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Low carbohydrate

Letícia Pereira de Brito Sampaio
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet is an established, effective nonpharmacologic treatment option for intractable childhood epilepsy. The KD was developed in 1921 and even though it has been increasingly used worldwide in the past decade, many neurologists are not familiar with this therapeutic approach. In the past few years, alternative and more flexible KD variants have been developed to make the treatment easier and more palatable while reducing side effects and making it available to larger group of refractory epilepsy patients...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Wanhee Suk, JiEun Kim, Do-Yeon Kim, Hyunjung Lim, Ryowon Choue
Recent trial results suggest that the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial in the prevention of high blood glucose levels. Identifying active hypoglycemic substances in ordinary foods could be a significant benefit to the management of blood glucose. It has been hypothesized that noodles with Bombyx mori powder are a low GI food. We evaluated GI and changes in postprandial glucose levels following consumption of those noodles and compared them with those following consumption of plain wheat flour noodles (control) and glucose (reference) in healthy subjects...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Suman Mishra, Jinny Willis, Juliet Ansell, John Alexander Monro
Kiwifruit is a carbohydrate food of low glycaemic potency which could potentially be exchanged for starch-based foods in management of postprandial glycaemia. The effect of equicarbohydrate partial exchange of kiwifruit varieties 'Hayward' green (GR) and 'Zesy002' (SunGold; SG) for a starchy wheat-based breakfast cereal (WB) on the characteristics of the postprandial glycaemic response and satiety was therefore determined. A total of twenty non-diabetic subjects (mean age 36 years; mean BMI 24·5 kg/m(2)) consumed four meals, each containing 40 g available carbohydrate, in random order, after an overnight fast...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
Mandy Ho, Anne-Louise M Heath, Megan Gow, Louise A Baur, Chris T Cowell, Samir Samman, Sarah P Garnett
BACKGROUND: Zinc has a critical role in metabolism and growth. This study aims to determine the effects of low-energy diets differing in macronutrient composition on zinc intake, estimated zinc bioavailability (phytate:zinc molar ratio) and plasma zinc concentration and associations between zinc status and cardiometabolic markers in obese adolescents with clinical insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: Eighty-seven obese adolescents (10-17 years, body mass index z-score 2...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Carolyn N Haarmeyer, Matthew D Smith, Shishir Chundawat, Deanne Sammond, Timothy A Whitehead
Biological-mediated conversion of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biochemicals is a promising avenue towards energy sustainability. However, a critical impediment to the commercialization of cellulosic biofuel production is the high cost of cellulase enzymes needed to deconstruct biomass into fermentable sugars. One major factor driving cost is cellulase adsorption and inactivation in the presence of lignin, yet we currently have a poor understanding of the protein structure-function relationships driving this adsorption...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Ricardo J S Costa, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray
BACKGROUND: Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners during multi-stage (MSUM) and 24-h continuous (24 h) ultramarathons. METHODS: Ad libitum food and fluid intakes of ultramarathon runners (MSUM n = 54; 24 h n = 22) were recorded throughout both events and analysed by dietary analysis software...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Mar Margalef-Català, Isabel Araque, Albert Bordons, Cristina Reguant, Joaquín Bautista-Gallego
Oenococcus oeni, the main lactic acid bacteria responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine, has to adapt to stressful conditions, such as low pH and high ethanol content. In this study, the changes in the transcriptome and the proteome of O. oeni PSU-1 during the adaptation period before MLF start have been studied. DNA microarrays were used for the transcriptomic analysis and two complementary proteomic techniques, 2-D DIGE and iTRAQ labeling were used to analyze the proteomic response. One of the most influenced functions in PSU-1 due to inoculation into wine-like medium (WLM) was translation, showing the over-expression of certain ribosomal genes and the corresponding proteins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Waroon Khota, Suradej Pholsen, David Higgs, Yimin Cai
Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Biranchi Narayan Mohapatra, Sujit Kumar Lenka, Manoranjan Acharya, Chakradhar Majhi, Gouri Oram, Khetra Mohan Tudu
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) and to evaluate its causes. METHODS: Fifty cases of hypokalemic flaccid paralysis (HKFP) admitted between November 2012 to October 2014 were taken up in the study. Serum potassium level < 3.5 mmol/ltr has been taken as hypokalemia. All cases were studied for spot and/or 24 hour urinary sodium / potassium, serum potassium / calcium / magnesium. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) were diagnosed if there was spot/24 hour urine potassium excretion < 20mmol/ltr in presence of hypokalemia and flaccid weakness without other causes...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Montserrat Dieguez, Jèssica Margalef, Oscar Pàmies
Phosphite-thioether ligands with a simple modular architecture derived from carbohydrates have been for the first time successfully applied (ee's up to 99%) in the synthesis of 2-aminotetralines and 3-aminochromanes via metal-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of cyclic β-enamides. Both enantiomers were obtained by simply switching from Rh to Ir. Low hydrogen pressure and environmentally friendly propylene carbonate can be used, with no loss of selectivity.
October 13, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Danxia Yu, Xianglan Zhang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Hui Cai, Honglan Li, Ding Ding, Zhen Hong, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Gong Yang
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on dietary carbohydrates and stroke risk remains controversial. Very few prospective cohort studies have been conducted in Asian populations, who usually consume a high-carbohydrate diet and have a high burden of stroke. OBJECTIVE: We examined dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intakes of refined and total carbohydrates in relation to risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke and stroke mortality. DESIGN: This study included 64,328 Chinese women, aged 40-70 y, with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ameneh Madjd, Moira A Taylor, Leila Shafiei Neek, Alireza Delavari, Reza Malekzadeh, Ian A Macdonald, Hamid R Farshchi
BACKGROUND: The effect of intensity and duration of physical activity (PA) on weight loss has been well described. However, the effect of the frequency of weekly PA on weight loss is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the frequency of weekly PA sessions while maintaining the same total activity time on weight loss during a 24-wk weight loss program. DESIGN: Overweight and obese women [n = 75; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 27-37; age: 18-40 y] who had a normally sedentary lifestyle were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 intervention groups: a high-frequency physical activity (HF) or a low-frequency physical activity (LF) group...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Juraj Koska, Marlies K Ozias, James Deer, Julie Kurtz, Arline D Salbe, S Mitchell Harman, Peter D Reaven
BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of high-fat diets is associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Current models to study the mechanisms of high-fat diet-induced IR in humans are limited by their long duration or low efficacy. In the present study we developed and characterized an acute dietary model of saturated fatty acid-enriched diet induced insulin resistance. METHODS: High caloric diets enriched with saturated fatty acids (SFA) or carbohydrates (CARB) were evaluated in subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance (NGT or IGT)...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Muhammad Bilal Azmi, Shamim A Qureshi
Rauwolfia serpentina is well-reported in traditional medicines for the treatment of hypertensive and neurological disorders. However, its antidiabetic potential has been currently described in both alloxan-treated and normoglycemic mice. Present effort was carried out to investigate the effect of methanol root extract (MREt) of R.serpentina in fructose-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Experimental mice were grouped into normal control (distilled water 1ml/kg) and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic groups (10% fructose 1 ml/kg)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pravin M Rathi, Vinay G Zanwar
There has been increasing interest in the entity "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity" in recent years which was first of its in 1980s. This "re-discovered" disorder is characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms which occur after ingestion of gluten containing food. The number of such patients who neither have celiac disease nor wheat allergy, but appear to benefit from gluten withdrawal is increasing substantially. However it still remains a controversial and its pathogenesis is not well understood...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
N Guess
BACKGROUND: Diets reduced or low in carbohydrates are becoming increasingly popular. The replacement foods and their accompanying nutrients determine the health effects of such diets. However, little is known about the dietary intake of people consuming reduced or low carbohydrate diets. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the dietary and nutrient intake of individuals aged 16-75 years consuming less than 40% of energy from carbohydrate (n = 430) was compared with individuals consuming equal to or more than 40% energy from carbohydrate (n = 1833) using the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Anca Macovei, Andrea Pagano, Paola Leonetti, Daniela Carbonera, Alma Balestrazzi, Susana S Araújo
The pre-germinative metabolism is among the most fascinating aspects of seed biology. The early seed germination phase, or pre-germination, is characterized by rapid water uptake (imbibition), which directs a series of dynamic biochemical events. Among those are enzyme activation, DNA damage and repair, and use of reserve storage compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Industrial seedling production and intensive agricultural production systems require seed stocks with high rate of synchronized germination and low dormancy...
October 11, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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