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Ketogenic diet

Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Ludovica Pasca, Roberto H Caraballo, Valentina De Giorgis, J Gabriela Reyes, Joyce A Macasaet, Silvia Masnada, Marisa Armeno, Massimo Musicco, Anna Tagliabue, Pierangelo Veggiotti
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) as a treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy secondary to malformations of cortical development. METHODS: A two-centre retrospective analysis of 45 paediatric patients with refractory epilepsy due to malformation of cortical development was carried out. Patients were divided into three groups based on malformation type: abnormal neural proliferation (Group 1); abnormal neural migration (Group 2) and abnormal post-migrational development (Group 3)...
March 8, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Jinpeng Li, Megumi Kanasaki, Ling Xu, Munehiro Kitada, Kenji Nagao, Yusuke Adachi, Hiroko Jinzu, Yasushi Noguchi, Miyuki Kohno, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
Muscle biology is important topic in diabetes research. We have reported that a diet with ketogenic amino acids rich replacement (KAAR) ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatosteatosis via activation of the autophagy system. Here, we found that a KAAR ameliorated the mitochondrial morphological alterations and associated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by an HFD through induction of the AKT/4EBP1 and autophagy signaling pathways in both fast and slow muscles. The mice were fed with a standard HFD (30% fat in food) or an HFD with KAAR (HFDKAAR )...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dorothy W Gietzen, Sarah H Lindström, James W Sharp, Pok Swee Teh, Michael J Donovan
Background: Low protein amounts are used in ketogenic diets (KDs), where an essential (indispensable) amino acid (IAA) can become limiting. Because the chemically sensitive, seizurogenic, anterior piriform cortex (APC) is excited by IAA limitation, an imbalanced KD could exacerbate seizure activity. Objective: We questioned whether dietary IAA depletion worsens seizure activity in rodents fed KDs. Methods: In a series of 6 trials, male rats or gerbils of both sexes (6-8/group) were given either control diets (CDs) appropriate for each trial, a KD, or a threonine-devoid (ThrDev) diet for ≥7 d, and tested for seizures using various stimuli...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Fred Brouns
In the past, different types of diet with a generally low-carbohydrate content (< 50-< 20 g/day) have been promoted, for weight loss and diabetes, and the effectiveness of a very low dietary carbohydrate content has always been a matter of debate. A significant reduction in the amount of carbohydrates in the diet is usually accompanied by an increase in the amount of fat and to a lesser extent, also protein. Accordingly, using the term "low carb-high fat" (LCHF) diet is most appropriate...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Piero Perucca, Ingrid E Scheffer, Michelle Kiley
The International League Against Epilepsy has recently published a new classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies to reflect the major scientific advances in our understanding of the epilepsies since the last formal classification 28 years ago. The classification emphasises the importance of aetiology, which allows the optimisation of management. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the main approach to epilepsy treatment and achieve seizure freedom in about two-thirds of patients. More than 15 second generation AEDs have been introduced since the 1990s, expanding opportunities to tailor treatment for each patient...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
M Armeno, C Araujo, B Sotomontesano, R H Caraballo
INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet is a non-pharmacological treatment that has been used as a therapeutic alternative for the management of refractory epilepsy since 1921. It is a diet, high in fats and low in carbohydrates, which is used to treat paediatric refractory epilepsy, and is effective in around 50% of the patients that begin to follow it. It is a nutrition plan that is imbalanced in terms of both macro- and micro-nutrients, which can give rise to nutritional deficits in energy, proteins, minerals and vitamins, as well as an excess of lipids...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Thomas Møhl, Maria J Miranda
Ketogenic diet (KD) has for a long time been known as an effective treatment for medically intractable epilepsy. However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Recent work indicates, that several mechanisms exist for KD, including neurotransmitter regulation, glucose restriction, effects of fatty acids, altered mitochondrial function and mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Revealing the mechanisms of KD provides a better insight in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and helps the development of new treatments of epilepsy and other neurological disorders...
March 5, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Kenneth A Schwartz, Mary Noel, Michele Nikolai, Howard T Chang
Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8-15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD) as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Xin-Na Ji, Cui-Juan Xu, Zhi-Jie Gao, Shu-Hua Chen, Ke-Ming Xu, Qian Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS), as well as the diagnostic value of movement disorders. METHODS: The clinical data of four children with GLUT1-DS were collected, and their clinical features, treatment, and follow-up results were analyzed. RESULTS: There were two boys and two girls, with an age of onset of 2-15 months. Clinical manifestations included movement disorders, seizures, and developmental retardation...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Naila Ismayilova, Mary-Anne Leung, Ravi Kumar, Martin Smith, Ruth E Williams
PURPOSE: The Ketogenic Diet (KD) is a well-established treatment for epilepsy in children and adults. We describe our 10-year KD experience in children less than two years of age diagnosed with medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-note review of infants managed with KD at our centre between 2006 and 2016. RESULTS: Twenty-nine children between 2½ weeks and 23 months of age were identified, with mixed epilepsy aetiologies...
March 2, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
P Peng, X L Deng, L F Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. AIM: To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Luigi Schiavo, Vincenzo Pilone, Gianluca Rossetti, Alfonso Barbarisi, Manuela Cesaretti, Antonio Iannelli
BACKGROUND: Before bariatric surgery (BS), moderate weight loss, left hepatic lobe volume reduction, and micronutrient deficiency (MD) identification and correction are desirable. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the safety and the effectiveness of a 4-week preoperative ketogenic micronutrient-enriched diet (KMED) in reducing body weight (BW), left hepatic lobe volume, and correcting MD in patients scheduled for BS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective pilot study, a cohort of morbidly obese patients (n = 27, 17 females, 10 males) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 45...
March 3, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Makoto Nishioka, Yuji Inaba, Mitsuo Motobayashi, Yosuke Hara, Ryusuke Numata, Yoshiro Amano, Kunihiko Shingu, Yoichiro Yamamoto, Kei Murayama, Akira Ohtake, Yozo Nakazawa
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction results in a wide range of organ disorders through diverse genetic abnormalities. We herein present the detailed clinical course of an infant admitted for extensive, rapidly progressing white matter lesions and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to a BOLA3 gene mutation. CASE: A 6-month-old girl with no remarkable family or past medical history until 1 month prior presented with developmental regression and feeding impairment...
February 28, 2018: Brain & Development
Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Gianluca Coppola, Davide Di Lenola, Maurizio Evangelista, Giulio Sirianni, Paolo Rossi, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Mariano Serrao, Francesco Pierelli
Introduction: Drug-resistant cluster headache (CH) is still an open clinical challenge. Recently, our group observed the clinical efficacy of a ketogenic diet (KD), usually adopted to treat drug-resistant epilepsies, on migraine. Aim: Here, we aim to detect the effect of KD in a group of drug-resistant chronic CH (CCH) patients. Materials and methods: Eighteen drug-resistant CCH patients underwent a 12-week KD (Modified Atkins Diet, MAD), and the clinical response was evaluated in terms of response (≥50% attack reduction)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Meiyuan Zhang, Weilan Sun, Jin Qian, Yan Tang
Liver coordinates a series of metabolic adaptations to maintain systemic energy balance and provide adequate nutrients for critical organs, tissues and cells during starvation. However, the mediator(s) implicated in orchestrating these fasting-induced adaptive responses and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still obscure. Here we show that hepatic growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is regulated by IRE1α-XBP1s branch and promotes hepatic fatty acids β-oxidation and ketogenesis upon fasting. GDF15 expression was exacerbated in liver of mice subjected to long-term fasted or ketogenic diet feeding...
February 1, 2018: Redox Biology
Nicolas Gaspard, Lawrence J Hirsch, Claudine Sculier, Tobias Loddenkemper, Andreas van Baalen, Judette Lancrenon, Michel Emmery, Nicola Specchio, Raquel Farias-Moeller, Nora Wong, Rima Nabbout
We report the proceedings of the First International new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) Symposium. To promote awareness of this condition and foster research efforts, we conveyed the First International new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) Symposium. The conference was supported by The NORSE Institute ( This article summarizes the discussions that were held during the Symposium and presents our strategy to unravel the cause of these disorders and to improve patient care...
February 24, 2018: Epilepsia
Brendan Egan
The ketone bodies acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) and acetone are small, lipid-derived molecules that are generated during ketogenesis, a process that is amplified during fasting, starvation, ketogenic diets, and prolonged glycogen-depleting exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology
A I Duarte, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes a major socioeconomic challenge due to its disabling features and the rise in prevalence (especially among (peri)menopausal women and type 2 diabetes patients). The precise etiopathogenesis of AD remains poorly understood. Importantly, its neurodegenerative perspective has been challenged towards a more "systemic" view. Amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau protein (P-Tau) (the main AD neuropathological features) affect and are affected by peripheral and brain insulin signalling dysfunction, leading to glucose dysmetabolism, synaptic loss and AD-related cognitive deficits...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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