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Kazuyuki Sogawa, Mika Kobayashi, Jun Suzuki, Akihiro Sanda, Yoshio Kodera, Masafumi Fukuyama
 Group A streptococcus is a bacterium that resides in the throat and skin and causes respiratory infection and occasionally glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Streptolysin O (SLO) produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) binds to the cell membrane, particularly to that of white and red blood cells, and is toxic to the cells and tissue. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activity of water-soluble polyphenols in olives (Olea europaea) against SLO-induced hemolysis. Hydroxytyrosol inhibited SLO-induced hemolytic activity, and the amount required for 50% inhibition of hemolysis was 1...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Nadia Calabriso, Antonio Gnoni, Eleonora Stanca, Alessandro Cavallo, Fabrizio Damiano, Luisa Siculella, Maria Annunziata Carluccio
Mitochondria are fundamental organelles producing energy and reactive oxygen species (ROS); their impaired functions play a key role in endothelial dysfunction. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a well-known olive oil antioxidant, exerts health benefits against vascular diseases by improving endothelial function. However, the HT role in mitochondrial oxidative stress in endothelial dysfunction is not clear yet. To investigate the HT effects on mitochondrial ROS production in the inflamed endothelium, we used an in vitro model of endothelial dysfunction represented by cultured endothelial cells, challenged with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an inflammatory, prooxidant, and proangiogenic agent...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Arbace Officioso, Lucia Panzella, Fabiana Tortora, Maria Laura Alfieri, Alessandra Napolitano, Caterina Manna
Oxidative stress is one of the underlying mechanisms of the toxic effects exerted by mercury (Hg) on human health. Several antioxidant compounds, including the olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol (HT), were investigated for their protective action. Recently, we have reported that 5- S -lipoylhydroxytyrosol (Lipo-HT) has shown increased antioxidant activities compared to HT and exerted potent protective effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative damage in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Fátima Rubio-Senent, Antonio Gómez-Carretero, Inés Maya, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, Garry G Duthie, Baukje de Roos
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of modified phenols synthesized from hydroxytyrosol, a natural olive oil phenol, specifically those containing a selenium or sulphur group, to inhibit lipid peroxidation. METHODS: The compounds' abilities to inhibit lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes obtained from vitamin E-deficient rats were compared to hydroxytyrosol. RESULTS: All synthetic compounds had a significant higher ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation than hydroxytyrosol...
May 28, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Carlos Afonso, Lidia A S Cavaca, Catarina A B Rodrigues, Svilen P Simeonov, Rafael F A Gomes, Jaime A S Coelho, Gustavo P Romanelli, Angel G Sathicq, José J Martínez
The acid-promoted methanolysis of Oleuropein was studied using a variety of homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts. Exclusive cleavage of the acetal bond between the glucoside and the monoterpene subunits or further hydrolysis of the hydroxytyrosol ester and subsequent intramolecular rearrangement were observed upon identification of the most efficient catalyst and experimental conditions. Furthermore, selected conditions were tested using Oleuropein under continuous flow and using a crude mixture extracted from olive leaves under batch...
May 28, 2018: ChemSusChem
Serena Martini, Martina Cavalchi, Angela Conte, Davide Tagliazucchi
Extra-virgin olive oil is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet and its consumption has been associated with a reduction risk of chronic diseases. Here we tested the potential of extra-virgin olive oil to limit the oxidative phenomena during in vitro gastro-intestinal co-digestion with turkey breast meat. The extra-virgin olive oil was particularly rich in oleuropein aglycone isomers, which represented the 66.8% of total phenolic determined with MS/MS experiments. Meals supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil equivocally affected lipid peroxidation...
July 2018: Food Research International
Nicola Cicero, Ambrogina Albergamo, Andrea Salvo, Giuseppe Daniel Bua, Giovanni Bartolomeo, Valentina Mangano, Archimede Rotondo, Vita Di Stefano, Giuseppa Di Bella, Giacomo Dugo
Different specialty extra virgin oils, produced by cold-pressing fruits/nuts (olive, pequi, palm, avocado, coconut, macadamia and Brazil nut) and seeds (grapeseed and canola), and retailed in the Brazilian region of Minas Gerais, were chemically characterized. Specifically, for each type of oil, the fatty acid composition was elucidated by GC-FID, the contents of selected polyphenols and squalene were determined respectively by UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-PDA, whereas minerals were explored by means of ICP-MS. Olive oil was confirmed to have the highest MUFA content due to a valuable level of oleic acid, while oils from grapeseed, Brazil nut and canola were marked by nutritionally important PUFA levels...
July 2018: Food Research International
Rita Celano, Anna Lisa Piccinelli, Alessando Pugliese, Sonia Carabetta, Rosa Di Sanzo, Luca Rastrelli, Mariateresa Russo
Extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) containing more than 5 mg/20 g of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and their secoiridoids can be recognized with the health claim related to the protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress. Therefore, a reliable, accurate and standardized analytical procedure is needed to determine these markers of EVOO quality. In order to overcome the limitations of current methods, a detailed investigation of sample preparation and chromatographic conditions was performed by UHPLC-UV-HRMS. The use of C18 fused-core column and a non-acidified gradient elution provided single sharp peaks for oleocanthal and oleacein, allowing their reliable quantitation in UV profile...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Maria Carmen Lopez de Las Hazas, Laura Rubio, Alba Macia, Maria Jose Motilva
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and its derivatives represent the minor components of virgin olive oil (VOO) that are of great interest for their pharmacological properties and among the most widely researched natural antioxidant compounds. In this review, the occurrence and metabolic fate of HT and its precursors are presented prior to discussing its beneficial effects on health. Bioavailability studies show that the metabolites detected in plasma depend on the model used (animal or human), the HT source (simple molecule or complex precursors) and the dose administered...
May 21, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Asma Mahmoudi, Fatma Hadrich, Ines Feki, Hela Ghorbel, Zouhaier Bouallagui, Rim Marrekchi, Hela Fourati, Sami Sayadi
In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of oleuropein- and hydroxytyrosol-rich extracts obtained from olive leaves against bisphenol A (BPA)-induced hyperlipidemia and liver injury in male rats. For this purpose, four groups of male rats (8 per group) were used: control group (Control), rats treated with BPA, rats treated with both BPA and oleuropein (OLE-BPA), and rats treated with both BPA and hydroxytyrosol (HYT-BPA). After 60 days of treatment, the results obtained using the DXA technique showed that treatment with BPA (10 mg per kg b...
May 21, 2018: Food & Function
Francesca Luzi, Elena Fortunati, Alessandro Di Michele, Elisa Pannucci, Ermelinda Botticella, Luca Santi, José Maria Kenny, Luigi Torre, Roberta Bernini
Novel ternary films have been realized by using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as polymeric matrix, nanostructured starch as reinforcement phase and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), a low-molecular phenolic compound present in olive oil, as antioxidant agent. Nanostructured starch, in the form of starch nanocrystals (NC) and nanoparticles (NP) obtained by acid hydrolysis and ultrasound irradiation of starch derived from the bread wheat variety Cadenza (WT, amylose content 33%) and a derived-high amylose line (HA, amylose content 75%), was considered...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Syed Haris Omar, Christopher J Scott, Adam S Hamlin, Hassan K Obied
The focus of this study was on inhibition of enzymes involved in the pathogenesis Alzheimer's disease (AD) including prime amyloid beta (Aβ) producing enzyme (β-secretase: BACE-1) and disease progression enzymes including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), histone deacetylase (HDAC), and tyrosinase along with the catecholamine L-DOPA, by using olive biophenols. Here we report the strongest inhibition of BACE-1 from rutin (IC50 : 3.8 nM) followed by verbascoside (IC50 : 6.3 nM) and olive fruit extract (IC50 : 18 ng), respectively...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
A Voltes, A Bermúdez, G Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, M L Reyes, C Olano, J Fernández-Bolaños, F de la Portilla
PURPOSE: Evaluate the efficacy of hydroxytyrosol in the local treatment of inflammatory colitis. Currently, the existing treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases does not cure the disease and it is associated with high rates of side effects and complications. Hydroxytyrosol is a phenyl-ethyl-alcohol derived from the hydrolysis of oleuropein and present in olive oil, previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of dietary hydroxytyrosol supplement, with no toxicity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Ziosi Paolo, Paolucci Claudio, Santarelli Francesco, Tabanelli Tommaso, Passeri Sauro, Fabrizio Cavani, Righi Paolo
Here we report about a new process for the synthesis of hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol), the most powerful natural antioxidant currently known, by means of a two-step approach. Catechol is first reacted with 2,2 dimethoxyacetaldehyde in basic aqueous medium, to produce the corresponding mandelic derivative with > 90% conversion of the limiting reactant and about 70% selectivity to the desired para-hydroxyalkylated compound. Thereafter, the intermediate is hydrogenated to hydroxytyrosol using a Pd/C catalyst, with total conversion of the mandelic derivative and 68% selectivity...
May 14, 2018: ChemSusChem
Lixing Wu, Yuyu Xu, Zhijian Yang, Qing Feng
Myocardial infarction triggers massive biochemical changes, even cardiac cell death. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathology of myocardial infarction-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, myocardial cell line H9c2 cells were treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) to induce hypoxia. Isoproterenol was used for two successive days to induce myocardial infarction in SD rats. The cardioprotective effect of olive leaf extract (OLE) and its main constituent hydroxytyrosol and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
Niki Mougiou, Fotini Trikka, Emmanouil Trantas, Filippos Ververidis, Antonios Makris, Anagnostis Argiriou, Konstantinos E Vlachonasios
Olive tree is one of the most valuable crops cultivated for its oil that is rich in antioxidants. The beneficial effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol (HT), the most abundant and the most powerful antioxidant respectively, as well as tyrosol, HT's precursor molecule, are well studied however their biosynthetic pathways are not yet clarified. The transcriptome analysis of the young olive fruit, cultivar "Koroneiki", revealed transcripts of all the enzymes used to reconstitute the biosynthetic pathway of tyrosol and HT in other organisms...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Asma Yangui, Manef Abderrabba
Activated carbon coated with milk proteins was used for the removal and recovery of phenolic compounds from actual olive mill wastewater (OMW). The extraction of polyphenols using the new adsorbent based on natural coating agent has significant potential compared with traditional extraction methods, as it significantly increases the extraction yield (80%) and overall efficiencies of the process for total phenols (75.4%) and hydroxytyrosol (90.6%) which is the most valuable compound. Complete discussions on the adsorption isotherms, kinetic and thermodynamic were performed and the optimum adsorption variables were investigated using the response surface methodology and the central composite experimental design...
October 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ningning Wang, Yang Liu, Yanan Ma, Deliang Wen
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal organelle responsible for energy and nutrient management. Its dysfunction has been viewed in the context of obesity and related glucolipid metabolic disorders. However, therapeutic approaches to improve ER adaptation and systemic energy balance in obesity are limited. Thus, we examined whether hydroxytyrosol (HT), an important polyphenolic compound found in virgin olive oil, could correct the metabolic impairments in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Here, we found that HT gavage for 10 weeks significantly ameliorated glucose homeostasis and chronic inflammation and decreased hepatic steatosis in DIO mice...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
C Conde, B M Escribano, E Luque, M Aguilar-Luque, M Feijóo, J J Ochoa, M LaTorre, A I Giraldo, R Lillo, E Agüera, A Santamaría, I Túnez
This study has evaluated the effect of EVOO (Extra-Virgin olive oil), OA (oleic acid) and HT (hydroxytyrosol) in an induced model of MS through experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Dark Agouti 2-month old rats (25 males) were divided into five groups: (i) control group, (ii) EAE group, (iii) EAE+EVOO, (iv) EAE+HT, and (v) EAE+OA. At 65 days, the animals were sacrificed and the glutathione redox system and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein (LBP) products of the microbiota in brain, spinal cord, and blood were evaluated...
May 5, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Saad Al Fazazi, Rafael A Casuso, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Cristina Casals, Jesús R Huertas
Background: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a polyphenol found in olive oil that is known for its antioxidant effects. Here, we aimed to describe the effects of a low and high HT dose on the physical running capacity and redox state in both sedentary and exercised rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were allocated into 6 groups: sedentary (SED; n  = 10); SED consuming 20 mg/kg/d HT (SED20; n  = 7); SED consuming 300 mg/kg/d HT (SED300; n = 7); exercised (EXE; n = 10); EXE consuming 20 mg/kg/d HT (EXE20; n = 10) and EXE consuming 300 mg/kg/d HT (EXE300; n = 10)...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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