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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230792/static-hot-air-and-infrared-rays-roasting-are-efficient-methods-for-aflatoxin-decontamination-on-hazelnuts
#1
Ilenia Siciliano, Barbara Dal Bello, Giuseppe Zeppa, Davide Spadaro, Maria Lodovica Gullino
Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods-traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting-were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229635/oral-administration-of-fumonisin-b1-and-t-2-individually-and-in-combination-affects-hepatic-total-and-mitochondrial-membrane-lipid-profile-of-rabbits
#2
A Szabó, J Szabó-Fodor, H Fébel, M Mézes, G Bajzik, M Kovács
Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2 mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10 mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2 + 10 mg/kg, respectively) compared to a toxin-free control diet. Samplings were performed after 4 weeks (blood and liver). Bodyweight of T-2-fed group was lower after 4 weeks; the liver weight was increased dramatically (threefold of control). Liver total phospholipids (PLs) provided slight alterations in the fatty acid (FA) composition; all three toxin-treated groups showed a decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7) proportion...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229023/toxgen-an-improved-reference-database-for-the-identification-of-type-b-trichothecene-genotypes-in-fusarium
#3
Tomasz Kulik, Kessy Abarenkov, Maciej Buśko, Katarzyna Bilska, Anne D van Diepeningen, Anna Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Katarzyna Krawczyk, Balázs Brankovics, Sebastian Stenglein, Jakub Sawicki, Juliusz Perkowski
Type B trichothecenes, which pose a serious hazard to consumer health, occur worldwide in grains. These mycotoxins are produced mainly by three different trichothecene genotypes/chemotypes: 3ADON (3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), 15ADON (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol) and NIV (nivalenol), named after these three major mycotoxin compounds. Correct identification of these genotypes is elementary for all studies relating to population surveys, fungal ecology and mycotoxicology. Trichothecene producers exhibit enormous strain-dependent chemical diversity, which may result in variation in levels of the genotype's determining toxin and in the production of low to high amounts of atypical compounds...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223122/individual-and-combined-effects-of-aflatoxin-b1-deoxynivalenol-and-zearalenone-on-hepg2-and-raw-264-7-cell-lines
#4
Hongyuan Zhou, Saji George, Crystal Hay, Joel Lee, He Qian, Xiulan Sun
To understand the combinatorial toxicity of mycotoxins, we measured the effects of individual, binary and tertiary combinations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZEN) on the cell viability and cellular perturbations of HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cells. The nature of mycotoxins interactions was assessed using mathematical modeling (Chou-Talalay). Mechanisms of cytotoxicity were studied using high content screening (HCS) that probed cytotoxicity responses, such as changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) flux, and cell membrane damage...
February 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222253/flow-cytometry-based-rapid-duplexed-immunoassay-for-fusarium-mycotoxins
#5
Árpád Czéh, Miklós Mézes, Francis Mandy, Zsuzsanna Szőke, György Nagyéri, Noémi Laufer, Balázs Kőszegi, Tamás Koczka, Sándor Kunsági-Máté, György Lustyik
At small food processing facilities, the most frequently used test to determine if grain-derived mycotoxin concentrations are compliant with legal limits is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Each kit is designed to detect one of the six dangerous mycotoxins. With the increasing occurrence of coinfection of grain with multiple-mycotoxins in the field and/or during storage, ELISA is no longer a cost effective best assay option. With ELISA, each species of mycotoxin requires different sample preparation/extraction and a 45 min incubation...
February 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222252/flow-cytometry-in-rapid-mycotoxin-testing
#6
Tamás Kőszegi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221960/mycotoxin-contamination-in-stored-maize-and-groundnuts-based-on-storage-practices-and-conditions-in-subhumid-tropical-africa-the-case-of-kilosa-district-tanzania
#7
K S Magembe, M W Mwatawala, D P Mamiro
Experiments were conducted to assess the influence of storage practices on mycotoxin incidences in stored maize and groundnuts in Kilosa District, Eastern Central Tanzania. Factorial experiments were used to test the effects of processing, storage conditions, and protectants at 3-month intervals for 12 weeks. Temperature and relative humidity data were recorded by using data loggers. The differences among the treatment means were compared using Tukey's honestly significant difference test at 5% probability level...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221959/efficacy-of-ozonation-treatments-of-smoked-fish-for-reducing-its-benzo-a-pyrene-concentration-and-toxicity
#8
Irina Rozentale, Janis Ancans, Elena Bartkiene, Arturs Viksna, Vadims Bartkevics
Ozone is widely used in food processing, for example, to decompose mycotoxins or pesticide residues, to extend the shelf life of products, and for sanitation. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of expanding the application of ozone for oxidative degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The evaluation was conducted by ozonation of a benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) standard solution and smoked fish (sprats) contaminated with PAHs. The effect of ozonation was immediate in the BaP solution; 89% of this toxic compound was decomposed after only 1 min of treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221942/effect-of-fungicides-on-growth-and-ochratoxin-a-production-by-aspergillus-carbonarius-from-brazilian-wine-grapes
#9
Michelle F Terra, Nathasha de A Lira, Fabiana R F Passamani, Wilder Douglas Santiago, Maria das Graças Cardoso, Luís Roberto Batista
Prevention in the field of mycotoxin-producing fungi is the most effective strategy for controlling the presence of mycotoxins in foods. Chemical fungicides are widely used to protect crops, so their implications on mycotoxin production need to be considered. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect in vitro and on grapes of five fungicides commonly used on grape cultures in Brazil on Aspergillus carbonarius growth and ochratoxin A (OTA) production. At the doses recommended by manufacturers, most fungicides significantly reduced A...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221848/heat-stability-of-ochratoxin-a-in-an-aqueous-buffered-model-system
#10
Samjhana Dahal, Hyun Jung Lee, Kejia Gu, Dojin Ryu
Ochratoxin A (OTA) represents one of the most widespread mycotoxins in agricultural commodities in the world and is considered a possible human carcinogen with its potent nephrotoxicity. OTA is stable under most food processing conditions; however, higher-temperature treatment may reduce OTA content in foods. Since OTA can be found in processed products destined for both human and animal consumption, factors affecting its stability or reduction during thermal processes were investigated here. The reduction of OTA was measured during various heating times (up to 60 min) at different temperatures (100, 125, 150, 175, and 200°C) in aqueous buffer solutions at different pHs (pH 4, 7, and 10)...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221840/inhibition-of-fusarium-growth-and-mycotoxin-production-in-culture-medium-and-in-maize-kernels-by-natural-phenolic-acids
#11
Elena Ferruz, Susana Loran, Marta Herrera, Isabel Gimenez, Noemi Bervis, Carmen Barcena, Juan Jose Carramiñana, Teresa Juan, Antonio Herrera, Agustin Ariño
The possible role of natural phenolic compounds in inhibiting fungal growth and toxin production has been of recent interest as an alternative strategy to the use of chemical fungicides for the maintenance of food safety. Fusarium is a worldwide fungal genus mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of four natural phenolic acids (caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic) for the control of mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by six toxigenic species of Fusarium ...
October 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218685/thermophilic-fungi-to-dominate-aflatoxigenic-mycotoxigenic-fungi-on-food-under-global-warming
#12
Robert Russell M Paterson, Nelson Lima
Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217904/development-of-microextraction-techniques-in-combination-with-gc-ms-ms-for-the-determination-of-mycotoxins-and-metabolites-in-human-urine
#13
Yelko Rodríguez-Carrasco, Juan Carlos Moltó, Jordi Mañes, Houda Berrada
Simple and highly efficient sample preparation procedures, namely, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and salting-out liquid-liquid extraction for the analysis of ten Fusarium mycotoxins and metabolites in human urine were compared. Various parameters affecting extraction efficiency were carefully evaluated. Under optimal extraction conditions, salting-out liquid-liquid extraction showed a better accuracy (84-96%) and precision (<14%) than dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Hence, a multi-biomarker method based on salting-out liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was proposed...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217107/modulation-of-human-immune-response-by-fungal-biocontrol-agents
#14
REVIEW
Cibele Konstantinovas, Tiago A de Oliveira Mendes, Marcos A Vannier-Santos, Jane Lima-Santos
Although the vast majority of biological control agents is generally regarded as safe for humans and environment, the increased exposure of agriculture workers, and consumer population to fungal substances may affect the immune system. Those compounds may be associated with both intense stimulation, resulting in IgE-mediated allergy and immune downmodulation induced by molecules such as cyclosporin A and mycotoxins. This review discusses the potential effects of biocontrol fungal components on human immune responses, possibly associated to infectious, inflammatory diseases, and defective defenses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216564/comments-on-screening-and-identification-of-novel-ochratoxin-a-producing-fungi-from-grapes-toxins-2016-8-333-in-reporting-ochratoxin-a-production-from-strains-of-aspergillus-penicillium-and-talaromyces
#15
Giancarlo Perrone, Antonio F Logrieco, Jens C Frisvad
Recently a species in the genus Talaromyces, a uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri and an isolate each of two widespread species, Penicillium rubens and P. commune, were reported to produce ochratoxin A. This claim was based on insufficient biological and chemical data. We propose a list of criteria that need to be met before an unexpected mycotoxin producer is reported. There have only been convincing data on ochratoxin A production for Penicillium verrucosum, P. nordicum, P. thymicola, all from Penicillium series Verrucosa, and from species in three sections of Aspergillus: section Circumdati, section Nigri and section Flavi...
February 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216416/in-silico-analysis-sheds-light-on-the-structural-basis-underlying-the-ribotoxicity-of-trichothecenes-a-tool-for-supporting-the-hazard-identification-process
#16
Luca Dellafiora, Gianni Galaverna, Chiara Dall'Asta
Deoxynivalenol is a foodborne mycotoxin belonging to the trichothecenes family that may cause severe injuries in human and animals. The inhibition of protein synthesis via the interaction with the ribosome has been identified as a crucial mechanism underlying toxic action. However, it is not still fully understood how and to what extent compounds belonging to trichothecenes family affect human and animal health. In turn, this scenario causes delay in managing the related health risk. Aimed at supporting the hazard identification process, the in silico analysis may be a straightforward tool to investigate the structure-activity relationship of trichothecenes, finding out molecules of possible concern to carry forth in the risk assessment process...
February 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213318/efficacy-of-fungal-and-bacterial-antagonists-for-controlling-growth-fum1-gene-expression-and-fumonisin-b1-production-by-fusarium-verticillioides-on-maize-cobs-of-different-ripening-stages
#17
Nik Iskandar Putra Samsudin, Alicia Rodriguez, Angel Medina, Naresh Magan
This study was carried out to examine the efficacy of two biocontrol agents (Clonostachys rosea 016, BCA1; Gram-negative bacterium, BCA5) for control of FUM1 gene expression and fumonisin B1 (FB1) production by F. verticillioides FV1 on maize cobs of different ripening stages: R3, Milk (0.985 aw); R4, Dough (0.976 aw); R5, Dent (0.958 aw). Initially, temporal studies on FUM1 gene expression and FB1 production were performed on maize kernels for up to 14days. This revealed that day 10 was optimum for both parameters, and was used in the biocontrol studies...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213222/development-of-a-qcm-d-biosensor-for-ochratoxin-a-detection-in-red-wine
#18
Aleksandra Karczmarczyk, Karsten Haupt, Karl-Heinz Feller
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a highly toxic compound, is one of the most widely spread mycotoxins that contaminates a large variety of agricultural commodities. Due to its presence in the food chain, it imposes a hazard on both human and animal health. Therefore, there is a need for precise, fast and simple methods for toxin quantification. Herein, a novel sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and antibodies for specific analyte recognition was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of OTA in red wine...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212415/aflatoxin-exposure-during-the-first-36-months-of-life-was-not-associated-with-impaired-growth-in-nepalese-children-an-extension-of-the-mal-ed-study
#19
Nicole J Mitchell, Hui-Husan Hsu, Ram Krishna Chandyo, Binob Shrestha, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Yu-Kang Tu, Yun-Yun Gong, Patricia A Egner, Manjeswori Ulak, John D Groopman, Felicia Wu
Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208799/microbial-detoxification-of-deoxynivalenol-don-assessed-via-a-lemna-minor-l-bioassay-through-biotransformation-to-3-epi-don-and-3-epi-dom-1
#20
Ilse Vanhoutte, Laura De Mets, Marthe De Boevre, Valdet Uka, José Diana Di Mavungu, Sarah De Saeger, Leen De Gelder, Kris Audenaert
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungi. To mitigate mycotoxins in food or feed, biotransformation is an emerging technology in which microorganisms degrade toxins into non-toxic metabolites. To monitor deoxynivalenol (DON) biotransformation, analytical tools such as ELISA and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are typically used. However, these techniques do not give a decisive answer about the remaining toxicity of possible biotransformation products. Hence, a bioassay using Lemna minor L...
February 13, 2017: Toxins
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