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Low carbohydrate

Charrise M Ramkissoon, Pau Herrero, Jorge Bondia, Josep Vehi
The artificial pancreas (AP) system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Michał Rurek, Magdalena Czołpińska, Tomasz Andrzej Pawłowski, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Tomasz Spiżewski
Complex proteomic and physiological approaches for studying cold and heat stress responses in plant mitochondria are still limited. Variations in the mitochondrial proteome of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) curds after cold and heat and after stress recovery were assayed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) in relation to mRNA abundance and respiratory parameters. Quantitative analysis of the mitochondrial proteome revealed numerous stress-affected protein spots. In cold, major downregulations in the level of photorespiratory enzymes, porine isoforms, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and some low-abundant proteins were observed...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Neha M Sahasrabudhe, Martin Beukema, Lingmin Tian, Berit Troost, Jan Scholte, Erik Bruininx, Geert Bruggeman, Marco van den Berg, Anton Scheurink, Henk A Schols, Marijke M Faas, Paul de Vos
Dietary carbohydrate fibers are known to prevent immunological diseases common in Western countries such as allergy and asthma but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Until now beneficial effects of dietary fibers are mainly attributed to fermentation products of the fibers such as anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here, we found and present a new mechanism by which dietary fibers can be anti-inflammatory: a commonly consumed fiber, pectin, blocks innate immune receptors. We show that pectin binds and inhibits, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and specifically inhibits the proinflammatory TLR2-TLR1 pathway while the tolerogenic TLR2-TLR6 pathway remains unaltered...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Charles Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda, Jiliu Xu, Kay D Beharry
OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis...
March 8, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Jia Wu, Adam Elliston, Gwenaelle Le Gall, Ian J Colquhoun, Samuel R A Collins, Ian P Wood, Jo Dicks, Ian N Roberts, Keith W Waldron
Background: Rice straw and husk are globally significant sources of cellulose-rich biomass and there is great interest in converting them to bioethanol. However, rice husk is reportedly much more recalcitrant than rice straw and produces larger quantities of fermentation inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying differences between rice straw and rice husk with reference to the composition of the pre-treatment liquors and their impacts on saccharification and fermentation...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Mai-He Li, Yong Jiang, Ao Wang, Xiaobin Li, Wanze Zhu, Cai-Feng Yan, Zhong Du, Zheng Shi, Jingpin Lei, Leonie Schönbeck, Peng He, Fei-Hai Yu, Xue Wang
The low-temperature limited alpine treeline is one of the most obvious boundaries in mountain landscapes. The question of whether resource limitation is the physiological mechanism for the formation of the alpine treeline is still waiting for conclusive evidence and answers. We therefore examined non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and nitrogen (N) in treeline trees (TATs) and low-elevation trees (LETs) in both summer and winter in 11 alpine treeline cases ranging from subtropical monsoon to temperate continental climates across Eurasia...
March 12, 2018: Tree Physiology
M Armeno, C Araujo, B Sotomontesano, R H Caraballo
INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet is a non-pharmacological treatment that has been used as a therapeutic alternative for the management of refractory epilepsy since 1921. It is a diet, high in fats and low in carbohydrates, which is used to treat paediatric refractory epilepsy, and is effective in around 50% of the patients that begin to follow it. It is a nutrition plan that is imbalanced in terms of both macro- and micro-nutrients, which can give rise to nutritional deficits in energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins, as well as an excess of lipids...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Shuichiro Sugawara, Ichiro Hirai, Toshihiro Watanabe, Koji Tezuka, Wataru Kimura
The patient was a 70-year-old woman in whom examination revealed a high level of carbohydrate antigen 19-9. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a multilocular cystic lesion compressing the gallbladder. CT indicated the presence of a multilocular cystic tumor (67 × 68 × 72 mm) in contact with the right hepatic lobe. Intraoperative findings indicated that the cyst diameter was 8.5 × 6.0 cm, and the cyst was continuous with the gallbladder. The gallbladder was resected along with the cyst...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Chiara Cattaneo, Patrizia Cesaro, Stefano Spertino, Sara Icardi, Maria Cavaletto
Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is a low-cost and abundant source of fermentable sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the main ways to obtain sugars from biomass, but most of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are poorly efficient on LCB and cellulases with higher performances are required. In this study, we designed a chimeric protein by adding the carbohydrate binding module (CBM) of the cellulosomal enzyme CtLic26A-Cel5E (endoglucanase H or CelH) from Clostridium (Ruminiclostridium) thermocellum to the C-terminus of Dtur CelA, an interesting hyperthermostable endoglucanase from Dictyoglomus turgidum...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mingyan Li, Weihua Guo, Ning Du, Zhenwei Xu, Xiao Guo
Light and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are among the important environmental factors influencing plant growth and forest regeneration. We used Quercus acutissima, a dominant broadleaf tree species native to the deciduous forests of Northern China, to study the combined effects of light exposure and N addition on leaf physiology and individual plant growth. In the greenhouse, we exposed Quercus acutissima seedlings to one of two light conditions (8% and 80% of full irradiation) and one of three N treatments (0, 6, and 12 g N m-2 y-1)...
2018: PloS One
Qing-Wei Wang, Lin Qi, Wangming Zhou, Cheng-Gang Liu, Dapao Yu, Limin Dai
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) and carbon limitation hypothesis (CLH) are two dominant explanations for treeline formation. The GLH proposes that low temperature drives the treeline through constraining C sinks more than C sources, and it predicts that non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels are static or increase with elevation. Although the GLH has received strong support globally for evergreen treelines, there is still no consensus for deciduous treelines, which experience great asynchrony between supply and demand throughout the year...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Trushar R Patel, Tabot M D Besong, Markus Meier, Kevin McEleney, Stephen E Harding, Donald J Winzor, Jörg Stetefeld
The major challenges in biophysical characterization of human protein-carbohydrate interactions are obtaining monodispersed preparations of human proteins that are often post-translationally modified and lack of detection of carbohydrates by traditional detection systems. Light scattering (dynamic and static) techniques offer detection of biomolecules and their complexes based on their size and shape, and do not rely on chromophore groups (such as aromatic amino acid sidechains). In this study, we utilized dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering techniques to investigate the solution properties of a complex resulting from the interaction between a 15 kDa heparin preparation and miniagrin, a miniaturized version of agrin...
March 12, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Luna Samanta, Ashok Agarwal, Nirlipta Swain, Rakesh Sharma, Banu Gopalan, Sandro C Esteves, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam, Edmund Sabanegh
PURPOSE: Varicocele may disrupt testicular microcirculation and induce hypoxia-ischemia related degenerative changes in testicular cells and spermatozoa. Superoxide production at low oxygen concentrations exacerbates oxidative stress in men with varicocele. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the role of mitochondrial redox regulation and its possible involvement in sperm dysfunction in varicocele-associated infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were identified in 50 infertile men with varicocele and ten fertile controls by secondary LC-MS/MS data-driven in silico analysis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Urology
Christina Boeck, Sophia Pfister, Alexander Bürkle, Valerie Vanhooren, Claude Libert, Juan Salinas-Manrique, Detlef E Dietrich, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Alexander Karabatsiakis
BACKGROUND: Glycans are short chains of saccharides linked to glycoproteins that are known to be involved in a wide range of inflammatory processes. As depression has been consistently associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, we asked whether patients with Major Depressive Disorder show alterations in the N-glycosylation pattern of serum proteins that might be linked to associated changes in inflammatory processes. METHODS: In a study cohort of 21 female patients with an acute depressive episode and 21 non-depressed female control subjects aged between 50 and 69 years, we analyzed the serum N-glycan profile by DNA Sequencer Adapted-Fluorophore Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis (DSA-FACE) and assessed the serum levels of interleukin (IL)- 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) by chemiluminescence immunoassays and nephelometry...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Vajihe Izadi, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Parisa Moosavian, Leila Azadbakht
BACKGROUND: There are no investigations regarding the effects of consuming low-energy-dense diets rich in multiple functional foods on weight-loss maintenance, inflammatory markers, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors simultaneously. METHOD: This randomized controlled trial design was conducted on 90 men and women who were under a previous weight loss diet. Three months of intervention with recruitment at Allzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, was done. Intervention was conducted following achieving 7-11 kg weight loss...
March 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Sümeyye Güzel, Alev Keser, Şükrü Hatun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the nutritional values of some low-nutrition packaged foods widely sold in supermarkets and encouraged for consumption. METHODS: The study used 435 packaged foods from six hypermarkets with high sale capacities in Ankara to analyze their contents of energy/total fat/saturated fat/carbohydrate/sugar/salt based on label information. RESULTS: Among the products in the scope of the study, the highest values were found in chocolates for fat (33...
March 10, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Jean Claude Nzayisenga, Karolina Eriksson, Anita Sellstedt
The biomass production and changes in biochemical composition of a locally isolated microalga (Chlorella sp.) were investigated in autotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, using glucose or glycerol as carbon sources and municipal wastewater as the growth medium. Both standard methods and Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) analysis of data acquired by Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectrometry showed that autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions promoted carbohydrate accumulation, while heterotrophic conditions with glycerol resulted in the highest lipid content and lowest carbohydrate content...
March 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shunhui Yu, Li Sheng, Chunyan Zhang, Hongping Deng
The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (<1.0mg/L) the root tissue of Arundo donax uses osmosis of organic substances (e.g. carbohydrates and amino acids) to improve cadmium tolerance...
February 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Marc A Tuazon, Sara C Campbell, Dylan J Klein, Sue A Shapses, Keith R Anacker, Tracy G Anthony, Mehmet Uzumcu, Gregory C Henderson
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. METHODS: Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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