexia (complete loss of appetite), hyporexia (decreased appetite) or dysrexia (change in food preferences). A drug with a new mechanism of action, capromorelin, has potential to stimulate appetite in dogs. Capromorelin is a ghrelin receptor agonist, which mimics the action of endogenous ghrelin. It is a member of the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) class of drugs. Capromorelin oral solution (ENTYCE®) was tested in healthy adult male and female Beagle dogs (n = 6 males and 6 females per group) for its effect on food consumption and body weight...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052855/syn-004-ribaxamase-an-oral-%C3%AE-lactamase-designed-to-protect-the-gut-microbiome-from-the-deleterious-effects-of-certain-intravenously-administered-%C3%AE-lactam-antibiotics-degrades-ceftriaxone-excreted-into-the-intestine-in-phase-2a-clinical-studies
#19
John F Kokai-Kun, Tracey Roberts, Olivia Coughlin, Eric Sicard, Marianne Rufiange, Richard Fedorak, Christian Carter, Marijke H Adams, James Longstreth, Heidi Whalen, Joseph Sliman
SYN-004 (ribaxamase) is a β-lactamase designed to be orally administered concurrently with intravenous β-lactam antibiotics including most penicillins and cephalosporins. Ribaxamase's anticipated mechanism of action is to degrade excess β-lactam antibiotic that is excreted into the small intestine. This enzymatic inactivation of excreted antibiotic is expected to protect the gut microbiome from disruption and thus prevent undesirable side effects including secondary infections like Clostridium difficile as well as other antibiotic-associated diarrheas...
January 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049491/fenofibrate-in-the-management-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-fame-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Sophie E Rowbotham, Doug Cavaye, Rene Jaeggi, Jason S Jenkins, Corey S Moran, Joseph V Moxon, Jenna L Pinchbeck, Frank Quigley, Christopher M Reid, Jonathan Golledge
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a slowly progressive destructive process of the main abdominal artery. Experimental studies indicate that fibrates exert beneficial effects on AAAs by mechanisms involving both serum lipid modification and favourable changes to the AAA wall. METHODS/DESIGN: Fenofibrate in the management of AbdoMinal aortic anEurysm (FAME) is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of orally administered therapy with fenofibrate on key pathological markers of AAA in patients undergoing open AAA repair...
January 4, 2017: Trials
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