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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938440/sex-differences-in-the-hormonal-and-metabolic-response-to-dietary-protein-dilution
#2
Karlton R Larson, Kimberly A Russo, Yanbin Fang, Niloufar Mohajerani, Michael L Goodson, Karen K Ryan
Consumption of a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet induces a striking increase in circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21), which is associated with improved cardiometabolic health and increased longevity. Increased lifespan during this dietary protein 'dilution' has been explained by resource-mediated trade-offs between reproduction and survival, such that fecundity is optimized at a greater relative intake of proteins:carbohydrates. The magnitude of this trade-off is thought to be sex-dependent. Here, we tested the hypothesis that metabolic responses to dietary protein dilution are likewise dependent on sex...
August 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936499/low-cost-ionic-liquid-water-mixtures-for-effective-extraction-of-carbohydrate-and-lipid-from-algae
#3
Trang Q To, Kerryn Procter, Blake A Simmons, Suresh Subashchandrabose, Rob Atkin
Biomass based biofuels are already an important energy source, and will increasingly be so in the future as the need for renewable energy rises. Due to their fast multiplication rates, algae can provide a sustainable supply of biomass, and are attractive because they do not compete with food crops for habitat. Here we show that biomass derived from Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis can be pretreated with low cost choline amino acid based ionic liquids to effectively yield lipids (30.6% and 51% total lipids) and sugars (71% and 26% total sugars)...
September 22, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935111/evaluation-of-virus-like-particle-based-tumor-associated-carbohydrate-immunogen-in-a-mouse-tumor-model
#4
Suttipun Sungsuwan, Xuanjun Wu, Xuefei Huang
Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are attractive targets for anticancer vaccine development. Due to the low immunogenicity of TACAs, a powerful carrier system is needed to boost immune responses. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an exciting platform for delivering TACAs to the immune system. The high symmetry of VLPs enables the display of TACAs in an organized manner, which in turn can potently activate antibody secreting B cells, eliciting high titers of antiglycan IgG antibodies. In this chapter, the protocol for conjugating a prototypical TACA, the Tn antigen to a VLP, bacteriophage Qβ, is presented...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934589/low-dietary-protein-and-high-carbohydrate-infant-formula-affects-the-microbial-ecology-of-the-large-intestine-in-neonatal-rats
#5
Wenguang Fan, Haiwei Ren, Yingying Cao, Yonggang Wang, Guicheng Huo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a low dietary protein and high carbohydrate infant formula on the large intestine of neonatal rats. A total of 24 neonatal SD rats (14d old) were randomly assigned to the low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula-fed group (IF group) and a human breast milk-fed group (HF group). After 7 days, we selected 6 rats at random from each group to study. No significantly different microbial colonization patterns were observed in the two groups at the phylum level...
September 21, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931586/urinary-excretion-of-sodium-nitrogen-and-sugar-amounts-are-valid-biomarkers-of-dietary-sodium-protein-and-high-sugar-intake-in-nonobese-adolescents
#6
Lori B Moore, Sarah V Liu, Tanya M Halliday, Andrew P Neilson, Valisa E Hedrick, Brenda M Davy
Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents.Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931235/monoclonal-antibody-protects-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-by-enhancing-bacterial-clearance-and-evading-sepsis
#7
Travis B Nielsen, Paul Pantapalangkoor, Brian M Luna, Kevin W Bruhn, Jun Yan, Ken Dekitani, Sarah Hsieh, Brandon Yeshoua, Bryan Pascual, Evgeny Vinogradov, Kristine M Hujer, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Robert A Bonomo, Thomas A Russo, Magda Lesczcyniecka, Thomas Schneider, Brad Spellberg
Background: Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most commonly encountered, highly resistant pathogens requiring novel therapeutic interventions. Methods: We developed C8, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), by immunizing mice with sublethal inocula of a hypervirulent XDR clinical isolate. Results: C8 targets capsular carbohydrate on the bacterial surface, enhancing opsonophagocytosis. Treating with a single dose of C8 as low as 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929343/a-comparison-of-isomaltulose-versus-maltodextrin-ingestion-during-soccer-specific-exercise
#8
Emma J Stevenson, Anthony Watson, Stephan Theis, Anja Holz, Liam D Harper, Mark Russell
PURPOSE: The performance and physiological effects of isomaltulose and maltodextrin consumed intermittently during prolonged soccer-specific exercise were investigated. METHODS: University soccer players (n = 22) performed 120 min of intermittent exercise while consuming 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks (equivalent to ~ 20 g h(-1)) containing maltodextrin (Glycaemic Index: 90-100), isomaltulose (Glycaemic Index: 32) or a carbohydrate-energy-free placebo in a manner replicating the practices of soccer players (i...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929139/rapid-and-near-complete-dissolution-of-wood-lignin-at-%C3%A2-80%C3%A2-c-by-a-recyclable-acid-hydrotrope
#9
Liheng Chen, Jinze Dou, Qianli Ma, Ning Li, Ruchun Wu, Huiyang Bian, Daniel J Yelle, Tapani Vuorinen, Shiyu Fu, Xuejun Pan, Junyong J Y Zhu
We report the discovery of the hydrotropic properties of a recyclable aromatic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH), for potentially low-cost and efficient fractionation of wood through rapid and near-complete dissolution of lignin. Approximately 90% of poplar wood (NE222) lignin can be dissolved at 80°C in 20 min. Equivalent delignification using known hydrotropes, such as aromatic salts, can be achieved only at 150°C or higher for more than 10 hours or at 150°C for 2 hours with alkaline pulping. p-TsOH fractionated wood into two fractions: (i) a primarily cellulose-rich water-insoluble solid fraction that can be used for the production of high-value building blocks, such as dissolving pulp fibers, lignocellulosic nanomaterials, and/or sugars through subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis; and (ii) a spent acid liquor stream containing mainly dissolved lignin that can be easily precipitated as lignin nanoparticles by diluting the spent acid liquor to below the minimal hydrotrope concentration...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928817/dichloroacetate-induces-protective-autophagy-in-esophageal-squamous-carcinoma-cells
#10
Hong-Yu Jia, He-Nan Wang, Feng-Yu Xia, Yan Sun, Hong-Li Liu, Li-Li Yan, Shan-Shan Li, Dong-Chun Jiang, Mei-Mei Xu
Dichloroacetate (DCA) is an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, which promotes the flux of carbohydrates into mitochondria and enhances the aerobic oxidation of glucose. DCA has previously been demonstrated to exhibit antitumor properties. The present study revealed that treatment with DCA induced increased levels of autophagy-associated proteins in esophageal squamous carcinoma cells while minimally affecting apoptosis. The present study examined the localization of light chain (LC)-3 by adenovirus infection with a green fluorescent protein (FP)-red FP-LC3 reporter construction and confirmed that DCA treatment induced significant autophagy...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928235/testosterone-protects-high-fat-low-carbohydrate-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-castrated-male-rats-mainly-via-modulating-er-stress
#11
Yue Jia, Jennifer Kuang Yee, Christina Wang, Liana Nikolaenko, Maruja Diaz-Arjonilla, Joshua N Cohen, Samuel W French, Peter Y Liu, YanHe Lue, Wai-Nang Paul Lee, Ronald S Swerdloff
We previously showed that testosterone (T) deficiency enhanced high-fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in rats that was independent of insulin resistance, and that T replacement reduced hepatic macrovesicular fat accumulation and inflammation. The present report explores the mechanism of T-protective effects on HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Adult male rats were randomized into four treatment groups for 15 weeks (intact rats on regular chow diet or HFD, and castrated rats on HFD with/without T replacement)...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925906/buxus-sempervirens-l-improves-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats
#12
Mohamed Eddouks, Mohammed Ajebli
BACKGROUND: Buxus sempervirens L. (Boxwood) is a medicinal plant used in Moroccan traditional medicine for diabetes treatment in Morocco. However; there is no experimental support of this ethnopharmacological use. METHODS: The present investigation aimed to study the antidiabetic and the preliminary phytochemical of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Buxus sempervirens (AELBS). AELBS (5 mg/kg) was administered by gavage to normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and blood glucose levels were measured for 6 hours (acute study) and 15 days (chronic study)...
September 18, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924478/a-rare-cause-of-metabolic-acidosis-ketoacidosis-in-a-non-diabetic-lactating-woman
#13
Gordon Sloan, Amjad Ali, Jonathan Webster
Ketoacidosis occurring during lactation has been described infrequently. The condition is incompletely understood, but it appears to be associated with a combination of increased metabolic demands during lactation, reduction in carbohydrate intake and acute illness. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman, 8 weeks post-partum, who was exclusively breastfeeding her child whilst following a low carbohydrate diet. She developed gastroenteritis and was unable to tolerate an oral diet for several days. She presented with severe metabolic acidosis on admission with a blood 3-hydroxybutyrate of 5...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924176/low-carbon-renewable-natural-gas-production-from-coalbeds-and-implications-for-carbon-capture-and-storage
#14
Zaixing Huang, Christine Sednek, Michael A Urynowicz, Hongguang Guo, Qiurong Wang, Paul Fallgren, Song Jin, Yan Jin, Uche Igwe, Shengpin Li
Isotopic studies have shown that many of the world's coalbed natural gas plays are secondary biogenic in origin, suggesting a potential for gas regeneration through enhanced microbial activities. The generation of biogas through biostimulation and bioaugmentation is limited to the bioavailability of coal-derived compounds and is considered carbon positive. Here we show that plant-derived carbohydrates can be used as alternative substrates for gas generation by the indigenous coal seam microorganisms. The results suggest that coalbeds can act as natural geobioreactors to produce low carbon renewable natural gas, which can be considered carbon neutral, or perhaps even carbon negative depending on the amount of carbon sequestered within the coal...
September 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924074/postprandial-glucose-surges-after-extremely-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-healthy-adults
#15
Koji Kanamori, Noriko Ihana-Sugiyama, Ritsuko Yamamoto-Honda, Tomoka Nakamura, Chie Sobe, Shigemi Kamiya, Miyako Kishimoto, Hiroshi Kajio, Kimiko Kawano, Mitsuhiko Noda
Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m(2), and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923009/apophysomyces-variabilis-draft-genome-sequence-and-comparison-of-predictive-virulence-determinants-with-other-medically-important-mucorales
#16
Hariprasath Prakash, Shivaprakash Mandya Rudramurthy, Prasad S Gandham, Anup Kumar Ghosh, Milner M Kumar, Chandan Badapanda, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: Apophysomyces species are prevalent in tropical countries and A. variabilis is the second most frequent agent causing mucormycosis in India. Among Apophysomyces species, A. elegans, A. trapeziformis and A. variabilis are commonly incriminated in human infections. The genome sequences of A. elegans and A. trapeziformis are available in public database, but not A. variabilis. We, therefore, performed the whole genome sequence of A. variabilis to explore its genomic structure and possible genes determining the virulence of the organism...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920414/metagenomic-analysis-of-bacterial-community-structure-and-diversity-of-lignocellulolytic-bacteria-in-vietnamese-native-goat-rumen
#17
Huyen Thi Do, Khoa Trong Dao, Viet Khanh Hoang Nguyen, Giang Ngoc Le, Phuong Thi Mai Nguyen, Lam Tung Le, Nguyet Thu Phung, Nico van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Hai Nam Truong
Objective: In a previous study, analysis of Illumina sequenced metagenomic DNA data of bacteria in Vietnamese goats' rumen showed a high diversity of putative lignocellulolytic genes. In this study, taxonomy speculation of microbial community and lignocellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen was conducted to elucidate a role of bacterial structure for effective degradation of plant materials. Methods: The metagenomic data had been subjected into Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTX) algorithm and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (NR) sequence database...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918740/methylglyoxal-and-small-heat-shock-proteins
#18
REVIEW
M V Sudnitsyna, N B Gusev
Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound formed during glucose metabolism and able to modify phospholipids, nucleic acids, and proteins belonging to the so-called dicarbonyl proteome. Small heat shock proteins participating in protection of the cell against different unfavorable conditions can be modified by methylglyoxal. The probability of methylglyoxal modification is increased in the case of distortion of glucose metabolism (diabetes), in the case of utilization of glycolysis as the main source of energy (malignancy), and/or at low rate of modified protein turnover...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918149/predicting-methane-emissions-of-lactating-danish-holstein-cows-using-fourier-transform-mid-infrared-spectroscopy-of-milk
#19
N Shetty, G Difford, J Lassen, P Løvendahl, A J Buitenhuis
Enteric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, is among the main targets of mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A measurement technique that is rapid, inexpensive, easy to use, and applicable at the population level is desired to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cows. In the present study, feasibility of milk Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectral profiles as a predictor for CH4:CO2 ratio and CH4 production (L/d) is explained. The partial least squares regression method was used to develop the prediction models...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916377/clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-two-chinese-patients-with-type-2-congenital-generalized-lipodystrophy
#20
Ruimin Chen, Xin Yuan, Jian Wang, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Type 2 congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL2, OMIM 269700) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by the generalized absence of adipose tissue at birth or in early infancy. Pathogenic variants in BSCL2 gene have been reported to be responsible for CGL2. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of two Chinese patients with CGL2, and with particular focus on the BSCL2 gene sequence variants. METHODS: Medical history, clinical manifestations, physical examination, laboratory data, and ultrasonography findings were analyzed for the two patients with CGL2...
September 12, 2017: Gene
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