keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Mycotoxin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525967/candidate-gene-based-association-mapping-in-fusarium-culmorum-for-field-quantitative-pathogenicity-and-mycotoxin-production-in-wheat
#1
Valheria Castiblanco, Jose J Marulanda, Tobias Würschum, Thomas Miedaner
BACKGROUND: Quantitative traits are common in nature, but quantitative pathogenicity has received only little attention in phytopathology. In this study, we used 100 Fusarium culmorum isolates collected from natural field environments to assess their variation for two quantitative traits, aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol (DON) production on wheat plants grown in four different field environments (location-year combinations). Seventeen Fusarium graminearum pathogenicity candidate genes were assessed for their effect on the aggressiveness and DON production of F...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524101/development-of-a-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-multi-mycotoxin-determination-in-composite-cereal-based-samples
#2
Barbara De Santis, Francesca Debegnach, Emanuela Gregori, Simona Russo, Francesca Marchegiani, Gabriele Moracci, Carlo Brera
The analytical scenario for determining contaminants in the food and feed sector is constantly prompted by the progress and improvement of knowledge and expertise of researchers and by the technical innovation of the instrumentation available. Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin occurring at all latitudes worldwide and being characterized by acute and chronic effects on human health and animal wellness, depending on the species sensitivity. The major mycotoxins of food concern are aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, the first for its toxicity, and the second for its recurrent occurrence...
May 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524096/itraq-mitoproteome-analysis-reveals-mechanisms-of-programmed-cell-death-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-induced-by-ochratoxin-a
#3
Yan Wang, Xiaoli Peng, Zhuojun Yang, Weiwei Zhao, Wentao Xu, Junran Hao, Weihong Wu, Xiao Li Shen, Yunbo Luo, Kunlun Huang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common and dangerous mycotoxins in the world. Previous work indicated that OTA could elicit spontaneous HR-like lesions formation Arabidopsis thaliana, reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in OTA toxicity, and their major endogenous source is mitochondria. However, there has been no evidence as to whether OTA induces directly PCD in plants until now. In this study, the presence of OTA in Arabidopsisthaliana leaves triggered accelerated respiration, increased production of mitochondrial ROS, the opening of ROS-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pores and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol...
May 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522339/proteomics-analysis-of-fusarium-proliferatum-under-various-initial-ph-during-fumonisin-production
#4
Taotao Li, Liang Gong, Yong Wang, Feng Chen, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Qijie Jian, Xuewu Duan, Yueming Jiang
Fusarium proliferatum as a fungal pathogen can produce fumonisin which causes a great threat to animal and human health. Proteomic approach was a useful tool for investigation into mycotoxin biosynthesis in fungal pathogens. In this study, we analyzed the fumonisin content and mycelium proteins of Fusarium proliferatum cultivated under the initial pH5 and 10. Fumonisin production after 10days was significantly induced in culture condition at pH10 than pH5. Ninety nine significantly differently accumulated protein spots under the two pH conditions were detected using two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 89 of these proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520442/t-2-toxin-3%C3%AE-glucoside-in-broiler-chickens-toxicokinetics-absolute-oral-bioavailability-and-in-vivo-hydrolysis
#5
Nathan Broekaert, Mathias Devreese, Marthe De Boevre, Sarah De Saeger, Siska Croubels
Due to the lack of information on bioavailability and toxicity of modified mycotoxins, current risk assessment on these modified forms assumes an identical toxicity of the modified form to their respective unmodified counterparts. Cross-over animal trials were performed with intravenous and oral administration of T-2 toxin (T-2) and T-2 toxin-3-glucoside (T2-G) to broiler chickens. Plasma concentrations of T2-G, T-2 and main phase I metabolites were quantified using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with a limit of quantitation for all compounds of 0...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513456/aflatoxins-characteristics-and-impact-on-human-health
#6
Anna Kowalska, Katarzyna Walkiewicz, Paweł Kozieł, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
Some molds commonly occurring in the natural environment produce mycotoxins in the process of secondary metabolism. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are species of molds, which are responsible for the production of aflatoxins and are crucial in the pathogenesis of human diseases. Aspergillus species present in decaying plants, the soil and their spores are transferred via air currents and insects to crops and food storages. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 are the most common derivatives of aflatoxins...
May 5, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511111/adaptive-conditions-and-safety-of-the-application-of-penicillium-frequentans-as-a-biocontrol-agent-on-stone-fruit
#7
Belén Guijarro, Inmaculada Larena, Paloma Melgarejo, Antonieta De Cal
Penicillium frequentans (Pf909) reduces brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. in stone fruit. The registration of a microbial biocontrol agent in Europe requires information on the risks and safety of a biological product. This study focused on the impact of the physical environment on Pf909 survival and growth, Pf909 mycotoxin production on fruit surface, and the Pf909 resistance to commercial antifungal compounds used in animal and human medicine. The effect of temperature (4 to 37°C), water activity (0.999 to 0...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511044/bentonite-modified-with-zinc-enhances-aflatoxin-b1-adsorption-and-increase-survival-of-fibroblasts-3t3-and-epithelial-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cells-caco-2
#8
Janaína Nones, Anita Solhaug, Gunnar Sundstøl Eriksen, Domingos Lusitâneo Pier Macuvele, Anicleto Poli, Cíntia Soares, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin, Humberto Gracher Riella, Jader Nones
Bentonites are commonly used as feed additives to reduce the bioavailability and thus the toxicity of aflatoxins by adsorbing the toxins in the gastrointestinal tract. Aflatoxins are particular harmful mycotoxins mainly found in areas with hot and humid climates. They occur in food and feedstuff as a result of fungal contamination before and after harvest. The aim of this study was to modify Brazilian bentonite clay by incorporation of zinc (Zn) ions in order to increase the adsorption capacity and consequently reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510187/identification-and-trichothecene-genotypes-of-fusarium-graminearum-species-complex-from-wheat-in-taiwan
#9
Chih-Li Wang, Yi-Hong Cheng
BACKGROUND: Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is a devastating disease worldwide. The pathogens not only reduce the yield of wheat, but also impact the quality of wheat by contamination with trichothecene mycotoxins. A systematic investigation on the pathogens of FHB in Taiwan is lacking. Here, molecular and morphological approaches were used to identify species of the Taiwanese FGSC isolates and determine their trichothecene genotypes...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508953/-mycotoxins-in-food-occurrence-importance-and-health-risk
#10
REVIEW
Gisela H Degen
Mycotoxins are produced by a variety of fungal species on crops or stored commodities; they appear as primary or secondary contaminants and via the carryover effect in the food chain. The global occurrence of many mycotoxins with a wide spectrum of toxicities is the subject of interdisciplinary research and a relevant topic for consumer protection. This overview aims to raise interest with sections of the hazardous properties of important mycotoxins (from aflatoxin to zearalenone) and describes recent developments in the area of exposure assessment and basic principles applied in risk characterization...
May 16, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508334/a%C3%A2-survey-of-mycotoxin%C3%A2-contamination%C3%A2-and-chemical-composition-of-distiller-s-dried-grains-with-solubles-ddgs-imported-from-the%C3%A2-usa-into-saudi-arabia
#11
Alaeldein M Abudabos, Raed M Al-Atiyat, Rifat Ullah Khan
Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is a source of nutritional feedstuff for poultry farmers and industry. The DDGS is a by-product of ethanol industry and an economical feed source of energy, amino acids, crude fiber, minerals, and vitamins. The use of DDGS as a feed ingredient is a novel idea and little information is available on its dietary composition. Many factors such as the type of plants, locality, year of production, and the conditions during distillation process affect the chemical composition of DDGS...
May 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507410/isolation-and-identification-of-fungi-associated-with-spoilt-fruits-vended-in-gwagwalada-market-abuja-nigeria
#12
Samuel Mailafia, God'spower Richard Okoh, Hamza Olatunde K Olabode, Ramatu Osanupin
AIM: Annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Gwagwalada metropolis, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 100 spoilt fruits which include pawpaw (Carica papaya), orange (Citrus sinensis), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) were purchased and examined for the presence of fungal organisms using standard methods...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500823/aflatoxin-exposure-during-pregnancy-maternal-anemia-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#13
Laura E Smith, Andrew J Prendergast, Paul C Turner, Jean H Humphrey, Rebecca J Stoltzfus
AbstractPregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia...
April 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495100/ultrasensitive-direct-competitive-flisa-using-highly-luminescent-quantum-dot-beads-for-tuning-affinity-of-competing-antigens-to-antibodies
#14
Sicheng Xiong, Yaofeng Zhou, Xiaolin Huang, Ruijin Yu, Weihua Lai, Yonghua Xiong
Herein, for the first time we report a novel direct competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (dcFLISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by introducing a large size polymer beads loaded with quantum dots (QBs) as carrier of competing antigen for decreasing binding affinity to antibody and enhancing the fluorescent signal intensity. When using 255 nm QBs as carrier of competing antigen, the equilibrium dissociation constant of QB based competing antigen to antibodies can be tuned to 100 times higher than that of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) based competing antigen by controlling labeled amounts of antigen on the surface of QBs...
June 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492465/mitigation-of-patulin-in-fresh-and-processed-foods-and-beverages
#15
REVIEW
J David Ioi, Ting Zhou, Rong Tsao, Massimo F Marcone
Patulin is a mycotoxin of food safety concern. It is produced by numerous species of fungi growing on fruits and vegetables. Exposure to the toxin is connected to issues neurological, immunological, and gastrointestinal in nature. Regulatory agencies worldwide have established maximum allowable levels of 50 µg/kg in foods. Despite regulations, surveys continue to find patulin in commercial food and beverage products, in some cases, to exceed the maximum limits. Patulin content in food can be mitigated throughout the food processing chain...
May 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490068/micropollutants-and-chemical-residues-in-organic-and-conventional-meat
#16
Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Thierry Guérin, Brice Minvielle, Angélique Travel, Jérôme Normand, Marie Bourin, Eric Royer, Estelle Dubreil, Sophie Mompelat, Frédéric Hommet, Marina Nicolas, Vincent Hort, Chanthadary Inthavong, Mailie Saint-Hilaire, Claude Chafey, Julien Parinet, Ronan Cariou, Philippe Marchand, Bruno Le Bizec, Eric Verdon, Erwan Engel
The chemical contamination levels of both conventional and organic meats were assessed. The objective was to provide occurrence data in a context of chronic exposure. Environmental contaminants (17 polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans, 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, 6 mycotoxins, 6 inorganic compounds) together with chemical residues arising from production inputs (75 antimicrobials, 10 coccidiostats and 121 pesticides) have been selected as relevant compounds...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490057/surface-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-capped-mn-doped-zns-quantum-dots-as-a-phosphorescent-nanosensor-for-detecting-patulin-in-apple-juice
#17
Wengang Zhang, Yong Han, Xiumei Chen, Xueli Luo, Jianlong Wang, Tianli Yue, Zhonghong Li
A Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) based nanosensor for selective phosphorescent determination of patulin (PAT) was synthesized with 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6-HNA) as dummy template via a surface molecular imprinting sol-gel process. FTIR and XRD indicated the successful graft of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) onto crystal QDs. Binding tests revealed that the MIP-QDs presented higher selectivity, adsorption capacity and mass transfer rate than non-imprinted polymers, demonstrating a specific recognition for PAT among competitive mycotoxins and its analogues with the imprinting factor of 2...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488100/mycotoxins-in-organic-and-conventional-cereals-and-cereal-products-grown-and-marketed-in-croatia
#18
Jelka Pleadin, Mladenka Malenica Staver, Ksenija Markov, Jadranka Frece, Manuela Zadravec, Vesna Jaki, Igor Krupić, Nada Vahčić
In this study, the levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM) in unprocessed cereals (n = 189) and cereal-based products (n = 61) were determined using validated ELISA methods. All samples originated from either conventional or organic production corresponded to the 2015 harvest in Croatia. Based on the mean mycotoxin concentrations, the risk for the consumer to exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these toxins by the consumption of both types of cereals and cereal-based products was assessed...
May 9, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486558/temperature-during-conidiation-affects-stress-tolerance-pigmentation-and-trypacidin-accumulation-in-the-conidia-of-the-airborne-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
Daisuke Hagiwara, Kanae Sakai, Satoshi Suzuki, Myco Umemura, Toshihiko Nogawa, Naoki Kato, Hiroyuki Osada, Akira Watanabe, Susumu Kawamoto, Tohru Gonoi, Katsuhiko Kamei
Asexual spores (conidia) are reproductive structures that play a crucial role in fungal distribution and survival. As fungal conidia are, in most cases, etiological agents of plant diseases and fungal lung disease, their stress resistance and interaction with their hosts have drawn increasing attention. In the present study, we investigated whether environmental temperature during conidiation affects the stress tolerance of the conidia of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Conidia from a 25°C culture showed a lower tolerance to heat (60°C) and oxidative (H2O2) stresses and a marked resistance to ultraviolet radiation exposure, compared with those produced at 37 and 45°C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484902/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-protective-role-of-se-on-the-g2-m-phase-arrest-of-jejunum-caused-by-afb1
#20
Jing Fang, Heng Yin, Zhixiang Zheng, Panpan Zhu, Xi Peng, Zhicai Zuo, Hengmin Cui, Yi Zhou, Ping Ouyang, Yi Geng, Junliang Deng
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic among the mycotoxins and causes detrimental health effects on human and animals. Selenium (Se) plays an important role in chemopreventive, antioxidant, anticarcinogen, and detoxification and involved in cell cycle regulation. The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms of selenium involved in inhibition of G2/M cell cycle arrest of broiler's jejunum. A total of 240 one-day-old healthy Cobb broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed with basal diet (control group), 0...
May 9, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
keyword
keyword
6876
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"