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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131914/regulation-of-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-of-brain-pericytes-by-mitochondrial-ca-va-a-specific-target-for-prevention-of-diabetic-cerebrovascular-pathology
#1
Tulin O Price, Nader Sheibani, Gul N Shah
Events responsible for cerebrovascular disease in diabetes are not fully understood. Pericyte loss is an early event that leads to endothelial cell death, microaneurysms, and cognitive impairment. A biochemical mechanism underlying pericyte loss is rapid respiration (oxidative metabolism of glucose). This escalation in respiration results from free influx of glucose into insulin-insensitive tissues in the face of high glucose levels in the blood. Rapid respiration generates superoxide, the precursor to all reactive oxygen species (ROS), and results in pericyte death...
January 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034861/dtb-select-1-january-2017
#2
(no author information available yet)
Brimonidine gel: risk of exacerbation of rosacea ● Metformin for patients with moderately reduced kidney function ● Effect of an optimal cranberry dose on bacteriuria ● Amitriptyline and topiramate ineffective for paediatric migraine prophylaxis ● Etoricoxib: 60mg dose for RA and ankylosing spondylitis ● CRP and diagnosis of CAP ● International travel and antimicrobial resistance ● Effect of telemedicine on diabetes control.
December 29, 2016: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773782/obesity-current-and-potential-pharmacotherapeutics-and-targets
#4
REVIEW
Vidya Narayanaswami, Linda P Dwoskin
Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior...
February 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732121/safety-assessment-of-combination-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-focus-on-naltrexone-bupropion-extended-release-and-phentermine-topiramate-extended-release
#5
Bruno Halpern, Marcio C Mancini
Few studies on combination therapies for the treatment of obesity had been conducted until recently, when two fixed-dose combinations, bupropion-naltrexone ER fixed-dose combination and phentermine-topiramate ER titrated-dose combinations were evaluated in clinical studies that ultimately led to FDA approval. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss safety concerns about both combinations, the rationale and history of combination therapies for obesity (including phentermine plus fenfluramine), and possible future new combinations...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729477/blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-neurovascular-unit-dysfunction-in-diabetic-mice-protection-with-the-mitochondrial-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitor-topiramate
#6
Therese S Salameh, Gul N Shah, Tulin O Price, Melvin R Hayden, William A Banks
All forms of diabetes mellitus are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting in the development of a number of microvascular and macrovascular pathologies. Diabetes is also associated with changes in brain microvasculature, leading to dysfunction and ultimately disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). These changes are correlated with a decline in cognitive function. In diabetes, BBB damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species. This occurs because of the increased oxidative metabolism of glucose caused by hyperglycemia...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583422/update-on-office-based-strategies-for-the-management-of-obesity
#7
Michael Erlandson, Laurie C Ivey, Katie Seikel
Obesity is a common condition that is associated with numerous medical problems such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus. Primary care physicians have an important role in helping patients develop a successful weight loss plan to improve their overall health. Dietary strategies emphasizing reduced caloric intake, regardless of the nutrient composition, are important for weight loss. Behavioral interventions such as motivational interviewing and encouraging physical activity lead to additional weight loss when combined with dietary changes...
September 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277818/exploratory-literature-meta-analysis-to-characterize-the-relationship-between-early-and-longer-term-body-weight-loss-for-antiobesity-compounds
#8
Nele Plock, Leon Bax, Douglas Lee, Deborah DeManno, Gezim Lahu, Marc Pfister
The presented analysis was performed to characterize the relationship between treatment-related early (week 4) and longer term (3-6 months) weight loss to understand the potential utility of 4-week proof-of-mechanism studies in the early decision-making process during clinical development of new antiobesity compounds. A regression-based meta-analysis was performed leveraging publically available clinical outcomes data to (1) characterize the within-trial relationship between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss and (2) identify and quantify key covariate effects on this relationship...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27254401/fluoxetine-topiramate-and-combination-of-both-to-stabilize-eating-behavior-before-bariatric-surgery
#9
Juan A Guisado-Macías, Fabiola Méndez-Sánchez, Itziar Baltasar-Tello, Francisco J Zamora-Rodríguez, Ana B Escudero-Sánchez, Francisco J Vaz-Leal
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacotherapy for the management of obesity is primarily aimed at weight loss, weight loss maintenance and risk reduction (reduction in body fat, risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the incidence of diabetes mellitus). Among drugs that have been evaluated for weight loss include antidepressants (fluoxetine) and antiepileptic (topiramate). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed eating behavior and weight loss in a sample of morbid obesity patients before bariatric surgery...
May 2016: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181165/pharmacologic-approaches-to-weight-management-recent-gains-and-shortfalls-in-combating-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Katherine H Saunders, Rekha B Kumar, Leon I Igel, Louis J Aronne
Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5-10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity...
July 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103363/topiramate-monotherapy-for-weight-reduction-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Bridget Paravattil, Kyle J Wilby, Ricky Turgeon
AIMS: To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of topiramate as monotherapy for weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from inception to June 2015. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated topiramate monotherapy versus control agents or placebo for weight loss in obese type 2 diabetes patients. RESULTS: Of the 284 studies identified, 5 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
April 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073979/diabetic-sensory-and-motor-neuropathy
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926856/topiramate-a-novel-therapeutic-candidate-for-diabetes-and-aggression-positron-emission-tomography-pet-findings
#13
Burak Yulug, Lütfü Hanoglu, Ahmet Mithat Tavli, Tansel Cakir, Oktay Olmuscelik, Burak Pakoz, Gülşen Ünlü
BACKGROUND: There is still limited knowledge regarding the role of impaired brain glucose metabolism in the generation of aggression during diabetes. Additionally, there are rapidly replicating piece of evidence suggesting that topiramate may exert significant mood stabilizing effect. In this respect, we aimed to evaluate the neurometabolic correlates of the therapeutic effect of topiramate in a patient with diabetes and Intermittent explosive disorder (IED). METHODS: We measured regional cerebral glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in a diabetic patient with aggressive outbursts before and after treatment with topiramate...
2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26916326/-lacosamide-and-neuropathic-pain-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Antonio Alcántara-Montero, Clara I Sánchez-Carnerero
INTRODUCTION: Most of the clinical practice guidelines consulted agree that tricyclics, dual (venlafaxine/duloxetine) antidepressants, gabapentin/pregabalin antiepileptic drugs, lidocaine 5% patches and capsaicin 8% patches are the first-line drugs in the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain, being tramadol and some strong opioids (morphine, oxycodone and tapentadol) second-line drugs treatment. Moreover, the prevalence of neuropathic pain refractory to treatment is about 1.5% of the population, so that an estimated 50% of patients not responding to prescribed treatment...
March 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26524290/a-candidate-gene-association-study-of-topiramate-induced-weight-loss-in-obese-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Qingqin S Li, James M Lenhard, Yiping Zhan, Karel Konvicka, Maria C Athanasiou, Richard S Strauss, Stephan Francke
OBJECTIVE: Clinical response to topiramate can vary greatly in obese patients. Identifying genetic variants associated with treatment response could help gain insight into the mechanism of action of topiramate. Little is known about the relationship between genetic variability and topiramate treatment response. We performed a large-scale candidate-gene study to identify genetic risk factors predictive of topiramate-induced weight loss. METHODS: We collected DNA samples from patients who had previously participated in clinical trials to assess the efficacy of topiramate for the treatment of obesity...
February 2016: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448655/methemoglobinemia-caused-by-topical-dapsone-gel-renal-tubular-acidosis-after-topiramate-administration-diabetic-ketoacidosis-following-epidural-steroid-injection-in-a-nondiabetic-patient-galactorrhea-associated-with-bupropion-therapy-telaprevir-induced-acquired
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26382553/anti-obesity-drugs
#17
REVIEW
Wayne Rankin, Gary Wittert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity across the world continues to climb, bringing with it otherwise preventable obesity-related comorbidities including type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintain through lifestyle interventions alone, leading to intense efforts to develop adjunctive pharmacological approaches. Herein, we examine recent advances in this field and limitations of currently available and emerging agents...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26294890/drugs-and-the-kidney
#18
S Naidoo, A M Meyers
This article on drug nephrotoxicity is detailed, as it is important to be fully aware of renal side-effects of drugs with regard to prevention andearly diagnosis in order to manage the condition correctly. Many therapeutic agents are nephrotoxic, particularly when the serum half-life isprolonged and blood levels are raised because of decreased renal excretion. Distal nephrotoxicity is markedly enhanced when the glomerularfiltration rate (GFR) is reduced and is a particular threat in elderly patients with so-called 'normal' creatinine levels...
2015: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26167540/topiramate-protects-pericytes-from-glucotoxicity-role-for-mitochondrial-ca-va-in-cerebromicrovascular-disease-in-diabetes
#19
Ping Patrick, Tulin O Price, Ana L Diogo, Nader Sheibani, William A Banks, Gul N Shah
Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus causes oxidative stress and pericyte depletion from the microvasculature of the brain thus leading to the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) disruption. The compromised BBB exposes the brain to circulating substances, resulting in neurotoxicity and neuronal cell death. The decline in pericyte numbers in diabetic mouse brain and pericyte apoptosis in high glucose cultures are caused by excess superoxide produced during enhanced respiration (mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of glucose)...
2015: Journal of Endocrinology and Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26137782/-the-pharmacotherapy-of-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Kinga Anna Budai, Arash Mirzahosseini, Noszál Béla, Gergő Tóth
Obesity is considered the most concerning and blatantly visible--yet most neglected--public health problem by the WHO. The steadily increasing number of overweight and obese people has reached 2.3 billion and 700 million worldwide, respectively. Obesity is a complex condition, one that presents serious health risks with respect to type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension, therefore controlling the global obesity epidemic decreases not only health problems, but also expenditure. The underlying cause of obesity is a metabolic disorder of genetic, central nervous system or endocrine etiology that manifests in increased nutritional intake and/or decreased physical activity ultimately leading to excessive lipogenesis...
2015: Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica
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