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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091279/aflatoxin-m1-in-human-breast-milk-in-shahrekord-iran-and-association-with-dietary-factors
#1
Tina Jafari, Aziz A Fallah, Soleiman Kheiri, Abdolmajid Fadaei, Sayed Asadollah Amini
This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 250 breast milk samples of lactating mothers, obtained from urban and rural regions of Shahrekord, Iran. Moreover, the association between AFM1 occurrence levels and dietary factors were assessed. AFM1 analysis was carried out using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for screening and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) for confirmatory purposes...
January 16, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089945/zearalenone-exposure-impairs-ovarian-primordial-follicle-formation-via-down-regulation-of-lhx8-expression-in-vitro
#2
Guo-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Yan-Zhong Feng, Bo Li, Ya-Peng Li, Fan Yang, Charles Martin Nyachoti, Wei Shen, Shi-Duo Sun, Lan Li
Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced as a secondary metabolite by numerous species of Fusarium. Previous work showed that ZEA had a negative impact on domestic animals with regard to reproduction. The adverse effects and the mechanisms of ZEA on mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis remain largely unknown, particularly its effect on primordial follicle formation. Thus, we investigated the biological effects of ZEA exposure on murine ovarian germ cell cyst breakdown and primordial follicle assembly...
January 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089712/effect-of-heme-oxygenase-1-on-ochratoxin-a-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-mice
#3
Agnieszka Loboda, Anna Stachurska, Paulina Podkalicka, Mateusz Sobczak, Olga Mucha, Agnieszka Witalisz-Siepracka, Alicja Jozkowicz, Jozef Dulak
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a heme-degrading enzyme, is suggested to play an important role in kidney pathophysiology, mostly due to its anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties. One of the mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA) was previously shown to affect HO-1 expression, however, the mechanisms of OTA-induced nephrotoxicity during HO-1 deficiency are unknown. We have shown that OTA regulates the number of pro-fibrotic, pro-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and pro-apoptotic factors in HO-1 dependent manner, as the lack of HO-1 accelerates whereas the induction of HO-1 expression by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) attenuates nephrotoxic effect of OTA...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088280/comparative-study-of-colloidal-gold-and-quantum-dots-as-labels-for-multiplex-screening-tests-for-multi-mycotoxin-detection
#4
Astrid Foubert, Natalia V Beloglazova, Sarah De Saeger
Quantum dots (QDs) and colloidal gold nanoparticles (CG) were evaluated as labels for multiplex lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for determination of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T2/HT2-toxin (T2/HT2) in cereal matrices. Both developed assays were based on the same immunoreagents (except for the labels), therefore their analytical characteristics could be objectively compared. For both LFIAs antigens (DON-ovalbumin (OVA), ZEN-OVA and T2-OVA) and rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin were immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane as three test lines and one control line, respectively...
February 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080216/occurrence-of-mycotoxins-in-wheat-grains-exposed-to-fungicides-on-fusarium-head-blight-control-in-southern-brazil
#5
Leandro N Marques, Ionara R Pizzutti, Ricardo S Balardin, Ingrid D Dos Santos, Jonatan V Dias, Marlon T Stefanello, Pablo T Serafini
Mycotoxins occurrence in wheat grains impose risks to human and animal health. The southern Brazil has favorable weather conditions for Fusarium graminearum infections and consequently for mycotoxins accumulation on grains. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of new wheat commercial genotypes to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), to control performance of new fungicide formulations and their relationship with mycotoxins concentration in grains. The manly mycotoxin occurrence on wheat grains in southern Brazil was deoxynivalenol (DON)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075412/the-antagonistic-effect-of-mycotoxins-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-on-metabolic-profiling-in-serum-and-liver-of-mice
#6
Jian Ji, Pei Zhu, Fangchao Cui, Fuwei Pi, Yinzhi Zhang, Yun Li, Jiasheng Wang, Xiulan Sun
Metabolic profiling in liver and serum of mice was studied for the combined toxic effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), through gas chromatography mass spectrum. The spectrum of serum and liver sample of mice, treated with individual 2 mg/kg DON, 20 mg/kg ZEN, and the combined DON + ZEN with final concentration 2 mg/kg DON and 20 mg/kg ZEN for 21 days, were deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL. The data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with variable importance for the projection (VIP) > 1, t-test p value < 0...
January 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067781/gestational-zearalenone-exposure-causes-reproductive-and-developmental-toxicity-in-pregnant-rats-and-female-offspring
#7
Xin Gao, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Chong Li, Jiacai Zhang, Zhuohui Xiao, Desheng Qi
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an oestrogenic mycotoxin commonly found in food and feed products and can affect reproduction and development in both humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the toxic effects of ZEN on maternal SD rats and the F1 female offspring. Sixty-four pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups and exposed to feed contaminated with ZEN (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg feed) on gestational days (GDs) 0-21. Compared with the controls, the groups exposed to 10 and 20 mg/kg ZEN showed significantly decreased feed intake and body weight of pregnant rats and/or female offspring...
January 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067768/the-status-of-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-review-of-emerging-trends-and-post-harvest-mitigation-strategies-towards-food-control
#8
REVIEW
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
Fusarium fungi are common plant pathogens causing several plant diseases. The presence of these molds in plants exposes crops to toxic secondary metabolites called Fusarium mycotoxins. The most studied Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes. Studies have highlighted the economic impact of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. These arrays of toxins have been implicated as the causal agents of wide varieties of toxic health effects in humans and animals ranging from acute to chronic...
January 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064390/beap-profiles-as-rapid-test-system-for-status-analysis-and-early-detection-of-process-incidents-in-biogas-plants
#9
Sarah Refai, Stefanie Berger, Kati Wassmann, Melanie Hecht, Thomas Dickhaus, Uwe Deppenmeier
A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064121/characterization-of-fusarium-graminearum-isolates-recovered-from-wheat-samples-from-argentina-by-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-phenotypic-diversity-and-detection-of-specific-markers-of-aggressiveness
#10
Cecilia B Fígoli, Rodrigo Rojo, Laura A Gasoni, Gisele Kikot, Mariana Leguizamón, Raúl R Gamba, Alejandra Bosch, Teresa M Alconada
Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat in Argentina. This disease affects crop yields and grain quality also reducing the wheat end-use, and causing mycotoxin contamination. The aim of this work was to analyze the phenotypic characteristics associated with phenotypic diversity and aggressiveness of 34 F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates recovered from Argentinean fields in the 2008 growing season using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) dried film technology. We applied this technique also to search for spectral specific markers associated with aggressiveness...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054977/forthcoming-challenges-in-mycotoxins-toxicology-research-for-safer-food-a-need-for-multi-omics-approach
#11
REVIEW
Luca Dellafiora, Chiara Dall'Asta
The presence of mycotoxins in food represents a severe threat for public health and welfare, and poses relevant research challenges in the food toxicology field. Nowadays, food toxicologists have to provide answers to food-related toxicological issues, but at the same time they should provide the appropriate knowledge in background to effectively support the evidence-based decision-making in food safety. Therefore, keeping in mind that regulatory actions should be based on sound scientific findings, the present opinion addresses the main challenges in providing reliable data for supporting the risk assessment of foodborne mycotoxins...
January 4, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054118/-red-yeast-rice-an-unsafe-food-supplement
#12
Christian Steffen
Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products...
January 4, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053655/an-investigation-of-fungal-contamination-on-the-surface-of-medicinal-herbs-in-china
#13
Run-Sheng Zheng, Wen-Li Wang, Jing Tan, Hui Xu, Ruo-Ting Zhan, Wei-Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: The dried parts of medicinal herbs are susceptible to the infection of fungi during pre- or post-harvest procedure. This study aimed to investigate the presence of fungi and their metabolites mycotoxins on the surface of medicinal herbs collected from China. METHODS: Forty-five retail samples of 15 different medicinal herbs were collected from 3 different regions in China. Then the potential fungi were immediately washed off from the surface of each sample with 0...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050053/aspergillus-section-nidulantes-formerly-emericella-polyphasic-taxonomy-chemistry-and-biology
#14
A J Chen, J C Frisvad, B D Sun, J Varga, S Kocsubé, J Dijksterhuis, D H Kim, S-B Hong, J Houbraken, R A Samson
Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this section have a sexual state, which were named Emericella in the dual name nomenclature system. In the present study, strains belonging to subgenus Nidulantes were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses using internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) sequences...
June 2016: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045427/degradation-of-aflatoxins-by-means-of-laccases-from-trametes-versicolor-an-in-silico-insight
#15
Luca Dellafiora, Gianni Galaverna, Massimo Reverberi, Chiara Dall'Asta
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials...
January 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043835/mitigation-of-enniatins-in-edible-fish-tissues-by-thermal-processes-and-identification-of-degradation-products
#16
J Tolosa, G Font, J Mañes, E Ferrer
Emerging mycotoxins, such as enniatins and beauvericin, are common contaminants in vegetal matrices, but recently, the occurrence of mycotoxins in foodstuffs from animal origin has been also reported as they can be present in edible tissues of animals fed with contaminated feedstuffs. Sea bass, sea bream, Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout from aquaculture analyzed in the present survey showed contamination by emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins (ENs). ENs were extracted from raw and cooked fish with acetonitrile and analyzed by Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry...
December 31, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042000/mycotoxigenic-potentials-of-the-genera-aspergillus-fusarium-and-penicillium-isolated-from-houseflies-musca-domestica-l
#17
J Z Phoku, T G Barnard, N Potgieter, M F Dutton
A study on the potential of houseflies (Musca domestica L.) to spread fungal spores in Gauteng Province, South Africa proved that houseflies are vectors for fungal spores. Therefore, there is a need to determine the toxigenic potentials and to identify the mycotoxins produced by fungal isolates derived from this study. In total 377 potentially toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus (186), Fusarium (85) and Penicillium (106) species (spp.) were isolated. These isolates were further tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) [aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2], deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively...
December 29, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041933/a-risk-assessment-of-dietary-ochratoxin-a-in-the-united-states
#18
Nicole J Mitchell, Chen Chen, Jeffrey D Palumbo, Andreia Bianchini, Jack Cappozzo, Jayne Stratton, Dojin Ryu, Felicia Wu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin (fungal toxin) found in multiple foodstuffs. Because OTA has been shown to cause kidney disease in multiple animal models, several governmental bodies around the world have set maximum allowable levels of OTA in different foods and beverages. In this study, we conducted the first exposure and risk assessment study of OTA for the United States' population. A variety of commodities from grocery stores across the US were sampled for OTA over a 2-year period. OTA exposure was calculated from the OTA concentrations in foodstuffs and consumption data for different age ranges...
December 30, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040774/comparative-omics-of-the-fusarium-fujikuroi-species-complex-highlights-differences-in-genetic-potential-and-metabolite-synthesis
#19
Eva-Maria Niehaus, Martin Münsterkötter, Robert H Proctor, Daren W Brown, Amir Sharon, Yifat Idan, Liat Oren-Young, Christian M Sieber, Ondřej Novák, Aleš Pěnčík, Danuše Tarkowská, Kristýna Hromadová, Stanley Freeman, Marcel Maymon, Meirav Elazar, Sahar A Youssef, El Said M El-Shabrawy, Abdel Baset A Shalaby, Petra Houterman, Nelson L Brock, Immo Burkhardt, Elena A Tsavkelova, Jeroen S Dickschat, Petr Galuszka, Ulrich Güldener, Bettina Tudzynski
Species of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFC) cause a wide spectrum of often devastating diseases on diverse agricultural crops, including coffee, fig, mango, maize, rice, and sugarcane. Although species within the FFC are difficult to distinguish by morphology, and their genes often share 90% sequence similarity, they can differ in host plant specificity and life style. FFC species can also produce structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including the mycotoxins fumonisins, fusarins, fusaric acid, and beauvericin, and the phytohormones gibberellins, auxins, and cytokinins...
December 31, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040664/adsorption-of-the-mycotoxin-zearalenone-by-clinoptilolite-and-phillipsite-zeolites-treated-with-cetylpyridinium-surfactant
#20
Marija Marković, Aleksandra Daković, George E Rottinghaus, Milan Kragović, Anđela Petković, Danina Krajišnik, Jela Milić, Mariano Mercurio, Bruno de Gennaro
In this study, organozeolites were prepared by treatment of the natural zeolites (clinoptilolite and phillipsite) with cetylpyridinium chloride (CP) equivalent to 50 and 100% of their external cation exchange capacities (ECEC). Organoclinoptilolites (ZCPs) and organophillipsites (PCPs) were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, determination of the point of zero charge and zeta potential. Adsorption of zearalenone (ZEN) by ZCPs and PCPs at pH 3 and 7 was investigated. Results showed that adsorption of ZEN increases with increasing amounts of CP at the zeolitic surfaces for both ZCPs and PCPs but the adsorption mechanism was different...
December 23, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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