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Ketogenic diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639757/-ketogenic-diets-the-miraculous-solution
#1
Christophe Kosinski, François R Jornayvaz
The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered and aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, carbohydrate restriction is popular, specifically ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and /or proteins. Results are controversial, but some benefits such as weight loss and improved glycemic control have been described. Nevertheless, these effects seem to be limited in time...
May 31, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637651/pivotal-role-of-o-glcnac-modification-in-cold-induced-thermogenesis-by-brown-adipose-tissue-through-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#2
Natsuko Ohashi, Katsutaro Morino, Shogo Ida, Osamu Sekine, Mengistu Lemecha, Shinji Kume, Shi-Young Park, Cheol Soo Choi, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
Adipose tissues considerably influence metabolic homeostasis, and both white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) play significant roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. O-GlcNAc modification is characterized by the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt), subsequently modulating various cellular processes. However, little is known about the role of O-GlcNAc modification in adipose tissues. Here, we report the critical role of O-GlcNAc modification in cold-induced thermogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630601/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-diets-and-body-composition
#3
REVIEW
Alan A Aragon, Brad J Schoenfeld, Robert Wildman, Susan Kleiner, Trisha VanDusseldorp, Lem Taylor, Conrad P Earnest, Paul J Arciero, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Darryn S Willoughby, Bill Campbell, Shawn M Arent, Laurent Bannock, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626875/effect-of-ketogenic-diet-and-other-dietary-therapies-on-anti-epileptic-drug-concentrations-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#4
G Heo, S H Kim, M J Chang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet for patients with refractory epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of the KD and other dietary therapies on the concentrations of anticonvulsants in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Patients with epilepsy who were treated with the KD and other dietary therapies for more than 30 days with at least one measurement performed both before and during the diet were evaluated...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623167/the-ketogenic-diet-affects-the-social-behavior-of-young-male-rats
#5
Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Arkadiusz D Liśkiewicz, Marta M Nowacka-Chmielewska, Joanna Nowicka, Andrzej Małecki, Jarosław J Barski
The positive effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on social behavior have been recently reported in patients and rodent models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the beneficial effects of the KD on epilepsy, mitochondrial function, carbohydrate metabolism, and inflammation, treatment based on the KD has the potential to reduce some of the ASD-associated symptoms, including abnormal social interactions. It is not known whether the KD influences sociability by reducing the pathological processes underlying ASD or through some independent mechanism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620490/ketogenic-diet-predictors-of-seizure-control
#6
Nitin Agarwal, Dimitrios Arkilo, Osman Farooq, Cynthia Gillogly, Katelyn S Kavak, Arie Weinstock
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. METHODS: A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615892/molecular-genetics-of-epilepsy-a-clinician-s-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Vikas Dhiman
Epilepsy is a common neurological problem, and there is a genetic basis in almost 50% of people with epilepsy. The diagnosis of genetic epilepsies makes the patient assured of the reasons of his/her seizures and avoids unnecessary, expensive, and invasive investigations. Last decade has shown tremendous growth in gene sequencing technologies, which have made genetic tests available at the bedside. Whole exome sequencing is now being routinely used in the clinical setting for making a genetic diagnosis. Genetic testing not only makes the diagnosis but also has an effect on the management of the patients, for example, the role of sodium channels blockers in SCN1A+ Dravet syndrome patients and usefulness of ketogenic diet therapy in SLC2A1+ generalized epilepsy patients...
April 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608234/genomics-guided-precise-anti-epileptic-drug-development
#8
Norman Delanty, Gianpiero Cavallleri
Traditional antiepileptic drug development approaches have yielded many important clinically valuable anti-epileptic drugs. However, the screening of promising compounds has been naturally agnostic to epilepsy etiology in individual human patients. Now, genomic medicine is changing the way we view human disease. International collaborations are unraveling the many molecular genetic causes of the epilepsies, including the early onset epileptic encephalopathies, and some of the familial focal epilepsies. Further advances in precision diagnostics will be facilitated by ongoing large collaborations and the wider availability of whole exome and whole genome sequencing in clinical practice...
June 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605011/use-of-the-ketogenic-diet-to-manage-refractory-epilepsy-in-cdkl5-disorder-experience-of-100-patients
#9
Zhan Lim, Kingsley Wong, Heather E Olson, Ann M Bergin, Jenny Downs, Helen Leonard
OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants involving the CDKL5 gene result in a severe epileptic encephalopathy, often later presenting with features similar to Rett syndrome. Cardinal features of epilepsy in the CDKL5 disorder include early onset at a median age of 6 weeks and poor response to antiepileptic drugs. The ketogenic diet (KD) was first introduced in the 1920s as a treatment option for refractory epilepsy in children. This study investigated use of the KD in the CDKL5 disorder and its influences on seizures...
June 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604374/a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet-improves-weight-loss-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-adjustable-gastric-banding
#10
Marina Taus, Daniele Fumelli, Debora Busni, Francesca Borroni, Sonia Sebastianelli, Giulia Nicolai, Albano Nicolai
BACKGROUND: Often, in severe obesity, diet and physical activity are not enough to achieve a healthy BMI. Bariatric surgical approach, in particular laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), has encouraging results in terms of weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities. However, several months after LAGB, some patients are enable to lose weight anymore and don't tolerate a further calibration because of its collateral effects (excessive sense of fullness, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting)...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599043/ketones-and-human-performance
#11
Jonathan M Scott, Patricia A Deuster
Everyone is seeking nutritional strategies that might benefit performance. One approach receiving much attention is ketones, or ketosis. Ketones are very simple compounds made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, and ketosis is a metabolic state whereby the body uses predominantly ketones. Ketosis can be achieved by fasting for longer than 72 hours or by following a very lowcarbohydrate, high-fat diet (ketogenic diet) for several days to weeks. Alternatively, ketone supplements purportedly induce ketosis rapidly and do not require strict adherence to any specific type of diet; however, much of the touted benefits are anecdotal...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595792/various-ketogenic-diets-can-differently-support-brain-resistance-against-experimentally-evoked-seizures-and-seizure-induced-elemental-anomalies-of-hippocampal-formation
#12
J Chwiej, A Patulska, A Skoczen, K Matusiak, K Janeczko, M Ciarach, R Simon, Z Setkowicz
In this paper the influence of two different ketogenic diets (KDs) on the seizure-evoked elemental anomalies of hippocampal formation was examined. To achieve this purpose normal and pilocarpine treated rats previously fed with one of the two high fat and carbohydrate restricted diets were compared with animals on standard laboratory diet. The ketogenic ratios of the examined KDs were equal to 5:1 (KD1) and 9:1 (KD2). KD1 and standard diet fed animals presented similar patterns of seizure-evoked elemental changes in hippocampal formation...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588304/plasma-fgf21-levels-in-obese-patients-undergoing-energy-restricted-diets-or-bariatric-surgery-a-marker-of-metabolic-stress
#13
A B Crujeiras, D Gomez-Arbelaez, M A Zulet, M C Carreira, I Sajoux, D de Luis, A I Castro, J Baltar, I Baamonde, A Sueiro, M Macias-Gonzalez, D Bellido, F J Tinahones, J A Martinez, F F Casanueva
CONTEXT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested to be an endocrine signal of nutritional status and an active regulator of metabolism. However, there is no agreement on the effect of weight loss therapies on circulating levels of FGF21 in humans. OBJECTIVE: To assess FGF21 circulating levels in adiposity excess and after different weight loss strategies prescribed in five different groups from 4 independent centers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body composition, ketosis, insulin sensitivity and FGF21 were evaluated in 181 excess body weight and 14 normal-weight subjects...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588221/ketogenic-diet-induces-expression-of-the-muscle-circadian-gene-slc25a25-via-neural-pathway-that-might-be-involved-in-muscle-thermogenesis
#14
Reiko Nakao, Shigeki Shimba, Katsutaka Oishi
We recently found that the mRNA expression of Slc25a25, a Ca(2+)-sensitive ATP carrier in the inner mitochondrial membrane, fluctuates in a circadian manner in mouse skeletal muscle. We showed here that the circadian expression of muscle Slc25a25 was damped in Clock mutant, muscle-specific Bmal1-deficient, and global Bmal1-deficient mice. Furthermore, a ketogenic diet (KD) that induces time-of-day-dependent hypothermia (torpor), induced Slc25a25 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Hypothermia induced by KD did not affect thermogenic genes such as Sarcolipin and Pgc1a in muscles and Ucp1 in adipose tissues...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587136/use-of-the-ketogenic-diet-to-treat-intractable-epilepsy-in-mitochondrial-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Eleni Paleologou, Naila Ismayilova, Maria Kinali
Mitochondrial disorders are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders that are caused by defects in the respiratory chain, the metabolic pathway of the adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) production system. Epilepsy is a common and important feature of these disorders and its management can be challenging. Epileptic seizures in the context of mitochondrial disease are usually treated with conventional anti-epileptic medication, apart from valproic acid. However, in accordance with the treatment of intractable epilepsy where there are limited treatment options, the ketogenic diet (KD) has been considered as an alternative therapy...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584617/tumor-cells-growth-and-survival-time-with-the-ketogenic-diet-in-animal-models-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Soheila Khodadadi, Nafiseh Sobhani, Somaye Mirshekar, Reza Ghiasvand, Makan Pourmasoumi, Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh
Recently, interest in targeted cancer therapies via metabolic pathways has been renewed with the discovery that many tumors become dependent on glucose uptake during anaerobic glycolysis. Also the inability of ketone bodies metabolization due to various deficiencies in mitochondrial enzymes is the major metabolic changes discovered in malignant cells. Therefore, administration of a ketogenic diet (KD) which is based on high in fat and low in carbohydrates might inhibit tumor growth and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579059/neuroketotherapeutics-a-modern-review-of-a-century-old-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Scott J Koppel, Russell H Swerdlow
Neuroketotherapeutics represent a class of bioenergetic medicine therapies that feature the induction of ketosis. These therapies include medium-chain triglyceride supplements, ketone esters, fasting, strenuous exercise, the modified Atkins diet, and the classic ketogenic diet. Extended experience reveals persons with epilepsy, especially pediatric epilepsy, benefit from ketogenic diets although the mechanisms that underlie its effects remain unclear. Data indicate ketotherapeutics enhance mitochondrial respiration, promote neuronal long-term potentiation, increase BDNF expression, increase GPR signaling, attenuate oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and alter protein post-translational modifications via lysine acetylation and β-hydroxybutyrylation...
June 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556183/a-simple-blood-test-expedites-the-diagnosis-of-glut1-deficiency-syndrome
#18
Domitille Gras, Christelle Cousin, Caroline Kappeler, Cheuk-Wing Fung, Stéphane Auvin, Nouha Essid, Brian Hy Chung, Lydie Da Costa, Elodie Hainque, Marie-Pierre Luton, Vincent Petit, Sandrine Vuillaumier-Barrot, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Emmanuel Roze, Fanny Mochel
GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) leads to a wide range of neurological symptoms. Ketogenic diets are very efficient to control epilepsy and movement disorders. We tested a novel simple and rapid blood test in 30 patients with GLUT1-DS with predominant movement disorders, 18 patients with movement disorders due to other genetic defects and 346 healthy controls. We detected significantly reduced GLUT1 expression only on red blood cells from patients with GLUT1-DS (23 patients, 78%), including patients with inconclusive genetic analysis...
May 26, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555877/synergistic-protection-against-acute-flurothyl-induced-seizures-by-adjuvant-treatment-of-the-ketogenic-diet-with-the-type-2-diabetes-drug-pioglitazone
#19
Timothy A Simeone, Stephanie A Matthews, Kristina A Simeone
OBJECTIVE: We have previously found that the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) contributes to the mechanism of action of the ketogenic diet (KD), an established treatment for pediatric refractory epilepsy. We have found that the KD increases brain PPARγ and that inhibition or genetic loss of PPARγ prevents the antiseizure effects of the KD on (1) acutely induced seizures in nonepileptic mice and (2) spontaneous recurrent seizures in epileptic mice...
May 28, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555095/nutritional-ketosis-affects-metabolism-and-behavior-in-sprague-dawley-rats-in-both-control-and-chronic-stress-environments
#20
Milene L Brownlow, Seung H Jung, Raquel J Moore, Naomi Bechmann, Ryan Jankord
Nutritional ketosis may enhance cerebral energy metabolism and has received increased interest as a way to improve or preserve performance and resilience. Most studies to date have focused on metabolic or neurological disorders while anecdotal evidence suggests that ketosis may enhance performance in the absence of underlying dysfunction. Moreover, decreased availability of glucose in the brain following stressful events is associated with impaired cognition, suggesting the need for more efficient energy sources...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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