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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445738/ochratoxin-a-and-its-metabolites-in-urines-of-german-adults-an-assessment-of-variables-in-biomarker-analysis
#1
Nurshad Ali, Katherine Muñoz, Gisela H Degen
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin known for its nephrotoxic and carcinogenic properties, is a worldwide occurring contaminant in a variety of food commodities. Biomonitoring (i.e. analysis in biological fluids) can serve to assess human internal exposure from all consumed foods and beverages. We now determined the concentration of OTA and its metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OTα) in plasma and in urine of two male volunteers with different food habits, in order to assess intra-individual temporal fluctuations and inter-individual differences in their biomarker levels...
April 23, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445424/the-effect-of-deoxynivalenol-on-selected-populations-of-immunocompetent-cells-in-porcine-blood-a-preliminary-study
#2
Michał Dąbrowski, Ewa Jakimiuk, Mirosław Baranowski, Magdalena Gajęcka, Łukasz Zielonka, Maciej Tadeusz Gajęcki
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins in Europe. Pigs are an animal species that is most susceptible to this mycotoxin. Deoxynivalenol causes significant losses in pig production by lowering feed intake, decreasing daily weight gains, disrupting immune responses, and increasing susceptibility to diseases. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of feed contaminated with DON at concentrations insignificantly higher than recommended by the European Commission (900 µg/kg)...
April 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444604/effect-of-%C3%AE-irradiation-on-fumonisin-producing-fusarium-associated-with-animal-and-poultry-feed-mixtures
#3
B V Deepthi, A P Gnanaprakash, M Y Sreenivasa
Contamination of animal and poultry feeds by Fusarium and the mycotoxin Fumonisin B1 is frequent in the feed supply chain. The present study evaluated the prevalence of fumonisin B1 producing Fusarium among irradiated and non-irradiated animal and poultry feed mixtures. Further, the efficiency of γ-rays (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy) to minimize Fusarium growth and biosynthesis of fumonisin B1 in artificially inoculated feed was evaluated. A total of 108 feed samples were collected in which 45.37% of feed mixtures were contaminated with Fusarium species...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438205/expression-of-the-clonostachys-rosea-lactonohydrolase-gene-by-lactobacillus-reuteri-to-increase-its-zearalenone-removing-ability
#4
Wen-Chun Yang, Tsui-Chun Hsu, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Je-Ruei Liu
BACKGROUND: Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that can contaminate agricultural crops in the field as well as during harvest, transportation, processing, or storage. Zearalenone (ZEN), a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin, produced by Fusarium species, has been shown to be associated with reproductive disorders in farm animals and to a lesser extent in hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. Thus, the decontamination of ZEN in foods and feeds is an important issue...
April 24, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435200/mycotoxin-binders-potential-on-histological-of-ovary-mice-exposed-by-zearalenone
#5
Abdul Samik, Erma Safitri
AIM: This study was conducted to examine the potential of mycotoxin binder in ceasing zearalenone (ZEN) effect on mice reproduction. ZEN mycotoxin can induce reactive oxygen species that may cause damage and cell death. ZEN is estrogenic so that it may affect the reproductive organs failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mycotoxin binder administration to female mice exposed to ZEN was aimed to count the number of primary follicles, secondary follicles, tertiary follicles, de Graaf's follicles, and the corpus luteum (CL)...
March 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432936/the-immunosuppressive-characteristics-of-fb1-by-inhibition-of-maturation-and-function-of-bmdcs
#6
Yinhuan Li, Yanhong Fan, Bingbing Xia, Qiuping Xiao, Qingqing Wang, Weidong Sun, Haibin Zhang, Chenghua He
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is one kind of mycotoxins that has the neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, which commonly infects corn and other crops and is harmful to animal and human health upon consumption of FB1-contaminated feed or food. However, the mechanism of immunotoxicity, especially the immunosuppression induced by FB1 is still unclear. The most pivotal cells in the induction of immune responses are dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we used murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) as a model system to elucidate the effect of FB1 on the function of BMDCs through biological methods...
April 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430618/t-2-mycotoxin-toxicological-effects-and-decontamination-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Manish Adhikari, Bhawana Negi, Neha Kaushik, Anupriya Adhikari, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, Eun Ha Choi
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430148/a-rapid-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-method-followed-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-for-the-determination-of-mycotoxins-in-cereals
#8
Giorgia La Barbera, Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Patrizia Foglia, Carmela Maria Montone, Riccardo Zenezini Chiozzi, Aldo Laganà
Mycotoxins can contaminate various food commodities, including cereals. Moreover, mycotoxins of different classes can co-contaminate food, increasing human health risk. Several analytical methods have been published in the literature dealing with mycotoxins determination in cereals. Nevertheless, in the present work, the aim was to propose an easy and effective system for the extraction of six of the main mycotoxins from corn meal and durum wheat flour, i.e., the main four aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and the mycoestrogen zearalenone...
April 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427036/the-dose-dependent-effect-of-zearalenone-on-mitochondrial-metabolism-plasma-membrane-permeabilization-and-cell-cycle-in-human-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#9
Karolina Kowalska, Dominika Ewa Habrowska-Górczyńska, Kamila Domińska, Agnieszka Wanda Piastowska-Ciesielska
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal mycotoxin produced by several fungi of the genus Fusarium spp. It is known to play various roles in the regulation of the prostate cancer cell cycle, including carcinogenesis. The present study evaluates the influence of ZEA on the mitochondrial metabolism, plasma membrane permeabilization and cell cycle of prostate cancer cells. At concentrations of 100 nM and 0.3 nM, ZEA caused a decrease in the oxidative activity of mitochondria, as well as increases in LDH release, apoptosis induction and the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase...
April 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424858/electrochemical-simulation-of-biotransformation-reactions-of-citrinin-and-dihydroergocristine-compared-to-uv-irradiation-and-fenton-like-reaction
#10
Julia Keller, Hajo Haase, Matthias Koch
Mycotoxins occur widely in foodstuffs and cause a variety of mold-related health risks to humans and animals. Elucidation of the metabolic fate of mycotoxins and the growing number of newly discovered mycotoxins have enhanced the demand for fast and reliable simulation methods. The viability of electrochemistry coupled with mass spectrometry (EC/ESI-MS), Fenton-like oxidation, and UV irradiation for the simulation of oxidative phase I metabolism of the mycotoxins citrinin (CIT) and dihydroergocristine (DHEC) was investigated...
April 19, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422143/dissecting-the-genetic-architecture-of-fusarium-verticillioides-seed-rot-resistance-in-maize-by-combining-qtl-mapping-and-genome-wide-association-analysis
#11
Ming Ju, Zijian Zhou, Cong Mu, Xuecai Zhang, Jingyang Gao, Yakun Liang, Jiafa Chen, Yabin Wu, Xiaopeng Li, Shiwei Wang, Jingjing Wen, Luming Yang, Jianyu Wu
Fusarium verticillioides can be transmitted via seeds and cause systemic infection in maize (Zea mays L.); its mycotoxin has harmful effects on animal and human health. We combined QTL mapping in recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations with a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 217 diverse maize lines using 224,152 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) under controlled conditions to determine the genetic architecture of F. verticillioides seed rot (FSR) resistance. Our study identified 8 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and 43 genes associated with 57 SNPs that were correlated with FSR resistance through linkage mapping and GWAS, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422127/differential-control-of-asexual-development-and-sterigmatocystin-biosynthesis-by-a-novel-regulator-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#12
Yong Jin Kim, Yu Yeong Man, Pil Jae Maeng
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia and produces the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST), the penultimate precursor of aflatoxins. It has been known that asexual development and ST production are tightly co-regulated by various regulatory inputs. Here, we report that the novel regulator AslA with a C2H2 domain oppositely regulates development and ST biosynthesis. Nullifying aslA resulted in defective conidiation and reduced expression of brlA encoding a key activator of asexual development, which indicates that AslA functions as an upstream activator of brlA expression...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421981/validation-of-max-aqueous-extraction-on-veratox-%C3%A2-for-total-aflatoxin-elisa-test-kit
#13
Brooke E Roman, Dana Driksna, Mohamed M Abouzied, Frank Klein, Jennifer Rice
Neogen Corp. (Lansing, MI) has developed a common aqueous extraction method for the detection of mycotoxins in the ELISA or lateral flow format. The Veratox(®) for Total Aflatoxin ELISA extraction method uses a MAX 2 extraction packet and water in replacement of traditionally used organic solvents. Veratox for Total Aflatoxin has a detection range of 5–50 ppb neat or up to 300 ppb with dilution. The kit development focused on superior cross-reactivity, ability to accurately detect naturally contaminated samples, and utilization of an aqueous extraction method...
April 18, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420137/modification-of-the-mycotoxin-deoxynivalenol-using-microorganisms-isolated-from-environmental-samples
#14
Nina M Wilson, Nicole McMaster, Dash Gantulga, Cara Soyars, Susan P McCormick, Ken Knott, Ryan S Senger, David G Schmale
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 μg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two mixed cultures derived from soil samples consistently decreased DON levels in assays using DON as the sole carbon source...
April 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420109/comparison-of-biogenic-amines-and-mycotoxins-in-alfalfa-and-red-clover-fodder-depending-on-additives
#15
Jiri Skladanka, Vojtech Adam, Ondrej Zitka, Veronika Mlejnkova, Libor Kalhotka, Pavel Horky, Klara Konecna, Lucia Hodulikova, Daniela Knotova, Marie Balabanova, Petr Slama, Petr Skarpa
In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419131/aflatoxin-levels-in-sunflower-seeds-and-cakes-collected-from-micro-and-small-scale-sunflower-oil-processors-in-tanzania
#16
Juma A Mmongoyo, Felicia Wu, John E Linz, Muraleedharan G Nair, Jovin K Mugula, Robert J Tempelman, Gale M Strasburg
Aflatoxin, a mycotoxin found commonly in maize and peanuts worldwide, is associated with liver cancer, acute toxicosis, and growth impairment in humans and animals. In Tanzania, sunflower seeds are a source of snacks, cooking oil, and animal feed. These seeds are a potential source of aflatoxin contamination. However, reports on aflatoxin contamination in sunflower seeds and cakes are scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine total aflatoxin concentrations in sunflower seeds and cakes from small-scale oil processors across Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414518/advanced-synchrotron-based-and-globar-sourced-molecular-micro-spectroscopy-contributions-to-advances-in-food-and-feed-research-on-molecular-structure-mycotoxin-determination-and-molecular-nutrition
#17
Haitao Shi, Peiqiang Yu
Mycotoxin contamination has been a worldwide problem for food and feeds production for a long time. There is an obviously increased focus of the food and feed industry toward the reduction of mycotoxin concentration in both the raw materials and finished products. Therefore, both effective qualitative and quantitative techniques for the determination of mycotoxins are required to minimize their harmful effects. Conventional wet chemical methods usually are time-consuming, expensive, and rely on complex extraction and cleanup pretreatments...
April 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411543/the-disorder-metabolic-profiling-in-kidney-and-spleen-of-mice-induced-by-mycotoxins-deoxynivalenol-through-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#18
Jian Ji, Pei Zhu, Fangchao Cui, Fuwei Pi, Yinzhi Zhang, Xiulan Sun
Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics strategy was implemented for the metabolites detection in kidney and spleen samples of mice, which were treated with 2 mg kg(-1) deoxynivalenol (DON), through intragastric administration for three weeks, for studying the toxicity of DON on the metabolic profiling in kidney and spleen. The spectrum was deconvoluted, aligned and identified with MS DIAL, equipped with Fiehn library. And the data matrix was processed with univariate analysis and multivariate analysis for selection of metabolites with VIP >1, t-test p value < 0...
March 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409636/signal-on-photoelectrochemical-immunoassay-for-aflatoxin-b1-based-on-enzymatic-product-etching-mno2-nanosheets-for-dissociation-of-carbon-dots
#19
Youxiu Lin, Qian Zhou, Dianping Tang, Reinhard Niessner, Dietmar Knopp
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) monitoring has attracted extensive attention because food safety is a worldwide public health problem. Herein, we design a novel simultaneously visual and photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensing system for rapid sensitive detection of AFB1 in foodstuff. The immunoreaction was carried out on anti-AFB1 antibody-modified magnetic beads by using glucose oxidase (GOx)-labeled AFB1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA) conjugates as the tags with a competitive-type immunoassay format, while the visual and PEC evaluation was performed via carbon quantum dots (CQDs)-functionalized MnO2 nanosheets...
April 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407119/a-barley-udp-glucosyltransferase-inactivates-nivalenol-and-provides-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-transgenic-wheat
#20
Xin Li, Herbert Michlmayr, Wolfgang Schweiger, Alexandra Malachova, Sanghyun Shin, Yadong Huang, Yanhong Dong, Gerlinde Wiesenberger, Susan McCormick, Marc Lemmens, Philipp Fruhmann, Christian Hametner, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam, Gary J Muehlbauer
Fusarium Head Blight is a disease of cereal crops that causes severe yield losses and mycotoxin contamination of grain. The main causal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, produces the trichothecene toxins deoxynivalenol or nivalenol as virulence factors. Nivalenol-producing isolates are most prevalent in Asia but co-exist with deoxynivalenol producers in lower frequency in North America and Europe. Previous studies identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase, HvUGT13248, that efficiently detoxifies deoxynivalenol, and when expressed in transgenic wheat results in high levels of type II resistance against deoxynivalenol-producing F...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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