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pneumocystis pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779813/negative-role-of-malnutrition-in-cell-mediated-immune-response-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-pcp-in-a-severely-malnourished-hiv-negative-patient-with-anorexia-nervosa
#1
Mouna Hanachi, Vanessa Bohem, Pauline Bemer, Nadja Kayser, Pierre de Truchis, Jean-Claude Melchior
It is generally acknowledged that malnutrition is a propensity factor for secondary infections in different clinical situations (malnutrition-associated infections in hospitalized patients and malnourished children in developing countries). However, it is not clear how malnutrition might facilitate the development of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients without a definite etiology (disease or treatment) of impaired cell-mediated immune response. We report here on a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an HIV-negative patient suffering from anorexia nervosa with extreme malnutrition, which had a favorable outcome despite the severity of her respiratory failure...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743079/hiv-1-tat-expression-and-sulphamethoxazole-hydroxylamine-mediated-oxidative-stress-alter-the-disulfide-proteome-in-jurkat-t-cells
#2
Kemi Adeyanju, John R Bend, Michael J Rieder, Gregory A Dekaban
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant problem for HIV patients, with the risk of developing ADRs increasing as the infection progresses to AIDS. However, the pathophysiology underlying ADRs remains unknown. Sulphamethoxazole (SMX) via its active metabolite SMX-hydroxlyamine, when used prophylactically for pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive individuals, is responsible for a high incidence of ADRs. We previously demonstrated that the HIV infection and, more specifically, that the HIV-1 Tat protein can exacerbate SMX-HA-mediated ADRs...
May 9, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739910/comparative-population-genomics-analysis-of-the-mammalian-fungal-pathogen-pneumocystis
#3
Ousmane H Cissé, Liang Ma, Da Wei Huang, Pavel P Khil, John P Dekker, Geetha Kutty, Lisa Bishop, Yueqin Liu, Xilong Deng, Philippe M Hauser, Marco Pagni, Vanessa Hirsch, Richard A Lempicki, Jason E Stajich, Christina A Cuomo, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis species are opportunistic mammalian pathogens that cause severe pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. These fungi are highly host specific and uncultivable in vitro Human Pneumocystis infections present major challenges because of a limited therapeutic arsenal and the rise of drug resistance. To investigate the diversity and demographic history of natural populations of Pneumocystis infecting humans, rats, and mice, we performed whole-genome and large-scale multilocus sequencing of infected tissues collected in various geographic locations...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720434/evaluation-of-a-turbidimetric-%C3%AE-d-glucan-test-for-the-detection-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia
#4
Karl Dichtl, Ulrich Seybold, Johannes Wagener
Currently, diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) relies on analysis of lower respiratory specimens, either by microscopy or qPCR. Thus, bronchoscopy is required, which is associated with increased risk of respiratory failure. We assessed the value of non-invasive serologic β-D-glucan (BDG) testing for laboratory diagnosis of PJP using a newly available turbidimetric assay. We identified 73 cases of PJP with positive qPCR results from lower respiratory specimens for Pneumocystis and serology samples dating from 1 week before to 4 weeks after qPCR...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718746/japan-college-of-rheumatology-guideline-for-the-use-of-methotrexate-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Hideto Kameda, Takao Fujii, Ayako Nakajima, Ryuji Koike, Akira Sagawa, Katsuaki Kanbe, Tetsuya Tomita, Masayoshi Harigai, Yasuo Suzuki
Methotrexate (MTX), the anchor drug in the current treatment strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), was first approved for treatment of RA in Japan in 1999 at the recommended dose of 6-8 mg/week; it was approved as first-line drug with the maximum dose of 16 mg/week in February 2011. However, more than half of Japanese patients with RA are unable to tolerate a dose of 16 mg/week of MTX. Moreover, some serious adverse events during the treatment with MTX, such as pneumocystis pneumonia and lymphoproliferative disorders, have been observed much more frequently in Japan than in other countries...
May 2, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705221/early-corticosteroids-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-adults-without-hiv-are-not-associated-with-better-outcome
#6
Patrick M Wieruszewski, Jason N Barreto, Erin Frazee, Craig E Daniels, Pritish K Tosh, Ross A Dierkhising, Kristin C Mara, Andrew H Limper
BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting adjunctive corticosteroids during the treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) in adults without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is minimal and controversial. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included PcP-positive, hospitalized patients without HIV admitted to Mayo Clinic from 2006 to 2016. Change from baseline in the respiratory component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFAresp ) at day 5 was compared between early (within 48 hours) steroid recipients and non-recipients utilizing multivariable logistic regression and in a propensity-matched analysis...
April 26, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704387/the-crucial-role-of-molecular-testing-to-facilitate-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-during-pregnancy
#7
C H Ding, H Yusoff, N A S Muttaqillah, Y L Tang, T L Tan, P Periyasamy, A Y L Ban
Pneumocystis pneumonia is an important human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated opportunistic infection, and especially so in pregnant HIV-positive patients. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman in her first trimester of pregnancy who initially presented with acute gastroenteritis symptoms but due to a history of high-risk behaviour and the observation of oral thrush, she was worked up for HIV infection. Her retroviral status was positive and her CD4+ T cell count was only 8 cells/µL. She was also worked up for pneumocystis pneumonia due to the presence of mild resting tachypnoea and a notable drop in oxygen saturation (from 100% to 88%) following brief ambulation...
April 2018: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695516/phase-1-study-of-the-pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitor-incb040093-%C3%A2-jak1-inhibitor-itacitinib-in-relapsed-refractory-b-cell-lymphoma
#8
Tycel J Phillips, Andres Forero-Torres, Taimur Sher, Catherine S Diefenbach, Patrick Johnston, Moshe Talpaz, Jennifer Pulini, Li Zhou, Peggy Scherle, Xuejun Chen, Paul M Barr
Because both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) and Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways contribute to tumor cell proliferation and survival in B-cell malignancies, their simultaneous inhibition may provide synergistic treatment efficacy. This phase 1 dose-escalation/expansion study assessed the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of INCB040093, a selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, as monotherapy or combined with itacitinib (formerly INCB039110), a selective JAK1 inhibitor, in adult patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) B-cell lymphomas...
April 25, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695056/burden-of-serious-fungal-infections-in-argentina
#9
Fernando O Riera, Juan P Caeiro, David W Denning
The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680792/-pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-in-a-patient-taking-benepali-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
Kay Frances Graham, Anne McEntegart
We present a case of a 57-year-old woman who contracted Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia while on Benepali, the biosimilar version of etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis. She had seropositive erosive disease. She was admitted to clinic with a 2-week history of dyspnoea, dry cough and fever. Her initial examination showed her to be hypoxic on air with saturations of 77% and left basal crackles. Her admission chest X-ray showed fine reticular shadowing, with an initial suspicion of pulmonary fibrosis. She was empirically treated for community-acquired pneumonia but continued to deteriorate with a worsening type 1 respiratory failure...
April 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668131/-severe-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-caused-by-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-a-late-kidney-transplant-recipient
#11
John Fredy Nieto-Ríos, Mónica Zuluaga-Quintero, Arbey Aristizábal-Alzate, Catalina Ocampo-Kohn, Lina María Serna-Higuita, Isabel Cristina Ramírez-Sánchez, Gustavo Adolfo Zuluaga-Valencia
Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii is an uncommon infection in kidney transplant patients that can have an acute and rapid progression to respiratory failure and death. The period of greatest risk occurs in the first six months after the transplant, and it relates to the high doses of immunosuppression drugs required by patients. However, it may occur late, associated with the suspension of prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.We present two cases of renal transplant patients who had severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to P...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666966/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-for-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-notes-from-the-field
#12
Maria Teresa Giordani, Francesca Tamarozzi, Daniel Kaminstein, Enrico Brunetti, Tom Heller
BACKGROUND: Thoracic ultrasound is helpful to evaluate lung pathology in patients with acute dyspnea. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of point-of-care ultrasound in patients with extrapulmonary TB and HIV co-infection. This retrospective, open-label case-control study explores the role of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in HIV-positive patients. In particular, it highlights the potential role of specific sonographic features that may be unique to this population...
April 17, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664819/risk-factors-for-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-a-prophylactic-indication-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
#13
Kazutoshi Yukawa, Yasutsugu Nagamoto, Hirofumi Watanabe, Masamoto Funaki, Mitsuhiro Iwahashi, Jiro Yamana, Rie Sasaki, Seizo Yamana
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Immunosuppressant medications (ISPs) increase the occurrence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The prophylactic administration of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) for PCP is effective but has serious adverse effects and so should be selectively used for patients at high risk. The aims of this study were to clarify the risk factors for PCP in RA patients and to establish the indications for administering TMP/SMX...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663992/-systemic-review-the-accuracy-of-lactic-dehydrogenase-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#14
Chuntao Deng, Yimin Li, Yi Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the accuracy of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). METHODS: The data of this systemic review was retrieved from the PubMed, China Biology Medicine disc, Wanfang, Weipu and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases from establishment till to October 31st, 2017. Case-control studies about the diagnosis of PCP were enrolled. Enrolled studies were required that patients in case group ware PCP and patients in control group were lung diseases other than PCP...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652202/effect-of-sulfasalazine-use-on-the-presence-of-pneumocystis-organisms-in-the-lung-among-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-test-negative-design-case-control-study-with-pcr-tests
#15
Takahiro Nunokawa, Naoto Yokogawa, Kota Shimada, Shoji Sugii
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of sulfasalazine (SSZ) on the presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) in the lungs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively studied episodes of suspected P. jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) which were examined for P. jirovecii with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We employed a test negative design case-control study; the cases were episodes of suspected PJP that were positive for PCR, and the controls were episodes of suspected PJP that were negative for PCR...
April 13, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622669/secular-trends-in-infection-related-mortality-after-kidney-transplantation
#16
Susanna Kinnunen, Pauli Karhapää, Auni Juutilainen, Patrik Finne, Ilkka Helanterä
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infections are the most common noncardiovascular causes of death after kidney transplantation. We analyzed the current infection-related mortality among kidney transplant recipients in a nationwide cohort in Finland. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Altogether, 3249 adult recipients of a first kidney transplant from 1990 to 2012 were included. Infectious causes of death were analyzed, and the mortality rates for infections were compared between two eras (1990-1999 and 2000-2012)...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620683/x-linked-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-and-hepatoblastoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#17
Sandra Diaz-Parra, Gema Lozano-Sanchez, Olga Escobosa-Sanchez, David Moreno-Perez, Antonio Morales-Martinez, Carolina Armengol-Niell, Tomás Acha-Garcia
Severe combined immunodeficiency is an inherited disease with profoundly defective T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is the most common form. In this report, we describe a 4-month-old male infant who was admitted to our hospital with progressive breathlessness and abdominal mass. He was diagnosed with hepatoblastoma and presented a pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia at the beginning of chemotherapy. Definitive diagnosis of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency was established by DNA analysis of the interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain gene...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610164/-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-during-sirolimus-therapy-for-kaposiform-hemangioendothelioma
#18
Thomas B Russell, Emily K Rinker, Claire S Dillingham, Laurence B Givner, Thomas W McLean
Sirolimus is an effective therapy for children with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma with or without the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. We report the case of a child with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and the Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon who developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) while on sirolimus and a prednisolone taper, after lack of adequate response to prednisolone, propranolol, and vincristine. He had a prompt positive clinical and laboratory response to sirolimus, but 4 weeks after starting it, at the age of 4 months, he developed PCP...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607273/recurrent-pneumocystis-pneumonia-with-uncommon-radiographic-presentation
#19
Ayushi Dixit, Rayhan Shariff, Sherleen Gandham, Ravi Bhavsar, Jazila Mantis, Victoria Vapnyar
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic infection of the pulmonary parenchyma seen in the immunocompromised host. The clinical presentation and radiographic findings are varied, with the latter ranging from normal to bilateral ground-glass opacities with cyst formation. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman with a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with multiple treated prior episodes of PCP, who was found to have an impressive presentation on high-resolution chest computed tomography (HRCT)...
January 29, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604970/central-nervous-system-infection-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#20
Christina M Marra
Central nervous system infection by Toxoplasma gondii, or Toxoplasma encephalitis, is the most common cause of brain mass lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It usually presents as one or more brain abscesses, but it can also cause a diffuse encephalitis or ventriculitis. Individuals who are Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G-seropositive, who have peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell concentrations below 200/μL, are not on antiretroviral therapy, and are not taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia, are at particular risk for Toxoplasma encephalitis...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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