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Fátima Rubio-Senent, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, Aránzazu García-Borrego, Antonio Lama-Muñoz, Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez
The application of a novel industrial process based on the hydrothermal treatment of olive oil waste (alperujo) led to a final liquid phase that contained a high concentration of simple phenolic compounds. In this study the effect of pH on phenol extraction with ethyl acetate from the aqueous phase of hydrothermally treated alperujo at 160°C/60min (without modification, pH 4.5, and adjusted to pH 2.5) was evaluated, beside the increase of hydroxytyrosol during the storage. The variation of the concentration of phenolic compounds in each extract was analyzed by HPLC...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Silvia Tejada, Samuel Pinya, Maria Del Mar Bibiloni, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons, Antoni Sureda
The Mediterranean diet includes olive oil as its primary source of fat. This diet is frequently associated to longevity and a lower incidence of chronic diseases thanks to its biological activities and health effects. Apart from oleic acid, olive oil contains many bioactive components including polyphenols that have been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polyphenols may for the most part be responsible for the protective effects against cardiovascular diseases associated with olive oil...
October 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Lynda Medjkouh, Abderezak Tamendjari, Rita C Alves, Mariana Araújo, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
Bactrocera oleae, an olive fruit fly, is a major olive pest in Algeria. In this study, olives of two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Métidja) with different degrees of infestation by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real %) were analysed. The influence of this pest on individual phenolic compounds (HPLC-DAD-FLD) and antioxidant profiles was ascertained. The antibacterial activity against 8 human enteropathogenic bacteria was also assessed. The results show that Rougette de Métidja, the cultivar with higher drupe size, was attacked to a greater degree than Limli, and the B...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
R Fabiani
Epidemiological studies suggest that olive oil intake is associated to a reduced risk of cancer. Recently, the chemopreventive activity of olive oil has been attributed to its unique phenolic compounds represented by phenolic alcohols, hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol: 3,4-DHPEA) and tyrosol (p-hydroxyphenylethanol: p-HPEA), and their secoiridoid derivatives 3,4-DHPEA-EA (oleuropein aglycon), p-HPEA-EA (ligstroside aglycon), 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA (oleocanthal), and oleuropein. Several studies have demonstrated that these compounds are able to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in different tumor cell lines...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Boutheina Gargouri, Olfa Dridi Gargouri, Ibtihel Khmakhem, Sonda Ammar, Ridha Abdelhèdi, Mohamed Bouaziz
Table olive processing wastewater (TOW) is a notoriously polluting due to its high organic and phenol content. To reduce them, an electrochemical process has been studied for the treatment of this effluent. Experiments were performed with a cell equipped with lead dioxide (PbO2) or boron-doped diamond (BDD) as anode and platinum as cathode, where Table Olive Wastewater (TOW) were destroyed by hydroxyl radicals formed at the anode surface from water oxidation. The comparative study of both systems shows the performance of the BDD anode compared to PbO2, explained by the large amounts of hydroxyl radicals generated effective at BDD anode and its synthesis characteristics...
January 2017: Chemosphere
José Julio Reyes, Beatriz Villanueva, Juan Antonio López-Villodres, José Pedro De La Cruz, Lidia Romero, María Dolores Rodríguez-Pérez, Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, José Antonio González-Correa
The aim of this study was to determine whether the administration of hydroxytyrosol (HT) to diabetic animals exerts a neuroprotective effect on brain damage in a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation. Rats (10 per group) were distributed in five groups: nondiabetic rats, control diabetic rats (DR), and DR rats treated for 2 months with 1, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day p.o. HT. At the end of follow-up an experimental model of hypoxia-reoxygenation in brain slices was tested. The DR group showed increased cell death, oxidative and nitrosative stress and an increase in brain inflammatory mediators...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
L M Bedoya, M Beltrán, P Obregón-Calderón, J García-Pérez, E de la Torre, N González, M Pérez-Olmeda, D Auñón, L Capa, E Gómez-Acebo, J Alcami
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the toxicity and activity against HIV of 5-hydroxytyrosol (5-HT) as a potential microbicide. DESIGN: The anti-HIV-1 activity of 5-HT, a polyphenolic compound, was tested against wild-type HIV-1 and viral clones resistant to NRTIs, NNRTIs, PIs and INIs. Besides, its activity against founder viruses, different viral subtypes and potential synergy with TDF, 3TC and FTC was also tested. 5-HT toxicity was evaluated in vivo in rabbit vaginal mucosa...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Jose Rodríguez-Morató, Patricia Robledo, Julie-Anne Tanner, Anna Boronat, Clara Pérez-Mañá, C-Y Oliver Chen, Rachel F Tyndale, Rafael de la Torre
The dietary phenol tyrosol has been reported to be endogenously transformed into hydroxytyrosol, a potent antioxidant with multiple health benefits. In this work, we evaluated whether tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cytochrome P450s (CYPs) catalyzed this process. To assess TH involvement, Wistar rats were treated with α-methyl-L-tyrosine and tyrosol. Tyrosol was converted into hydroxytyrosol whilst α-methyl-L-tyrosine did not inhibit the biotransformation. The role of CYP was assessed in human liver microsomes (HLM) and tyrosol-to-hydroxytyrosol conversion was observed...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Marta Navarro, Francisco J Morales
The antiglycative activity of hydroxytyrosol (HT) and olive leaf extract (OLE) was investigated in wheat-flour biscuits. Quercetin (QE) and gallic acid (GA) were used as reference of antiglycative activity of phenolic compounds. HT, OLE, QE and GA were added in the range of 0.25-0.75% (w/w). Samples were compared against a control recipe baked at 180°C/20min. HT biscuit was able to inhibit efficiently the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), as well as reduced the formation of overall free fluorescent AGEs and pentosidine...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Juan Antonio López-Villodres, Miriam Abdel-Karim, José Pedro De La Cruz, María Dolores Rodríguez-Pérez, José Julio Reyes, Rocío Guzmán-Moscoso, Guillermo Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, José Antonio González-Correa
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of hydroxytyrosol (HT) on cardiovascular biomarkers and morphometric parameters of the arterial wall in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Seven groups of rats (N=10 per group) were studied for 2 months: nondiabetic rats (NDR), diabetic rats treated with saline (DR) and DR treated with HT (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.). DR had higher platelet aggregation values, higher thromboxane B2, plasma lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), myeloperoxidase, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations, and lower aortic 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α and nitric oxide production than NDR...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
K Jung, R J C Everson, B Joshi, P A Bulsara, R Upasani, M J Clarke
OBJECTIVES: The present work analyzed the antioxidative activity of phenol-based antioxidants by using an Electron Spin Resonance method to predict the activity and stability of these antioxidants in cosmetic products. METHODS: The Antioxidative Power (AP) method was chosen to measure both the capacity and kinetics of an antioxidative reaction by detecting the DPPH (diphenylpicrylhydrazyl) radical. The antioxidative capacity (wc ) relates to the amount of free radicals that can be reduced, whereas the antioxidative reactivity (tr ) relates to the reaction speed and offers a fingerprinting of the redox state of the antioxidant molecules...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
V Calabrese, J Giordano, M Ruggieri, D Berritta, A Trovato, M L Ontario, R Bianchini, E J Calabrese
In the United States, 1.1-1.5% of children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), corresponding to a 30% increase in incidence and prevalence. Social and communication impairments are the main signs and symptoms of ASD, and currently available medications have been ineffective in reducing these core deficits. Observational studies have indicated that children with ASD tend to show improved cognition and behavior after febrile illness, which is associated with alteration of metabolic pathways, leading to cellular stress responses and increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps)...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Elsa Mével, Christophe Merceron, Claire Vinatier, Stéphanie Krisa, Tristan Richard, Martial Masson, Julie Lesoeur, Vincent Hivernaud, Olivier Gauthier, Jérôme Abadie, Geoffroy Nourissat, Xavier Houard, Yohann Wittrant, Nelly Urban, Laurent Beck, Jérôme Guicheux
Polyphenols exert a large range of beneficial effects in the prevention of age-related diseases. We sought to determine whether an extract of olive and grape seed standardized according to hydroxytyrosol (HT) and procyanidins (PCy) content, exerts preventive anti-osteoathritic effects. To this aim, we evaluated whether the HT/PCy mix could (i) have in vitro anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective actions, (ii) exert anti-osteoarthritis effects in two post-traumatic animal models and (iii) retain its bioactivity after oral administration...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yang Li, Ying Peng, Mengyue Wang, Guisheng Zhou, Yulong Zhang, Xiaobo Li
Cistanches Herba is a famous traditional Chinese medicine that has been in use for treating kidney deficiency, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia, and senile constipation. With the exception of studies available for a few single active ingredients such as echinacoside, acteoside, and poliumoside, comprehensive and systematic studies on in vivo metabolism of Cistanches Herba are lacking despite its widespread clinical application. There is no comparative study yet on the metabolites resulting from the traditional usage of Cistanche deserticola and C...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Klaus Teichmann, Maxime Kuliberda, Gerd Schatzmayr, Thomas Pacher, Karin Zitterl-Eglseer, Anja Joachim, Franz Hadacek
Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI)...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
G Toteda, S Lupinacci, D Vizza, R Bonofiglio, E Perri, M Bonofiglio, D Lofaro, A La Russa, F Leone, P Gigliotti, R A Cifarelli, A Perri
PURPOSE: Recent evidences indicates that hydroxytyrosol, one of the main olive oil phenols, possess antitumor effects because of its pro-oxidant properties and the capacity to inhibit proliferation and to promote apoptosis in several tumor cell lines, although most of the results were obtained for breast and digestive systems cancers. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the activities of hydroxytyrosol against papillary (TPC-1, FB-2) and follicular (WRO) thyroid cancer cell lines...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Yiu Yiu Lee, Céline Crauste, Hualin Wang, Ho Hang Leung, Joseph Vercauteren, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Thierry Durand, Jennifer Man-Fan Wan, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee
The effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress in rats were determined by the generation of isoprostanoids. These are known to be robust biomarkers to evaluate nonenzymatic and free radical related oxidation. Other oxidative stress biomarkers such as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (HETEs) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were also determined. The rodents received a control diet, high-fat diet (20% w/w) composed of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), corn oil (CO), or lard, and high-fat diets with CCl4 insult throughout the experimental period...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Shiow-Fern Ng, Leong-Seng Tan, Fhataheya Buang
Previous studies have shown that hydroxytyrosol (HT) can be a potential alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, HT is extensively metabolized following oral administration, which leads to formulating HT in a topical vehicle to prolong drug action as well as to provide a localized effect. Hidrox-6 is a freeze-dried powder derived from fresh olives and contains a high amount of HT (∼3%) and other polyphenols. Alginate bilayer films containing 5% and 10% Hidrox-6 were formulated...
September 2, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Marta Navarro, Lisa Atzenbeck, Monika Pischetsrieder, Francisco J Morales
α-Dicarbonyl compounds are intermediates in reactions that lead to the formation of potentially harmful advanced glycation end-products. Carbonyl-trapping capacities of antiglycative substances have been traditionally limited to C2 and C3 α-dicarbonyl structures. Glyoxal (GO)-, methylglyoxal (MGO)-, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG)-, 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal)-, 3,4-dideoxyglucoson-3-ene-, and glucosone-trapping capacities of hydroxytyrosol (HT), hydroxytyrosol acetate (HTA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in simple (phenolic/dicarbonyl) and competitive model systems (phenolic/dicarbonyl1/dicarbonyl2) were investigated...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Angela Bonura, Sara Vlah, Alessandra Longo, Matteo Bulati, Mario R Melis, Fabio Cibella, Paolo Colombo
Several papers have demonstrated the importance of substances from natural sources which can exert powerful anti-inflammatory effects. In this respect, hydroxytyrosol, one of the major elements of the phenolic components of olive oil, has been extensively studied for its anti-inflammatory activities and safety profile. In this report, we demonstrate that the co-stimulation of human PBMCs from healthy subjects with the Par j 1 allergen and hydroxytyrosol induced a statistically significant increase in the amount of Par j 1-induced IL-10, demonstrating that hydroxytyrosol can modulate an allergen-specific immune response potentiating a suppressive immune response towards an allergen...
July 25, 2016: Immunobiology
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