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pneumocystis pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425200/high-dose-calcineurin-inhibitor-free-everolimus-as-a-maintenance-regimen-for-heart-transplantation-may-be-a-risk-factor-for%C3%A2-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#1
Yu-Ning Hu, Nan-Yao Lee, Jun-Neng Roan, Chi-Hsin Hsu, Chwan-Yao Luo
BACKGROUND: Everolimus reduces the incidence of cardiac-allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and is less renally toxic than are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We evaluated the safety of CNI-free everolimus for post-heart transplant (HTx) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 36 consecutive patients who had undergone an HTx between January 2006 and December 2013 in National Cheng Kung University Hospital. All patients initially had been treated with the standard tacrolimus regimen...
April 20, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401321/circulating-genotypes-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-and-its-clinical-correlation-in-patients-from-a-single-tertiary-center-in-india
#2
Y Singh, B R Mirdha, R Guleria, S Khalil, A Panda, R Chaudhry, A Mohan, S K Kabra, L Kumar, S K Agarwal
The present study was carried out with the objectives of genotyping Pneumocystis jirovecii at three distinct loci, to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and to study its clinical implications in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Analysis of genetic diversity in P. jirovecii from immunocompromised patients was carried out by genotyping at three distinct loci encoding mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSU rRNA), cytochrome b (CYB), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays followed by direct DNA sequencing...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399687/low-prevalence-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-hospitalized-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-review-of-a-clinical-data-warehouse
#3
T M Kapoor, P Mahadeshwar, S Nguyen, J Li, S Kapoor, J Bathon, J Giles, A Askanase
Objective In the era of powerful immunosuppression, opportunistic infections are an increasing concern in systemic lupus erythematosus. One of the best-studied opportunistic infections is Pneumocystis pneumonia; however, the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus is not clearly defined. This study evaluates the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus patients, with a focus on validating the Pneumocystis pneumonia and systemic lupus erythematosus diagnoses with clinical information...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393663/herpes-simplex-virus-cytomegalovirus-and-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-a-treatment-naive-hiv-positive-patient-with-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-case-report
#4
Anita Bapat, Eliahu Bishburg, Sandhya Nagarakanti
Infection with multiple pathogens concurrently has become less common since the introduction of potent antiretroviral agent and effective prophylactic agents. We describe a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) admitted with pneumonia who was found to have AIDS and diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1), and a concomitant cytomegalovirus viremia. Polymerase chain reaction viral load was used for diagnosis of HHV-1 and follow-up. The patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ganciclovir and had a resolution of pneumonia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389165/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-followed-by-immune-recovery-uveitis-in-an-elderly-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-undergoing-administration-of-methotrexate-and-tofacitinib-combination-therapy
#5
Kunio Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki Ogawa, Mayumi Hosogai, Daisuke Todokoro, Takeki Mitsui, Akihiko Yokohama, Shoji Kishi, Hiroshi Handa
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is an opportunistic ocular infection most commonly observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present a rare case of CMV retinitis that developed in a non-HIV patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over the preceding 5 months, a family doctor had been treating the 78-year-old male patient with a combination therapy of methotrexate (MTX) and tofacitinib (TOF). CMV retinitis occurred when the patient's CD4+ T cells were low (196 cells/μl), and preceded the onset of Pneumocystis pneumonia...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384860/fungal-opportunistic-pneumonias-in-hiv-aids-patients-an-indian-tertiary-care-experience
#6
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Preena Bhalla, Richa Dewan
INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. AIM: To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378239/usefulness-of-1-3-beta-d-glucan-detection-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-mechanical-ventilated-critically-ill-patients-with-ards-and-suspected-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia
#7
Tobias Lahmer, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Jürgen Held, Sebastian Rasch, Ursula Ehmer, Roland M Schmid, Wolfgang Huber
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of disease in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosis is typically obtained by microscopy and/or PCR. For ambiguous PCR results, we evaluated the new biomarker 1,3-Beta-D-Glucan (BDG). METHODS: BDG serum levels were assessed and correlated to PCR results in immunosuppressed patients with ARDS. RESULTS: 11 (22%) out of 50 patients had suspected PCP. APACHE II (26 vs. 24; p < 0...
April 4, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364381/adalimumab-with-methotrexate-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-japanese-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-at-risk-of-progressive-structural-joint-damage-a-postmarketing-observational-study
#8
Yukiko Ito, Kaori Hozumi, Yukiko Okada, Sarina Kurimoto
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the real-world safety and effectiveness of adalimumab with methotrexate (MTX) in disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)- and biologic-naïve Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at risk of progressive structural joint damage. METHODS: This multicenter, prospective, observational, postmarketing surveillance study was conducted between February 2013 and April 2015 at 84 centers in Japan. Patients with RA at risk of progressive structural joint damage were enrolled and initiated treatment with adalimumab and MTX...
March 31, 2017: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361121/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-data-behind-current-recommendations-for-corticosteroids-in-non-hiv-related-pcp-knowing-when-you-are-on-shaky-foundations
#9
Patil Injean, Samantha J Eells, Hoover Wu, Imani McElroy, Aric L Gregson, James A McKinnell
BACKGROUND: Randomized trials show a mortality benefit to adjunctive corticosteroids for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (HIV-PCP). Guidelines for non-HIV PCP (NH-PCP) recommend adjunctive corticosteroids based on expert opinion. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis characterizing adjunctive corticosteroids for NH-PCP. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE from 1966 through 2015. Data on clinical outcomes from NH-PCP were extracted with a standardized instrument...
March 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358900/detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-oral-wash-from-immunosuppressed-patients-as-a-diagnostic-tool
#10
Cecilie Juul Hviid, Marianne Lund, Allan Sørensen, Svend Ellermann-Eriksen, Bente Jespersen, Mette Yde Dam, Jens Frederik Dahlerup, Thomas Benfield, Sanne Jespersen, Lars Jørgen Østergaard, Alex Lund Laursen
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii (PJ) pneumonia ordinarily requires invasive procedures that could be avoided by PCR methodologies, if these could be designed with adequate cut-off values for confounding background carriage. METHODS: We designed a novel quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene of PJ in oral washes. To benchmark levels of PJ carriage versus infection, we tested asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients including Danish (n = 88) and West African HIV-infected (n = 142) patients, renal transplant recipients (n = 51), rheumatologic patients (n = 102), patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (n = 98), and healthy blood donors (controls, n = 50)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355738/-research-on-risk-factors-of-short-term-outcome-in-aids-patients-with-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#11
A X Li, C Y Huang, H W Zhang, T Zhang, H Wu, W Wang
Objective: To investigate the prognostic risk factors of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), and to establish risk models for predicting early outcome. Methods: The clinical data of 418 AIDS patients with PCP admitted to Department of Infectious Diseases, Beijing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2008 to May 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.The patients were divided into death group and survival group according to clinical outcome during hospitalization...
March 21, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346081/pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-pjp-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-individuals
#12
Kathleen Schoovaerts, Luc Dirix, Annemie Rutten, Jef Van Schaeren, Bruno Van Herendael, Sofie Van Grieken, Luc Heytens
OBJECTIVES: PJP is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosing PJP is often difficult because respiratory signs might be minimal or absent and the sensitivity of a chest X-ray (CXR) is low. We studied the clinical risk factors in order to increase awareness and facilitate the diagnosis. METHODS: We studied a prospective case series over a one year period (from 1 January 2015 to 1 January 2016) and did a retrospective analysis (from 2013 to 2016) of all PJP positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis...
March 27, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340117/an-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-dynamiker%C3%A2-fungus-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-invasive-candidiasis-and-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#13
P Lewis White, Jessica S Price, Raquel B Posso, Rosemary A Barnes
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) can be caused by a range of pathogens. Conventional diagnosis has the capacity to detect most causes of IFD, but poor performance limits impact. The introduction of non-culture diagnostics, including the detection of (1-3)-β-D-Glucan (BDG), has shown promising performance for the detection of IFD in variety of clinical settings. Recently, the Dynamiker® Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan assay (D-BDG) was released as an IFD diagnostic test. This article describes an evaluation of the D-BDG assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), invasive candidiasis (IC) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) across several high-risk patient cohorts and provides comparative data with the Associates of Cape Cod Fungitell® and BioRad Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag (GM) assays...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339756/molecular-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-dogs
#14
Patrizia Danesi, Silvia Ravagnan, Lynelle R Johnson, Tommaso Furlanello, Adelaide Milani, Patricia Martin, Susan Boyd, Matthew Best, Bradley Galgut, Peter Irwin, Paul J Canfield, Mark B Krockenberger, Catriona Halliday, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening fungal disease that can occur in dogs. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary genetic characterisation of Pneumocystis carinii f.sp.'canis' (P. canis) in dogs and thereby develop a reliable molecular protocol to definitively diagnose canine PCP. We investigated P. canis in a variety of lung specimens from dogs with confirmed or strongly suspected PCP (Group 1, n = 16), dogs with non-PCP lower respiratory tract problems (Group 2, n = 65) and dogs not suspected of having PCP or other lower respiratory diseases (Group 3, n = 11)...
February 23, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339533/pneumocystis-pneumonia-versus-rituximab-induced-interstitial-lung-disease-in-lymphoma-patients-receiving-rituximab-containing-chemotherapy
#15
Se Yoon Park, Mi Young Kim, Won Jin Choi, Dok Hyun Yoon, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Cheolwon Suh, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
It is difficult to differentiate Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) from rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (RILD) in lymphoma patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates who are receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Using a clinical scoring system, we aim to differentiate PCP from RILD who are receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of lymphoma patients who had received rituximab-containing chemotherapy between 2012 and 2015 in a tertiary hospital. Among 613 lymphoma patients receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, 97 (16%) had diffuse pulmonary infiltrates...
October 7, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321223/abo-incompatible-kidney-transplantation
#16
REVIEW
Christian Morath, Martin Zeier, Bernd Döhler, Gerhard Opelz, Caner Süsal
ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316430/comparison-of-three-cost-effective-staining-methods-for-detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#17
Mohamad Mohsen Homayouni, Ali Rostami, Hamed Gholizadeh, Amir Sayed Ali Mehbod, Maryam Ebrahimi, Saeed Mehravar
Pneumocystis pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is an emerging health problem not only for HIV-infected patients but also for other immunocompromised patients in many countries. We compared Gomori methenamine silver (GMS), Toluidine Blue O (TBO) and Giemsa staining methods using standard procedures. The sensitivity and specificity of GMS were 100 %. The sensitivity and specificity of TBO were 96 and 100 %, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of Giemsa stain were 84 and 90 %, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303545/low-prevalence-of-dhfr-and-dhps-mutations-in-pneumocystis-jirovecii-strains-obtained-from-a-german-cohort
#18
Isabelle Suárez, Lisa Roderus, Edeltraud van Gumpel, Norma Jung, Clara Lehmann, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Pia Hartmann, Georg Plum, Jan Rybniker
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic and potentially life-threatening infection of immunocompromised individuals. A combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is widely used for prophylaxis and treatment of PCP. Polymorphisms in the drug targets, the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) or the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are presumably a reason for treatment failure. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the prevalence of DHPS and DHFR mutations in Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates obtained from HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected PCP patients...
March 16, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302661/severe-co-trimoxazole-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-a-patient-with-microscopic-polyangiitis
#19
Thomas Edward Conley, Atif Mohiuddin, Noshaba Naz
A 69-year-old man presented to the emergency department with lower respiratory tract infection and febrile neutropaenia. He was recently discharged following a 50-day hospital stay with newly diagnosed microscopic polyangiitis, complicated by pulmonary haemorrhage and severe renal dysfunction requiring renal replacement therapy, plasma exchange and immunosuppression (cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone). High risk of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) led to an escalation in treatment from prophylactic to therapeutic oral co-trimoxazole, alongside broad-spectrum antibiotics...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301552/radiological-characteristics-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#20
Zhiliang Hu, Jun Chen, Juan Wang, Qingfang Xiong, Yandan Zhong, Yongfeng Yang, Chuanjun Xu, Hongxia Wei
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is largely based on studies performed about 2 decades ago which reported that the most common findings on chest radiograph were diffuse interstitial infiltrates. Few studies are available regarding the computed tomography (CT) findings. The aim of this study was to characterize chest CT features of HIV-associated PC. METHODS: HIV patients with cryptococccal infection and pulmonary abnormalities on Chest CT between September 2010 and May 2016 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of the Southeast University were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: PloS One
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