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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784425/a-novel-bioassay-based-on-aptamer-functionalized-magnetic-nanoparticle-for-the-detection-of-zearalenone-using-time-resolved-fluorescence-nayf-4-ce-tb-nanoparticles-as-signal-probe
#1
Sobia Niazi, Xiaole Wang, Imran Pasha, Imran Mahmood Khan, Sen Zhao, Muhammad Shoaib, Shijia Wu, Zhouping Wang
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by fungi on stored grains. The earlier detection methods used for ZEN rely on expensive equipment, time-consuming sample preparation and temperature sensitive antibodies. The current work, proposed a novel strategy based on ZEN aptamer labeled with amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticle (MNPs) as a capture probe and time-resolved fluorescence (TRFL) nanoparticles labeled with complementary DNA (cDNA) as a signal probe. Under the optimized conditions, TRFL intensity at 544 nm was used to measure ZEN (R2 = 0...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784365/rapid-detection-of-four-mycotoxins-in-corn-using-a-microfluidics-and-microarray-based-immunoassay-system
#2
Yiqi Chen, Xiangrui Meng, Yunzeng Zhu, Minjie Shen, Ying Lu, Jing Cheng, Youchun Xu
Mycotoxins threaten human health seriously because they usually exist in food, fodder and commodities. In this study, a rapid and sensitive immunoassay system for commonly encountered mycotoxins was established based on microfluidics and protein microarrays. Four mycotoxins (T-2 toxin, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone) can be automatically detected in a custom-made microdevice within 30 min under the assistance of a prototype of the instrument with a fluid control system and an imaging system. Once the microdevices are fabricated, they are small-sized and user-friendly...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781250/low-level-aflatoxin-exposure-associated-with-greater-linear-growth-in-southern-mexico-a-longitudinal-study
#3
Jef L Leroy, Celeste Sununtnasuk, Armando García-Guerra, Jia-Sheng Wang
Aflatoxins are a group of naturally occurring mycotoxins, which can lead to death and are a known cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. AF exposure has been hypothesised to lead to stunted growth in children, but separating the AF effect from other determinants of linear growth retardation is difficult. The study used secondary data from an efficacy trial conducted in young children in southern Mexico to test the comparative efficacy of a milk-based multiple micronutrient-fortified food, a multiple micronutrient syrup, or a multiple micronutrient powder...
May 21, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775726/pathological-effects-of-concurrent-administration-of-aflatoxin-b-1-and-fowl-adenovirus-4-in-broiler-chicks
#4
Muhammad Noman Naseem, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Ahrar Khan, Aisha Khatoon, Shafia Tehseen Gul, Farzana Rizvi, Ijaz Ahmad, Ahad Fayyaz
The current study was designed to investigate pathological effects fowl adenovirus in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B1 . Fowl Adenovirus-4 (FAdV-4) infection is remerging in all types of poultry birds in Pakistan. Poultry feed contamination with mycotoxin (aflatoxin) is another important global issue. A total of 125 a-day old broiler birds were divided into six equal groups. Group A served as control. B and C groups were administered with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) 100 and 200 μg/kg feed. Group D was infected with FAdV-4 while groups E and F administered with both AFB1 (100 & 200 μg/kg) along with FAdV-4...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774371/prediction-of-deoxynivalenol-toxicokinetics-in-humans-by-in-vitro-to-in-vivo-extrapolation-and-allometric-scaling-of-in-vivo-animal-data
#5
Christiane Kruse Fæste, Lada Ivanova, Amin Sayyari, Ulrik Hansen, Tore Sivertsen, Silvio Uhlig
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent mycotoxin in cereals worldwide. It can cause adverse health effects in humans and animals, and maximum levels in food and feed have been implemented by food authorities based on risk assessments derived from estimated intake levels. The lack of human toxicokinetic data such as absorption, distribution, and elimination characteristics hinders the direct calculation of DON plasma levels and exposure. In the present study, we have, therefore, used in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation of depletion constants in hepatic microsomes from different species and allometric scaling of reported in vivo animal parameters to predict the plasma clearance [0...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768483/transport-of-enniatin-b-and-enniatin-b1-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-hints-for-neurotoxic-effects-in-cerebral-cells
#6
Isabel Krug, Matthias Behrens, Melanie Esselen, Hans-Ulrich Humpf
Enniatins are common contaminants of food and feed and belong to the group of the "emerging" mycotoxins, which are produced by various Fusarium species. Although a wide range of toxic effects, like antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and cytotoxic properties, have been described in vitro, so far, no cases of mycotoxicosis connected to enniatins in vivo are reported. Among this group of mycotoxins, enniatin B and enniatin B1 are the most prevalent compounds and therefore are present in the human diet...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766584/direct-immunoassay-for-facile-and-sensitive-detection-of-small-molecule-aflatoxin-b1-based-on-nanobody
#7
Yanfei Shen, Deng Pan, Guanghui Li, Huizhen Hu, Huaijia Xue, Mingming Zhang, Min Zhu, Xue Gong, Yuanjian Zhang, Yakun Wan
Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), one of the most toxic mycotoxins, is classified as a group I carcinogen and ubiquitous in various foods and agriproducts. Thus, accurate and sensitive determination of AFB₁ is of great significance to meet the criteria of food safety. Direct detection of AFB₁ is difficult by monoclonal antibody (mAb) with large molecular size (~150 kD) since the target is too small to produce a detectable signal change. Herein, by combining the electrochemical properties of nanomaterials and the advantages of nanobodies, we developed a direct, highly selective and sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for small molecule detection...
May 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766221/tracking-emerging-mycotoxins-in-food-development-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-free-and-modified-alternaria-toxins
#8
Hannes Puntscher, Mary-Liis Kütt, Philipp Skrinjar, Hannes Mikula, Joachim Podlech, Johannes Fröhlich, Doris Marko, Benedikt Warth
Mycotoxins produced by Alternaria fungi are ubiquitous food contaminants, but analytical methods for generating comprehensive exposure data are rare. We describe the development of an LC-MS/MS method covering 17 toxins for investigating the natural occurrence of free and modified Alternaria toxins in tomato sauce, sunflower seed oil, and wheat flour. Target analytes included alternariol (AOH), AOH-3-glucoside, AOH-9-glucoside, AOH-3-sulfate, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), AME-3-glucoside, AME-3-sulfate, altenuene, isoaltenuene, tenuazonic acid (TeA), tentoxin (TEN), altertoxin I and II, alterperylenol, stemphyltoxin III, altenusin, and altenuic acid III...
May 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762474/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-boulardii-reduces-the-deoxynivalenol-induced-alteration-of-the-intestinal-transcriptome
#9
Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Philippe Pinton, Jean-François Hupé, Manon Neves, Yannick Lippi, Sylvie Combes, Mathieu Castex, Isabelle P Oswald
Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae , have the potential for improving the enteric health of piglets, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the administration of yeast counteracts the DON-induced intestinal alterations...
May 15, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757853/multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-screening-of-mycotoxin-genes-from-ocular-isolates-of-fusarium-species
#10
Orapin Anutarapongpan, Jorge Maestre-Mesa, Eduardo C Alfonso, Terrence P OʼBrien, Darlene Miller
PURPOSE: To identify mycotoxin genes among clinical ocular isolates of Fusarium species and to correlate these with clinical outcomes of Fusarium keratitis. METHODS: Fifty-four clinical isolates of Fusarium were retrieved from the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute Ocular Microbiology Laboratory data bank. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions were run to confirm the identification of Fusarium species [internal transcribed spacer sequence, translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF) and β-tubulin] and to detect the presence of genes encoding production of fumonisin B mycotoxins (FUM1 and FUM8) and trichothecene mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol and nivalenol)...
May 1, 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757205/label-free-g-quadruplex-aptamer-fluorescence-assay-for-ochratoxin-a-using-a-thioflavin-t-probe
#11
Kefeng Wu, Changbei Ma, Han Zhao, Hailun He, Hanchun Chen
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and foodstuffs. Therefore, a great deal of concern is associated with AFB1 toxicity. In this work, a fast and sensitive fluorescence aptamer biosensor has been proposed for the OTA assay. In the absence of OTA, the OTA aptamer can form a G-quadruplex structure with thioflavin T (ThT) dye, which results in increased fluorescence. After joining OTA, OTA aptamer combines with OTA and the G-quadruplex can be formed. Only faint fluorescence was finally observed when ThT weakly reacts with the quadruplex...
May 12, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756353/effect-of-potassium-sorbate-e-202-and-the-antifungal-pgafp-protein-on-aspergillus-carbonarius-growth-and-ochratoxin-a-production-in-raisin-simulating-media
#12
Sihem Fodil, Josué Delgado, Leonardo Varvaro, Thaer Yaseen, Alicia Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of OTA in raisins is mainly related to the black Aspergillus spp. contamination. This toxin poses risks to human and animal health due to their high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, new strategies to avoid the risk associated to OTA are necessary. RESULTS: In the present study, a comparison between the effects of the antifungal protein PgAFP and potassium sorbate (E-202), on the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius, biosynthetic- and stress-related gene expression and its OTA production at two water activity (aw ) levels 0...
May 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755546/occurrence-of-ochratoxin-a-in-grape-juice-of-iran
#13
Jamal Yusefi, Mehran Valaee, Firouzeh Nazari, Javad Maleki, Ehsan Mottaghianpour, Roya Khosrokhavar, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins that contaminate a broad range of agricultural and food products. In this study, the occurrence of OTA in available brands of grape juice in Iran purchased from retail outlets or producer were determined for the first time using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with immunoaffinity columns(IAC) as the clean-up step. The average recoveries for OTA in grape juice ranged from 54.2 to 86.6% with the coefficient of variation lower than 17.3% in lowest spiked level (0...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754002/trichoderma-harzianum-inhibition-of-mycotoxin-producing-fungi-and-toxin-biosynthesis
#14
H Braun, L Woitsch, B Hetzer, R Geisen, B Zange, M Schmidt-Heydt
A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752039/impact-of-fungi-on-immune-responses
#15
Pio Conti, Lucia Tettamanti, Filiberto Mastrangelo, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Ilias Frydas, Spiros K Kritas, Alessandro Caraffa, Franco Pandolfi
Spores and fungal fragments found in indoor and outdoor environments originate from opportunistic fungi and they can contribute to inflammatory responses, causing a broad range of symptoms. Papers were selected and reviewed with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms involved in the effect of fungi on immune cells, especially mast cells (MCs). Fungi can bind to antibodies and complement them, allowing them to be recognized by cells of the innate immune system, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and MCs, which are then stimulated via Toll-like receptor signaling...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751687/designed-strategies-for-fluorescence-based-biosensors-for-the-detection-of-mycotoxins
#16
REVIEW
Atul Sharma, Reem Khan, Gaelle Catanante, Tauqir A Sherazi, Sunil Bhand, Akhtar Hayat, Jean Louis Marty
Small molecule toxins such as mycotoxins with low molecular weight are the most widely studied biological toxins. These biological toxins are responsible for food poisoning and have the potential to be used as biological warfare agents at the toxic dose. Due to the poisonous nature of mycotoxins, effective analysis techniques for quantifying their toxicity are indispensable. In this context, biosensors have been emerged as a powerful tool to monitors toxins at extremely low level. Recently, biosensors based on fluorescence detection have attained special interest with the incorporation of nanomaterials...
May 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751674/comparative-analysis-of-zearalenone-effects-on-thyroid-receptor-alpha-tr%C3%AE-and-beta-tr%C3%AE-expression-in-rat-primary-cerebellar-cell-cultures
#17
David Sandor Kiss, Eniko Ioja, Istvan Toth, Zoltan Barany, Gergely Jocsak, Tibor Bartha, Tamas L Horvath, Attila Zsarnovszky
Thyroid receptors play an important role in postnatal brain development. Zearalenone (ZEN), a major mycotoxin of Fusarium fungi, is well known to cause serious health problems in animals and humans through various mechanisms, including the physiological pathways of thyroid hormone (TH). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression of thyroid receptors α (TRα) and β (TRβ) in primary cerebellar neurons in the presence or absence of glia and following ZEN treatment, using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751668/electrochemical-immunosensor-for-detection-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-based-on-indirect-competitive-elisa
#18
Farah Asilah Azri, Rashidah Sukor, Jinap Selamat, Fatimah Abu Bakar, Nor Azah Yusof, Reza Hajian
Mycotoxins are the secondary toxic metabolites produced naturally by fungi. Analysis of mycotoxins is essential to minimize the consumption of contaminated food and feed. In this present work, an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) was successfully developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Various parameters of ELISA, including antigen⁻antibody concentration, blocking agents, incubation time, temperature and pH of reagents, were first optimized in a 96-well microtiter plate to study the antigen⁻antibody interaction and optimize the optimum parameters of the assay...
May 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751574/current-status-of-mycotoxin-contamination-of-food-commodities-in-zimbabwe
#19
REVIEW
Nancy Nleya, Modupeade Christianah Adetunji, Mulunda Mwanza
Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds, with subsequent production of mycotoxins posing health risks to both humans and animals. There is limited documentation on the occurrence of mycotoxins in sub-Saharan African countries, leading to the exposure of their populations to a wide variety of mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated foods. This review aims at highlighting the current status of mycotoxin contamination of food products in Zimbabwe and recommended strategies of reducing this problem...
May 3, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749584/droplet-digital-pcr-detects-high-rate-of-tp53-r249s-mutants-in-cell-free-dna-of-middle-african-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Agnès Marchio, Marie Amougou Atsama, Aubin Béré, Narcisse-Patrice Komas, Dominique Noah Noah, Paul Jean Adrien Atangana, Serge-Magloire Camengo-Police, Richard Njouom, Claudine Bekondi, Pascal Pineau
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still a major killing malignancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Lifelong intoxication with aflatoxin B1 is considered as one of the primary causes of this situation. The role of aflatoxin in HCC from a given population is commonly estimated through the prevalence of R249S mutation of TP53, a hallmark for previous exposure to the mycotoxin. However, the role of AFB1 is barely known in large part of Africa. We conducted a survey on circulating cell-free DNA from 149 patients with HCC and 213 control subjects with and without liver diseases from Cameroon and Central African Republic using droplet digital PCR technique...
May 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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