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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815629/impulsive-decision-making-in-young-adult-social-drinkers-and-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study
#1
Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Shakoor Pooseh, Miriam Sebold, Christian Sommer, Julian Birkenstock, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Andreas Heinz, Michael N Smolka
BACKGROUND: Impulsive decision making relates to problematic substance use. Specifically, altered delay discounting has been suggested as a behavioral marker for addiction, while other relevant facets of choice impulsivity such as probability discounting or loss aversion are clearly understudied. METHODS: Two studies were performed collecting behavioral data on choice impulsivity with a value-based decision-making battery providing estimates of delay discounting, probability discounting for gains and losses, and loss aversion...
August 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754407/punishment-of-alcohol-reinforced-responding-in-alcohol-preferring-p-rats-reveals-a-bimodal-population-implications-for-models-of-compulsive-drug-seeking
#2
Nathan J Marchant, Erin J Campbell, Konstantin Kaganovsky
Individual variations in animal behaviour can be used to describe relationships between different constructs, as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms responsible for such variation. In humans, variation in the expression of certain traits contributes to the onset of psychopathologies, such as drug addiction. Addiction is characterised by persistent drug use despite negative consequences, but it occurs in only a sub-population of drug users. Compulsive drug use is modelled in laboratory animals by punishing a drug-reinforced operant response...
July 25, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700935/deletion-of-type-2-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-decreases-sensitivity-to-cocaine-reward-in-rats
#3
Hong-Ju Yang, Hai-Ying Zhang, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Jun-Tao Gao, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Cocaine users show reduced expression of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2), but it is not clear whether this is a predisposing trait for addiction or a consequence of drug exposure. In this study, we found that a nonsense mutation at the mGluR2 gene decreased mGluR2 expression and altered the seeking and taking of cocaine. mGluR2 mutant rats show reduced sensitivity to cocaine reward, requiring more cocaine to reach satiation when it was freely available and ceasing their drug-seeking behavior sooner than controls when the response requirement was increased...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515554/personality-profile-and-short-term-treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-a-study-from-south-india
#4
Soundarya Soundararajan, Gitanjali Narayanan, Arpana Agrawal, Pratima Murthy
BACKGROUND: Studying personality profiles allows researchers to generate important hypotheses in risk factors and correlates of alcohol use/misuse. Studies examining the association between personality traits and treatment outcome are limited in India. We studied the correlation between personality and treatment outcome in patients with alcohol dependence. METHODS: Adult participants with alcohol dependence were recruited from the inpatient and outpatient wards of de-addiction unit of a tertiary care facility in India using a prospective design and followed up after 3 months...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454522/from-the-neurobiological-basis-of-comorbid-alcohol-dependence-and-depression-to-psychological-treatment-strategies-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Alena Becker, Anna M Ehret, Peter Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder and depression occur commonly in the community. Even though this high-prevalence comorbidity is associated with poorer posttreatment outcomes and greater utilization of costly treatment services, existing treatment trials often exclude patients with comorbid depressive and alcohol use disorders. Past research suggests that symptoms such as craving and anhedonia might be associated with alterations within the reward circuit, while emotion regulation deficits are related to disruptions within the default mode network...
April 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111627/beyond-sensation-seeking-a-conceptual-framework-for-individual-differences-in-psychostimulant-drug-effects-in-healthy-humans
#6
Tara L White
Psychostimulant addiction is an important, relapsing condition for which there is no effective pharmacological treatment. Countering this problem requires an understanding of the specific risk factors that predispose individuals to initial misuse of these drugs. Healthy individuals display marked individual differences in emotional, behavioral and brain responses to low and moderate doses of stimulant drugs. These between-person differences have been most often studied using personality measures of sensation seeking...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090374/neurophysiological-measures-and-alcohol-use-disorder-aud-hypothesizing-links-between-clinical-severity-index-and-molecular-neurobiological-patterns
#7
Mario Vitali, Carmen Napolitano, Marlene Oscar Berman, Simona Flamminii Minuto, Gemma Battagliese, Maria Luisa Attilia, Eric R Braverman, Marina Romeo, Kenneth Blum, Mauro Ceccanti
BACKGROUND: In 1987, Cloninger proposed a clinical description and classification of different personality traits genetically defined and independent from each other. Moreover, he elaborated a specific test the TCI to investigate these traits/states. The study of craving in Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) assumed a greater significance, since ever more data seems to suggest a direct correlation between high levels of craving and a higher risk of relapse in alcoholics. Thus, our study aim is to explore the possible correlations among TCI linked molecular neurobiological pattern (s), craving and alcohol addiction severity measures in a sample of Italian alcoholics...
April 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057531/resting-state-brain-connectivity-patterns-before-eventual-relapse-into-cocaine-abuse
#8
M Berlingeri, D Losasso, A Girolo, E Cozzolino, T Masullo, M Scotto, M Sberna, G Bottini, E Paulesu
According to recent theories, drug addicted patients suffer of an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution (I-RISA) together with a perturbed connectivity between the nuclei accumbens (NAcs) and the orbito-prefrontal (oPFC) and dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) cortices, brain regions associated with motivation and cognitive control. To empirically test these assumptions, we evaluated the (neuro)psychological trait and the functional organization of the resting state brain networks associated with the NAcs in 18 former cocaine abusers (FCAs), while being in drug abstinence since 5 months...
June 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989609/limbic-circuitry-activation-in-ethanol-withdrawal-is-regulated-by-a-chromosome-1-locus
#9
Kari J Buck, Gang Chen, Laura B Kozell
Physiological dependence and associated withdrawal episodes are thought to constitute a motivational force sustaining alcohol use/abuse and contributing to relapse in alcoholics. Although no animal model exactly duplicates alcoholism, models for specific factors, including the withdrawal syndrome, are useful for identifying potential genetic and neural determinants of liability in humans. We previously identified highly significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with large effects on predisposition to withdrawal after chronic and acute alcohol exposure in mice and mapped these loci to the same region of chromosome 1 (Alcdp1 and Alcw1, respectively)...
February 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670138/the-abba-study-approach-bias-modification-in-bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Timo Brockmeyer, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are recurrent episodes of binge eating. Despite negative psychological and physical consequences, BN/BED patients show uncontrollable approach tendencies towards food. This cognitive bias occurs at an early stage of information processing. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) directly targets such biases and has been shown to be effective in treating several mental disorders. In alcohol addiction, automatic action tendencies towards alcohol cues and relapse rates were successfully reduced by a specific form of CBM, termed approach bias modification...
September 26, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490263/the-association-of-dopamine-pathway-gene-score-nicotine-dependence-and-smoking-cessation-in-a-rural-male-population-of-shandong-china
#11
Suyun Li, Qiang Wang, Lulu Pan, Huijie Li, Xiaorong Yang, Fan Jiang, Nan Zhang, Mingkui Han, Chongqi Jia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Smoking and smoking cessation are both psychological and physiological traits. We aimed to investigate the interaction between dopamine pathway gene scores and nicotine dependence on smoking cessation in a rural Chinese male population. METHODS: Participants were recruited from 17 villages in Shandong, China. DNA was extracted from blood sample of 819 participants. 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 dopamine (DA) pathway genes were genotyped...
September 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431454/abstract-and-concrete-repetitive-thinking-modes-in-alcohol-dependence
#12
Delphine Grynberg, Philippe de Timary, Pierre Philippot, Fabien D'Hondt, Yasmine Briane, Faustine Devynck, Céline Douilliez, Joël Billieux, Alexandre Heeren, Pierre Maurage
Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that these deficits are centrally related to increased abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, combined with reduced concrete/experiential repetitive thinking. As this assumption has not been tested in addictions, this study aimed at investigating repetitive thinking modes in a large sample of alcohol-dependent individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256355/poor-sensitization-of-50-khz-vocalization-response-to-amphetamine-predicts-rat-susceptibility-to-self-administration-of-the-drug
#13
Ewa Taracha, Ewelina Kaniuga, Edyta Wyszogrodzka, Adam Płaźnik, Roman Stefański, Stanisław J Chrapusta
RATIONALE: Our previous studies showed promise for using sensitization of the frequency-modulated 50-kHz vocalization response to amphetamine (AMPH) as an index of rat vulnerability to AMPH addiction. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the utility of sensitizing frequency-modulated (FM) 50-kHz vocalization in the AMPH self-administration paradigm as well as the ability of N-acetylcysteine to prevent self-administration relapse. METHODS: Rats were subjected to the so-called two-injection protocol of sensitization (TIPS) using AMPH and were categorized as low-sensitized callers (LCTIPS) or high-sensitized callers (HCTIPS) based on the individual outcomes...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174576/common-neurogenetic-diagnosis-and-meso-limbic-manipulation-of-hypodopaminergic-function-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds-changing-the-recovery-landscape
#14
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Zsolt Demetrovics, Thomas Simpatico, Claudia Fahlke, Oscar-Berman M, Mona Li, Kristina Dushaj, Mark S Gold
BACKGROUND: In 1990, Blum and associates provided the first confirmed genetic link between the DRD2 polymorphisms and alcoholism. This finding was based on an earlier conceptual framework, which served as a blueprint for their seminal genetic association discovery they termed "Brain Reward Cascade." These findings were followed by a new way of understanding all addictive behaviors (substance and non-substance) termed "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS). RDS incorporates a complex multifaceted array of inheritable behaviors that are polygenic...
2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835513/addiction-treatment-in-america-after-money-or-aftercare
#15
David Miller, Merlene Miller, Kenneth Blum, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Marcelo Febo
There are approximately 14,500 clinics and programs in America that provide treatment for all types of addictive behaviors we call "Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)". While most of these have good intentions to provide needed help to the victims of RDS, we propose herein that most of their efforts, especially during periods of aftercare, are not based on the existing scientific evidence. We use "aftercare" to refer to any form of program or therapy following primary treatment including 12-Step programs. Very few programs actually provide any evidenced-based treatment approaches during this most vulnerable period in recovery...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26781518/low-impulsive-action-but-not-impulsive-choice-predicts-greater-conditioned-reinforcer-salience-and-augmented-nucleus-accumbens-dopamine-release
#16
Fiona D Zeeb, Ashlie D Soko, Xiaodong Ji, Paul J Fletcher
Poor impulse control is associated with an increased propensity to develop an addiction and may contribute to relapse as high impulsive subjects appear to attribute greater salience toward drug-paired stimuli. In these studies, we determined whether trait impulsivity also predicts the desire to obtain natural reward-paired stimuli. Rats trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task to measure impulsive action (Experiment 1) or a delay-discounting task to measure impulsive choice (Experiment 2) were separated into low, intermediate, or high impulsive action (L-IA, I-IA, H-IA) or choice (L-IC, I-IC, H-IC) groups...
July 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527315/5-fluorouracil-resistant-colon-cancer-cells-are-addicted-to-oxphos-to-survive-and-enhance-stem-like-traits
#17
Corti Denise, Paolo Paoli, Maura Calvani, Maria Letizia Taddei, Elisa Giannoni, Scott Kopetz, Syed Mohammad Ali Kazmi, Morelli Maria Pia, Piergiorgio Pettazzoni, Elena Sacco, Anna Caselli, Marco Vanoni, Matteo Landriscina, Paolo Cirri, Paola Chiarugi
Despite marked tumor shrinkage after 5-FU treatment, the frequency of colon cancer relapse indicates that a fraction of tumor cells survives treatment causing tumor recurrence. The majority of cancer cells divert metabolites into anabolic pathways through Warburg behavior giving an advantage in terms of tumor growth. Here, we report that treatment of colon cancer cell with 5-FU selects for cells with mesenchymal stem-like properties that undergo a metabolic reprogramming resulting in addiction to OXPHOS to meet energy demands...
December 8, 2015: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26345603/predictors-of-heroin-relapse-personality-traits-impulsivity-comt-gene-val158met-polymorphism-in-a-5-year-prospective-study-in-shanghai-china
#18
Hang Su, Zhibin Li, Jiang Du, Haifeng Jiang, Zhikang Chen, Haiming Sun, Min Zhao
Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)...
December 2015: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26159682/-mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-mbrp-evaluation-of-the-impact-of-a-group-of-mindfulness-therapy-in-alcohol-relapse-prevention-for-alcohol-use-disorders
#19
D Carpentier, L Romo, P Bouthillon-Heitzmann, F Limosin
UNLABELLED: For several years, the learning of mindfulness has developed in a psychological intervention perspective, particularly in the field of addiction. Presently, the management of addictions with substances is centered on two questions: the motivation in the change of behaviour and in a significant change in alcohol consumption. Concerning alcohol dependence, the evolution of behaviour is variable and characterized by forgiveness episodes and relapses. Over many years, a treatment for the abuse of substance associated with techniques based on full consciousness (Kabat-Zinn, 1990; Segal et al...
December 2015: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26014668/study-addiction-a-new-area-of-psychological-study-conceptualization-assessment-and-preliminary-empirical-findings
#20
Paweł A Atroszko, Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Mark D Griffiths, Ståle Pallesen
AIMS: Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to 'study addiction'. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment. METHODS: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested - reflecting seven core addiction symptoms (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) - related to studying...
June 2015: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
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