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addiction relapse trait

Timo Brockmeyer, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are recurrent episodes of binge eating. Despite negative psychological and physical consequences, BN/BED patients show uncontrollable approach tendencies towards food. This cognitive bias occurs at an early stage of information processing. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) directly targets such biases and has been shown to be effective in treating several mental disorders. In alcohol addiction, automatic action tendencies towards alcohol cues and relapse rates were successfully reduced by a specific form of CBM, termed approach bias modification...
September 26, 2016: Trials
Suyun Li, Qiang Wang, Lulu Pan, Huijie Li, Xiaorong Yang, Fan Jiang, Nan Zhang, Mingkui Han, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Smoking and smoking cessation are both psychological and physiological traits. We aimed to investigate the interaction between dopamine pathway gene scores and nicotine dependence on smoking cessation in a rural Chinese male population. METHODS: Participants were recruited from 17 villages in Shandong, China. DNA was extracted from blood sample of 819 participants. 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 dopamine (DA) pathway genes were genotyped...
September 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Delphine Grynberg, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Philippot, Fabien D'Hondt, Yasmine Briane, Faustine Devynck, Céline Douilliez, Joël Billieux, Alexandre Heeren, Pierre Maurage
BACKGROUND: Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that these deficits are centrally related to increased abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, combined with reduced concrete/experiential repetitive thinking. OBJECTIVE: As this assumption has not been tested in addictions, this study aimed at investigating repetitive thinking modes in a large sample of alcohol-dependent subjects...
July 18, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Ewa Taracha, Ewelina Kaniuga, Edyta Wyszogrodzka, Adam Płaźnik, Roman Stefański, Stanisław J Chrapusta
RATIONALE: Our previous studies showed promise for using sensitization of the frequency-modulated 50-kHz vocalization response to amphetamine (AMPH) as an index of rat vulnerability to AMPH addiction. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the utility of sensitizing frequency-modulated (FM) 50-kHz vocalization in the AMPH self-administration paradigm as well as the ability of N-acetylcysteine to prevent self-administration relapse. METHODS: Rats were subjected to the so-called two-injection protocol of sensitization (TIPS) using AMPH and were categorized as low-sensitized callers (LCTIPS) or high-sensitized callers (HCTIPS) based on the individual outcomes...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Zsolt Demetrovics, Thomas Simpatico, Claudia Fahlke, M Oscar-Berman, Mona Li, Kristina Dushaj, Mark S Gold
In 1990, Blum and associates provided the first confirmed genetic link between the DRD2 polymorphisms and alcoholism. This finding was based on an earlier conceptual framework, which served as a blueprint for their seminal genetic association discovery they termed "Brain Reward Cascade." These findings were followed by a new way of understanding all addictive behaviors (substance and non-substance) termed "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS), which incorporates a complex multifaceted array of inheritable behaviors that are polygenic...
May 12, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
David Miller, Merlene Miller, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Marcelo Febo
There are approximately 14,500 clinics and programs in America that provide treatment for all types of addictive behaviors we call "Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)". While most of these have good intentions to provide needed help to the victims of RDS, we propose herein that most of their efforts, especially during periods of aftercare, are not based on the existing scientific evidence. We use "aftercare" to refer to any form of program or therapy following primary treatment including 12-Step programs. Very few programs actually provide any evidenced-based treatment approaches during this most vulnerable period in recovery...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
Fiona D Zeeb, Ashlie D Soko, Xiaodong Ji, Paul J Fletcher
Poor impulse control is associated with an increased propensity to develop an addiction and may contribute to relapse as high impulsive subjects appear to attribute greater salience toward drug-paired stimuli. In these studies, we determined whether trait impulsivity also predicts the desire to obtain natural reward-paired stimuli. Rats trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task to measure impulsive action (Experiment 1) or a delay-discounting task to measure impulsive choice (Experiment 2) were separated into low, intermediate, or high impulsive action (L-IA, I-IA, H-IA) or choice (L-IC, I-IC, H-IC) groups...
July 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Corti Denise, Paolo Paoli, Maura Calvani, Maria Letizia Taddei, Elisa Giannoni, Scott Kopetz, Syed Mohammad Ali Kazmi, Morelli Maria Pia, Piergiorgio Pettazzoni, Elena Sacco, Anna Caselli, Marco Vanoni, Matteo Landriscina, Paolo Cirri, Paola Chiarugi
Despite marked tumor shrinkage after 5-FU treatment, the frequency of colon cancer relapse indicates that a fraction of tumor cells survives treatment causing tumor recurrence. The majority of cancer cells divert metabolites into anabolic pathways through Warburg behavior giving an advantage in terms of tumor growth. Here, we report that treatment of colon cancer cell with 5-FU selects for cells with mesenchymal stem-like properties that undergo a metabolic reprogramming resulting in addiction to OXPHOS to meet energy demands...
December 8, 2015: Oncotarget
Hang Su, Zhibin Li, Jiang Du, Haifeng Jiang, Zhikang Chen, Haiming Sun, Min Zhao
Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)...
December 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
D Carpentier, L Romo, P Bouthillon-Heitzmann, F Limosin
UNLABELLED: For several years, the learning of mindfulness has developed in a psychological intervention perspective, particularly in the field of addiction. Presently, the management of addictions with substances is centered on two questions: the motivation in the change of behaviour and in a significant change in alcohol consumption. Concerning alcohol dependence, the evolution of behaviour is variable and characterized by forgiveness episodes and relapses. Over many years, a treatment for the abuse of substance associated with techniques based on full consciousness (Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Segal et al...
December 2015: L'Encéphale
Paweł A Atroszko, Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Mark D Griffiths, Ståle Pallesen
AIMS: Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to 'study addiction'. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment. METHODS: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested - reflecting seven core addiction symptoms (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) - related to studying...
June 2015: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
A Ameller, P Gorwood
BACKGROUND: There are numerous risk factors involved in poor (incomplete) compliance to pharmacological treatment, and the associated relapse risk, for patients with schizophrenia. Comorbid substance use disorders are considered as among the most important ones, although how much their presence increase the risk of poorer observance (and higher risk of relapse) has not been yet assessed. This measure would be important, especially if the published literature on the topic provides sufficient material to perform a meta-analysis and to assess different potential biases such as those related to time (new studies are easier to publish when positive) or sample size (small samples might drive the global positive conclusion)...
April 2015: L'Encéphale
Yann Pelloux, Jean Costentin, Dominique Duterte-Boucher
RATIONALE: Drug addiction is defined as a recurring cycle of intoxication, abstinence and relapse. The behavioural trait of novelty seeking is frequently observed in alcohol abusers. Moreover, converging evidence indicates that anxious individuals are also predisposed to alcohol abuse. OBJECTIVES: We have analyzed the respective implication of those two behavioural factors on vulnerability to ethanol intake on rats in situations designed to reflect drug intoxication and relapse phases in humans...
August 2015: Psychopharmacology
Marta Czapla, Joe J Simon, Barbara Richter, Matthias Kluge, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Stephan Herpertz, Karl Mann, Sabine C Herpertz, Sabine Loeber
Recent models of the development of addiction propose a transition from a pleasure-driven to a heavily automatized behaviour, marked by a loss of cognitive control. This study investigated the deficits in different components of cognitive functions including behavioural inhibition in response to alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and healthy controls (HC). The aims of the study were to identify which particular cognitive functions are impaired in ADP. Furthermore, we analysed the association between cognitive deficits and relapse rates and the reversibility of cognitive deficits under abstinence in a 6-month follow-up period...
July 2016: Addiction Biology
Imme Roewer, Antonius Wiehler, Jan Peters
The subjective value of rewards declines the longer rewards are delayed into the future ("delay discounting"). Discounting behavior varies both as a function of an individual's trait and current state. The degree of discounting has repeatedly been associated with relapse following treatment of addiction. Therefore, the effects of acute drug deprivation on discounting processes are potentially of high clinical relevance. In two testing sessions (24 hr of nicotine deprivation vs. normal smoking) 37 heavy smoking participants made choices between immediate and delayed rewards as well as between shorter and longer delayed rewards...
January 2015: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Leonard L Howell, Kathryn A Cunningham
Cocaine exhibits prominent abuse liability, and chronic abuse can result in cocaine use disorder with significant morbidity. Major advances have been made in delineating neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine abuse; however, effective medications to treat cocaine use disorder remain to be discovered. The present review will focus on the role of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission in the neuropharmacology of cocaine and related abused stimulants. Extensive research suggests that the primary contribution of 5-HT to cocaine addiction is a consequence of interactions with dopamine (DA) neurotransmission...
2015: Pharmacological Reviews
Francisca López-Torrecillas, José C Perales, Ana Nieto-Ruiz, Antonio Verdejo-García
AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140) were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory), trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale), and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task)...
2014: PloS One
Marijn Lijffijt, Kesong Hu, Alan C Swann
Childhood trauma and post-childhood chronic/repeated stress could increase the risk of a substance use disorder by affecting five stages of addiction illness-course: (a) initial experimentation with substances; (b) shifting from experimental to regular use; (c) escalation from regular use to abuse or dependence; (d) motivation to quit; and (e) risk of (re-)lapse. We reviewed the human literature on relationships between stress and addiction illness-course. We explored per illness-course stage: (i) whether childhood trauma and post-childhood chronic/repeated stress have comparable effects and (ii) whether effects cut across classes of substances of abuse...
2014: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Paul S Regier, Alexander B Claxton, Natalie E Zlebnik, Marilyn E Carroll
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates that individual differences in traits such as impulsivity, avidity for sweets, and novelty reactivity are predictors of several aspects of drug addiction. Specifically, rats that rank high on these behavioral measures are more likely than their low drug-seeking counterparts to exhibit several characteristics of drug-seeking behavior. In contrast, initial work suggests that the low drug-seeking animals are more reactive to negative events (e.g., punishment and anxiogenic stimuli)...
October 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Brandon S Bentzley, Thomas C Jhou, Gary Aston-Jones
Development of new treatments for drug addiction will depend on high-throughput screening in animal models. However, an addiction biomarker fit for rapid testing, and useful in both humans and animals, is not currently available. Economic models are promising candidates. They offer a structured quantitative approach to modeling behavior that is mathematically identical across species, and accruing evidence indicates economic-based descriptors of human behavior may be particularly useful biomarkers of addiction severity...
August 12, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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