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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319766/sequential-ultrasound-and-low-temperature-thermal-pretreatment-process-optimization-and-influence-on-sewage-sludge-solubilization-enzyme-activity-and-anaerobic-digestion
#1
Patricio Neumann, Zenón González, Gladys Vidal
The influence of sequential ultrasound and low-temperature (55°C) thermal pretreatment on sewage sludge solubilization, enzyme activity and anaerobic digestion was assessed. The pretreatment led to significant increases of 427-1030% and 230-674% in the soluble concentrations of carbohydrates and proteins, respectively, and 1.6-4.3 times higher enzymatic activities in the soluble phase of the sludge. Optimal conditions for chemical oxygen demand solubilization were determined at 59.3kg/L total solids (TS) concentration, 30,500kJ/kg TS specific energy and 13h thermal treatment time using response surface methodology...
March 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316100/thermodynamics-of-an-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzyme-with-low-substrate-promiscuity-the-aminoglycoside-n3-acetyltransferase-via
#2
Prashasti Kumar, Engin H Serpersu
Kinetic, thermodynamic and structural properties of the aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferase-VIa (AAC-VIa) are determined. Among the aminoglycoside N3-acetyltransferases, AAC-VIa has one of the most limited substrate profiles. Kinetic studies showed that only 5 aminoglycosides are substrates for this enzyme with a range of 4-fold difference in kcat values. Larger differences in KM (∼40 fold) resulted in ∼30-fold variation in kcat /KM . Binding of aminoglycosides to AAC-VIa was enthalpically favored and entropically disfavored with a net result of favorable Gibbs energy (ΔG<0)...
March 17, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316072/the-effects-of-dash-diet-on-weight-loss-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-and-metabolic-profiles-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Hamideh Rafiei, Mansooreh Samimi, Hamid Reza Gilasi, Roohangiz Gorjizadeh, Zahra Heidar, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet) on weight loss, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and metabolic profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted among 60 overweight or obese patients with PCOS. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either low-calorie DASH (N=30) or control diet (N=30) for 12 weeks...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#4
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315779/energy-and-macronutrient-intake-over-the-course-of-the-day-of-german-adults-a-dedipac-study
#5
Friederike Wittig, Eva Hummel, Germaine Wenzler, Thorsten Heuer
The aim of the study was to analyze the energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of selected population groups in Germany defined by sex, age, BMI, SES, and diet quality. The study was based on food consumption data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (2005-2007) assessed by two 4-day dietary weighing records of 662 women and men aged between 18 and 80 years. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02 and summarized for the periods 'morning', 'midday', 'afternoon', 'evening', and 'night'...
March 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304147/relation-of-dietary-carbohydrates-intake-to-circulating-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-levels-in-postmenopausal-women
#6
Mengna Huang, Jinjie Liu, Xiaochen Lin, Atsushi Goto, Yiqing Song, Lesley F Tinker, Kei-Hang Katie Chan, Simin Liu
BACKGROUND: Low circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) have been shown to be a direct and strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hormone-dependent cancers, although the relation between various aspects of dietary carbohydrates and SHBG levels remains unexplored in population studies. METHODS: Among postmenopausal women with available SHBG measurements at baseline (n = 11,159) in the Women's Health Initiative, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of total dietary carbohydrates, glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), fiber, sugar, and various carbohydrate-abundant foods in relation to circulating SHBG using multiple linear regressions adjusting for potential covariates...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303198/impacts-of-leaf-age-and-heat-stress-duration-on-photosynthetic-gas-exchange-and-foliar-nonstructural-carbohydrates-in-coffea-arabica
#7
Danielle E Marias, Frederick C Meinzer, Christopher Still
Given future climate predictions of increased temperature, and frequency and intensity of heat waves in the tropics, suitable habitat to grow ecologically, economically, and socially valuable Coffea arabica is severely threatened. We investigated how leaf age and heat stress duration impact recovery from heat stress in C. arabica. Treated plants were heated in a growth chamber at 49°C for 45 or 90 min. Physiological recovery was monitored in situ using gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence (the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, FV/FM), and leaf nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) on mature and expanding leaves before and 2, 15, 25, and 50 days after treatment...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302204/-a-preliminary-study-of-retinoblastoma-related-serum-tumor-markers
#8
Zhi-Ping Liu, Ke-Ying Zhou, Li-Li Chen, Zhi-Hui Xiao, Yan-Zhao Chen
OBJECTIVE: To screen out retinoblastoma (RB)-related serum tumor markers by measuring the levels of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), and carbohydrate antigen 724 (CA724) in children with RB. METHODS: The levels of seven serum tumor markers (AFP, CEA, NSE, CA125, CA153, CA199, and CA724) were determined in 20 children with RB and 20 healthy children (control) using a chemiluminescent immunoassay...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301509/genome-wide-association-mapping-in-winter-barley-for-grain-yield-and-culm-cell-wall-polymer-content-using-the-high-throughput-compp-technique
#9
Andrea Bellucci, Alessandro Tondelli, Jonatan U Fangel, Anna Maria Torp, Xin Xu, William G T Willats, Andrew Flavell, Luigi Cattivelli, Søren K Rasmussen
A collection of 112 winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) was grown in the field for two years (2008/09 and 2009/10) in northern Italy and grain and straw yields recorded. In the first year of the trial, a severe attack of barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) strongly influenced final performances with an average reduction of ~ 50% for grain and straw harvested in comparison to the second year. The genetic determination (GD) for grain yield was 0.49 and 0.70, for the two years respectively, and for straw yield GD was low in 2009 (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300773/the-low-fodmap-diet-many-question-marks-for-a-catchy-acronym
#10
REVIEW
Giulia Catassi, Elena Lionetti, Simona Gatti, Carlo Catassi
FODMAP, "Fermentable Oligo-, Di- and Mono-saccharides And Polyols", is a heterogeneous group of highly fermentable but poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates and polyols. Dietary FODMAPs might exacerbate intestinal symptoms by increasing small intestinal water volume, colonic gas production, and intestinal motility. In recent years the low-FODMAP diet for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has gained increasing popularity. In the present review we aim to summarize the physiological, clinical, and nutritional issues, suggesting caution in the prolonged use of this dietary treatment on the basis of the existing literature...
March 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296340/lactadherin-is-a-candidate-oviduct-lewis-x-trisaccharide-receptor-on-porcine-spermatozoa
#11
E Silva, D Frost, L Li, N Bovin, D J Miller
A recent study has demonstrated that porcine spermatozoa recognize with high affinity carbohydrate structures containing Lewis X motifs. Sperm adhesion to Lewis X is proposed to mediate sperm binding to the oviduct epithelium to form a reservoir. The objective of this study was to identify Lewis X-binding proteins from porcine spermatozoa as candidate receptors for oviduct glycans. To identify low-abundance proteins typically masked by proteins originating from seminal fluid, Lewis X candidate receptors were enriched from cauda epididymal boar spermatozoa...
March 15, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295311/molecular-phylogeny-and-taxonomic-revision-of-the-genus-wittrockiella-pithophoraceae-cladophorales-including-the-descriptions-of-w-australis-sp-nov-and-w-zosterae-sp-nov
#12
Christian Boedeker, Charles J O'Kelly, John A West, Takeaki Hanyuda, Adele Neale, Isamu Wakana, Mike D Wilcox, Ulf Karsten, Giuseppe C Zuccarello
Wittrockiella is a small genus of filamentous green algae that occurs in habitats with reduced or fluctuating salinities. Many aspects of the basic biology of these algae are still unknown and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus have not been fully explored. We provide a phylogeny based on three ribosomal markers (ITS, LSU and SSU rDNA) of the genus, including broad intraspecific sampling for W. lyallii and W. salina, recommendations for the use of existing names are made, and highlight aspects of their physiology and life cycle...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293041/association-of-socioeconomic-stratification-with-plasmatic-markers-of-lipoperoxidation-and-antioxidants-in-venezuelan-school-age-children
#13
Nelina Ruiz-Fernández, Virgilio Bosch, Maria Isabel Giacopini
OBJETIVE: To establish association between socioeconomic status and plasmatic markers of lipoperoxidation and antioxidants in Venezuelan school-age children from the middle-class and in critical poverty. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 114 school-age children (aged 7-9). The socioeconomic status, dietary intake of macro and micro-nutrients, weight, height, lipid profile, indicators of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were determined...
December 30, 2016: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292895/diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-by-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometric-imaging-of-small-metabolites-and-lipids
#14
Shibdas Banerjee, Richard N Zare, Robert J Tibshirani, Christian A Kunder, Rosalie Nolley, Richard Fan, James D Brooks, Geoffrey A Sonn
Accurate identification of prostate cancer in frozen sections at the time of surgery can be challenging, limiting the surgeon's ability to best determine resection margins during prostatectomy. We performed desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) on 54 banked human cancerous and normal prostate tissue specimens to investigate the spatial distribution of a wide variety of small metabolites, carbohydrates, and lipids. In contrast to several previous studies, our method included Krebs cycle intermediates (m/z <200), which we found to be highly informative in distinguishing cancer from benign tissue...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292714/combined-monte-carlo-torsion-angle-molecular-dynamics-for-ensemble-modeling-of-proteins-nucleic-acids-and-carbohydrates
#15
Weihong Zhang, Steven C Howell, David W Wright, Andrew Heindel, Xiangyun Qiu, Jianhan Chen, Joseph E Curtis
We describe a general method to use Monte Carlo simulation followed by torsion-angle molecular dynamics simulations to create ensembles of structures to model a wide variety of soft-matter biological systems. Our particular emphasis is focused on modeling low-resolution small-angle scattering and reflectivity structural data. We provide examples of this method applied to HIV-1 Gag protein and derived fragment proteins, TraI protein, linear B-DNA, a nucleosome core particle, and a glycosylated monoclonal antibody...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292617/obesity-pandemic-causes-consequences-and-solutions-but-do-we-have-the-will
#16
REVIEW
David R Meldrum, Marge A Morris, Joseph C Gambone
Obesity has become pandemic owing to an obesogenic environment (inexpensive calorie dense food, technologies and structure of communities that reduce or replace physical activity, and inexpensive nonphysical entertainment) and excessive emphasis on low fat intake resulting in excessive intake of simple carbohydrates and sugar. Effects are greater for women owing to their smaller size and extra weight gain with each pregnancy, with 38% of American adult women being obese. Women are responsible for more than three-fourths of the more than 400 billion dollars of excess direct health care expenditures due to obesity...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290811/-free-radical-processes-play-an-important-role-in-the-etiology-and-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis-and-diabetes
#17
V Z Lankin, A K Tikhaze
In this review, we present with exhaustive completeness the data of foreign studies and results of many years of own research, evidencing of the important role of free radical processes in the etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The review contains the rationale for the concept that oxidative stress in atherosclerosis is even more developed during disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to the emergence of carbonyl stress in diabetes. We hypothesize that there exists a single common molecular mechanism of primary preatherogenic damages of vessel walls in atherosclerosis and diabetes, which enhances the formation of carbonyl-modified low-density lipoproteins to be accumulated in the foam cells...
December 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289278/cafeteria-diet-and-probiotic-therapy-cross-talk-among-memory-neuroplasticity-serotonin-receptors-and-gut-microbiota-in-the-rat
#18
J E Beilharz, N O Kaakoush, J Maniam, M J Morris
The western diet is known to have detrimental effects on cognition and the gut microbiota, but few studies have investigated how these may be related. Here, we examined whether a probiotic could prevent diet-induced memory deficits. Rats were pre-exposed to vehicle, low or high doses of VSL#3 for 2 weeks before half were switched from chow to a cafeteria diet (Caf) for 25 days; VSL#3 treatment continued until death. High-dose VSL#3 prevented the diet-induced memory deficits on the hippocampal-dependent place task, but the probiotic caused deficits on the perirhinal-dependent object task, irrespective of diet or dose...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287405/t-cells-control-the-generation-of-nanomolar-affinity-anti-glycan-antibodies
#19
Zinaida Polonskaya, Shenglou Deng, Anita Sarkar, Lisa Kain, Marta Comellas-Aragones, Craig S McKay, Katarzyna Kaczanowska, Marie Holt, Ryan McBride, Valle Palomo, Kevin M Self, Seth Taylor, Adriana Irimia, Sanjay R Mehta, Jennifer M Dan, Matthew Brigger, Shane Crotty, Stephen P Schoenberger, James C Paulson, Ian A Wilson, Paul B Savage, M G Finn, Luc Teyton
Vaccines targeting glycan structures at the surface of pathogenic microbes must overcome the inherent T cell-independent nature of immune responses against glycans. Carbohydrate conjugate vaccines achieve this by coupling bacterial polysaccharides to a carrier protein that recruits heterologous CD4 T cells to help B cell maturation. Yet they most often produce low- to medium-affinity immune responses of limited duration in immunologically fit individuals and disappointing results in the elderly and immunocompromised patients...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287320/preoperative-prognostic-nutritional-index-correlates-with-severe-complications-and-poor-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-undergoing-curative-laparoscopic-surgery-a-retrospective-study-in-a-single-chinese-institution
#20
Xianglong Cao, Gang Zhao, Tao Yu, Qi An, Hua Yang, Gang Xiao
The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been correlated with long-term outcomes in cancer patients. However, the relationship between PNI, the postoperative complications, and long-term outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing curative laparoscopic surgery has not been fully investigated. This retrospective study was conducted in the Beijing Hospital between January 2009 and January 2012. A total of 228 patients diagnosed with primary CRC undergoing curative laparoscopic surgery in the center were analyzed...
April 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
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