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pneumocystis pneumonia

Tobias Svensson, Kristina Lamberg Lundström, Martin Höglund, Honar Cherif
BACKGROUND: Patients treated for hematological malignancies have an increased risk of serious infections. Diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-established investigation for identifying the cause of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL in patients treated for hematological malignancies and how often it contributed to a modification of the anti-infectious therapy...
October 14, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Takayo Ota, Hiroshi Tsukuda, Tomohiro Suzumura, Masahiro Fukuoka
A 59-year-old woman, diagnosed with advanced rectal cancer, presented with a low-grade fever and dyspnea on exertion after the 2nd cycle of TAS-102. TAS-102 has promising efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A CT scan revealed mosaic patterns with bilateral ground-glass opacities. The drug lymphocyte stimulation test for TAS-102 was strongly positive and serum β-D glucan level was elevated. The clinical course was compatible with TAS-102-induced pneumonitis combined with pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)...
2016: Internal Medicine
Kyung-Ran Kim, Jong Min Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim
[This corrects the article on p. 252 in vol. 59, PMID: 27462353.].
September 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Maria L Calero-Bernal, Isabel Martin-Garrido, Mikel Donazar-Ezcurra, Andrew H Limper, Eva M Carmona
Introduction. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is rising in the non-HIV population and associates with higher morbidity and mortality. The aggressive immunosuppressive regimens, as well as the lack of stablished guidelines for chemoprophylaxis, are likely contributors to this increased incidence. Herein, we have explored the underlying conditions, immunosuppressive therapies, and clinical outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. Methods. Retrospective analysis of PCP in HIV-negative patients at Mayo Clinic from 2006-2010...
2016: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
Özge Mine Örenay, Funda Tamer, Evren Sarıfakıoğlu, Umran Yıldırım
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Katarina Čurić, Mario Poljak, Alojz Ihan, Janez Tomažič
A small proportion of HIV-infected patients rapidly progress to AIDS; indeed, some individuals have been known to progress to AIDS within a year after primary infection. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) is the most frequent AIDS-defining illness. However, PCP can also rarely occur during primary HIV infection as a result of the severe immunosuppression that may accompany the early stage of HIV infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) comprises two distinct syndromes: paradoxical IRIS and unmasking IRIS...
September 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Eri Watanabe, Hitoshi Sugawara, Takeshi Yamashita, Akira Ishii, Aya Oda, Chihiro Terai
We report the case of a 71-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) in whom macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) developed despite therapy with oral high-dose prednisolone and intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy twice. She was successfully treated with tocilizumab (TCZ). Soon afterward, her fever ceased and high levels of both ferritin and C-reactive protein levels decreased. Her course was complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation, cytomegalovirus infection, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia...
2016: Case Reports in Medicine
Li Weng, Xu Huang, Lie Chen, Li-Qin Feng, Wei Jiang, Xiao-Yun Hu, Jin-Min Peng, Chun-Yao Wang, Qing-Yuan Zhan, Bin Du
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) in non-HIV patients is still a challenge for intensivists. The aim of our study was to evaluate mortality predictors of PJP patients requiring Intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS: Retrospectively review medical records of patients with diagnosis of PJP admitted to four ICUs of two academic medical centers from October 2012 to October 2015. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were enrolled in the study...
September 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Carlos Fritzsche, Hosam Ghanem, Sebastian Koball, Brigitte Mueller-Hilke, Emil C Reisinger
Haemodialysis patients have been found to have an increased risk of developing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) compared to the control population. To the best of our knowledge, no data are available on pulmonary colonization with Pneumocystis jirovecii in haemodialysis patients; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pulmonary colonization with P. jirovecii in haemodialysis patients, and to find the related risk factors. Induced sputa of 62 haemodialysis patients were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the presence of P...
September 29, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Clara Valero, María José Buitrago, Maud Gits-Muselli, Marion Benazra, Aude Sturny-Leclère, Samia Hamane, Nicolas Guigue, Stéphane Bretagne, Alexandre Alanio
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an unculturable fungus and the causative agent of Pneumocystis pneumonia, a life-threatening opportunistic infection. Although molecular diagnosis is often based on the detection of mtLSU rRNA mitochondrial gene, the number of copies of mitochondrial genes had not been investigated. We developed and optimized six real-time PCR assays in order to determine the copy number of four mitochondrial genes (mtSSU rRNA, mtLSU rRNA, NAD1, and CYTB) in comparison to nuclear genome (DHPS and HSP70) and tested 84 bronchoalveolar fluids of patients at different stages of the infection...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Krunal Bharat Patel, James Benjamin Gleason, Maria Julia Diacovo, Nydia Martinez-Galvez
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Jorge H Ramirez-Prado, Andrew H Limper
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), serves as an essential structural sugar on the cell surface of organisms. For example, GlcNAc is a major component of bacterial peptidoglycan, it is an important building block of fungal cell walls, including a major constituent of chitin and mannoproteins, and it also required for extracellular matrix generation by animal cells. Herein, we provide evidence for a uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) pathway in Pneumocystis species. Using in silico search of the P...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Xia Lin, Shikha Garg, Christine L Mattson, Qingwei Luo, Jacek Skarbinski
The US treatment guidelines recommend Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis for all HIV-infected persons with a CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) (ie, eligible for PCP prophylaxis). However, some studies suggest PCP prophylaxis may be unnecessary in virally suppressed patients. Using national data of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States during 2009 to 2012, the authors assessed the weighted percentage of eligible patients who were prescribed PCP prophylaxis and the independent association between PCP prophylaxis prescription and viral suppression...
September 14, 2016: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Yuji Fujikura, Toshie Manabe, Akihiko Kawana, Shigeru Kohno
INTRODUCTION: The clinical benefits of adjunctive corticosteroids for Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) pneumonia in patients not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not been evaluated by meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published studies describing the effects of adjunctive corticosteroids on outcome in non-HIV P. jirovecii pneumonia patients. Two investigators independently searched the PubMed and Cochrane databases for eligible articles written in English...
September 9, 2016: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Sean Wasserman, Mark E Engel, Rulan Griesel, Marc Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence data and clinical studies in children suggest that the burden of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in Africa may be underestimated. We performed a systematic review to determine the prevalence and attributable mortality of PCP amongst HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Africa-Wide: NiPAD and CINAHL, from Jan 1 1995 to June 1 2015, for studies that reported the prevalence, mortality or case fatality of PCP in HIV-infected adults living in sub-Saharan African countries...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Markus Unnewehr, Hendrik Friederichs, Patricia Bartsch, Bernhard Schaaf
BACKGROUND: To diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), PCR testing in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has recently become an alternative to immunofluorescence testing (IFT); however, its diagnostic accuracy is less clear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the diagnostic value of a new semiquantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in BAL in a real-life clinical setting. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all RT-PCR results [semiquantitative: negative, weakly positive, and strongly positive; measured in cycle thresholds (Ct)] in BAL in the period between 2010 and 2014...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Takeshi Sato, Tsubasa Okano, Mari Tanaka-Kubota, Shunsuke Kimura, Satoshi Miyamoto, Shintaro Ono, Motoi Yamashita, Noriko Mitsuiki, Masatoshi Takagi, Kohsuke Imai, Michiko Kajiwara, Takasuke Ebato, Shohei Ogata, Hirotsugu Oda, Osamu Ohara, Hirokazu Kanegane, Tomohiro Morio
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency disease, and it is characterized by marked impairment in cellular and humoral immunity. Mutations in several genes cause SCID, one of which is Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), resulting in autosomal recessive T(-)B(+)NK(-) SCID. Only three patients with JAK3-deficient SCID have been reported in Japan. We herein describe the case of a 6-month-old girl with pneumocystis pneumonia, who was diagnosed with SCID with compound heterozygous JAK3 mutations (c...
September 4, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
John Abuga Guto, Christine C Bii, David W Denning
INTRODUCTION: Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. METHODOLOGY: We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Jia Sun, Junwei Su, Yirui Xie, Michael T Yin, Ying Huang, Lijun Xu, Qihui Zhou, Biao Zhu
Objective. To identify blood biomarkers to predict severity and mortality in AIDS PCP patients. Methods. Biomarkers including clinical parameters and plasma inflammatory cytokines were assessed in 32 HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) at time of admission. Predictive value of the biomarkers for clinical severity and in-hospital mortality was evaluated by corresponding ROC curve. Results. Levels of CRP, WBC, LDH, HBDH, and Ferritin were significantly higher in the severe and nonsurvivor AIDS PCP patients...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Xiang-Dong Mu, Peng Jia, Li Gao, Li Su, Cheng Zhang, Ren-Gui Wang, Guang-Fa Wang
BACKGROUND: Although radiological features of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) immunocompromised patients have been reported by other authors, there were no studies on the radiological stages of PCP previously. This study aimed to elucidate the radiological stages and prognoses of PCP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of radiological manifestations and prognoses of 105 non-AIDS PCP immunocompromised patients from August 2009 to April 2016 was conducted...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
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