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Ethanol abuse, intoxication ethanol children

John E Donovan
The study of alcohol use by children ages 12 and younger has been very limited. This article summarizes information from U.S. national and statewide surveys on the prevalence of alcohol use among children in grades 6 and lower, data on health conditions wholly attributable to alcohol, the prevalence of children's treatment admissions for alcohol abuse, and their rates of presentation at emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Factors hampering the estimation of alcohol burden in this population include the lack of ongoing national surveys of alcohol use and problems in children, the hand-me-down nature of alcohol assessments in this population, and the lack of studies to establish whether there is a causal relationship between childhood-onset drinking and morbidity and mortality in adolescence and later in life that would permit determination of alcohol-attributable fractions...
2013: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
Halla Kamińska, Zachurzok-Buczyńska Agnieszka, Aneta Gawlik, Ewa Małecka-Tendera
The alcohol drinking at the young age is a risk factor of alcohol addiction later in life, and is connected with school problems, binge drinking, tobacco addiction, illegal drug use, violence, crime commitment, and risky sexual behaviors. Alcohol drinking in the last 12 months is declared by 78% Polish children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of admissions due to alcohol intoxication to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pediatric Center of Silesia and the identification of the risk factors of the acute alcohol intoxication among Polish children and adolescents...
2012: Przegla̧d Lekarski
J Carlijn van Gaal, Ronald Petru, Lilian T J Sie
A 6-month-old male infant with an unremarkable past medical history was admitted to the emergency department in an epileptic state. The seizures were resistant to treatment with conventional drugs. The child was sedated, intubated and admitted to the intensive care department. Despite extensive investigations no underlying disease was found. The seizures persisted and the child was repeatedly admitted to the hospital. Four months after the first presentation, ventricular fibrillation occurred from which the child was successfully resuscitated...
2010: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Jeffrey S Engel, Henry A Spiller
Alcohol-based hand sanitizers have become widely available because of widespread usage in schools, hospitals, and workplaces and by consumers. We report what we believe is the first unintentional ingestion in a small child producing significant intoxication. A 4-year-old 14-kg girl was brought to the emergency department with altered mental status after a history of ingesting an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Physical examination revealed an obtunded child with periods of hypoventilation and a hematoma in the central portion of her forehead from a fall at home that occurred after the ingestion...
July 2010: Pediatric Emergency Care
Magdaléna Kuzelová, Anna Harárová, Elena Ondriasová, Martin Wawruch, Rudolf Riedel, Marta Benedeková, Lászlo Kovács, Silvia Plaková
BACKGROUND: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the problem of children and adolescents taken to hospital with acute alcohol intoxication. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of children and adolescents aged <or= 18 years hospitalized with alcohol intoxication alone in the University Children's Hospital in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, during the years 1996-2005 and compared their characteristics between the first and the second 5-year time periods...
July 2009: Clinical Toxicology
John E Donovan
OBJECTIVE: Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) in children after consumption of different numbers of standard drinks of alcohol have not been estimated previously. The goal was to determine the number of drinks at each age that led to a BAC of > or =80 mg/dL, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criterion for binge drinking. METHODS: The updated Widmark equation to estimate BAC was modified to take account of the differing body composition (total body water) and accelerated rates of ethanol elimination of children...
June 2009: Pediatrics
Henrik H Hansen, Birte Krutz, Marco Sifringer, Vanya Stefovska, Petra Bittigau, Fritz Pragst, Giovanni Marsicano, Beat Lutz, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou
OBJECTIVE: Marijuana and alcohol are most widely abused drugs among women of reproductive age. Neurocognitive deficits have been reported in children whose mothers used marijuana during pregnancy. Maternal consumption of ethanol is known to cause serious developmental deficits METHODS: Infant rats and mice received systemic injections of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 1-10mg/kg) or the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 (1-10mg/kg), alone or in combination with subtoxic and toxic ethanol doses, and apoptotic neurodegeneration was studied in the brains RESULTS: Acute administration of THC (1-10mg/kg), the principal psychoactive cannabinoid of marijuana, markedly enhanced proapoptotic properties of ethanol in the neonatal rat brain...
July 2008: Annals of Neurology
G M Palano, A D Praticò, E R Praticò, A D'Agata, C Carpinato, F Sottile, G Distefano
Fetus damages due to alcohol abuse in pregnancy, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), are widely documented in the literature, whereas short and long term clinical signs of acute alcohol intoxication in newborn babies are poorly described. In our study we describe the case of a 30-day-old newborn baby erroneously fed with 70 mL of white wine in place of the water for milk dilution. The baby clinical features were torpor, tremors, slight fever without metabolic anomalies typical of classic acute alcohol intoxication such as hypoglycemia, hypothermia, metabolic acidosis and coma...
June 2007: Minerva Pediatrica
S E Maier, J A Miller, J R West
Children of women who abuse alcohol during pregnancy may be affected by varying degrees of neurological abnormality, even if they are not diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The extent of the behavioral deficits of the affected offspring may be a function of several factors, such as the differential vulnerability of the various regions of the brain-to-alcohol insult. In this study, groups of timed-pregnant rats were exposed to different doses of alcohol (EtOH 2.25, EtOH 4.5, EtOH 6.5 g/kg/day) or control conditions (maltose dextrin solution or no treatment) from embryonic day 1 (E1: sperm positive) to E20...
May 1999: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
H E Perry, R O Wright, M W Shannon, A D Woolf
BACKGROUND: Baclofen, a lipophilic analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid, is clinically used to control spasticity. We report a mass exposure to baclofen in adolescents seeking intoxication; toxicokinetic data are included. CASE SERIES: A group of adolescents became symptomatic after ingesting 3 to 30 20-mg tablets of baclofen during a party at a suburban Boys' Club. Several children were noted to be very lethargic by chaperones, ingestion was suspected, and paramedics were called...
June 1998: Pediatrics
E L Schor
The family plays a central role in the use of alcohol by children and adolescents, yet preventive interventions rarely focus on the family. Early drinking and much subsequent use of alcohol by children and adolescents is sanctioned and sometimes encouraged by their families. Unlike experimentation with alcohol, problem drinking is associated with low levels of family social support and with dysfunctional coping strategies of families that may lead children to use drinking as an adaptive behavior. While risk-factor research has advanced understanding of alcohol use by children and youth, the poor predictive power of individual risks has limited its contribution to successful interventions...
1996: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
R J Flanagan, R J Ives
Volatile substance abuse (VSA) (glue sniffing, inhalant abuse, solvent abuse), the deliberate inhalation of volatile substances in order to achieve intoxication, has now been reported from most parts of the world, mainly among adolescents, individuals living in remote communities and those whose occupations give ready access to abusable substances. Solvents from contact adhesives, notably toluene, petrol (gasoline), halogenated solvents, volatile hydrocarbons such as those found in cigarette lighter refills, aerosol propellants, halocarbon fire extinguishers, and inhalational anaesthetics may be abused in this way...
1994: Bulletin on Narcotics
D E Bradford
With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children...
1984: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
B Adinoff, G H Bone, M Linnoila
Ethanol, a highly lipid-soluble compound, appears to exert its effects through interactions with the cell membrane. Cell membrane alterations indirectly affect the functioning of membrane-associated proteins, which function as channels, carriers, enzymes and receptors. For example, studies suggest that ethanol exerts an effect upon the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-benzodiazepine-chloride ionophore receptor complex, thereby accounting for the biochemical and clinical similarities between ethanol, benzodiazepines and barbiturates...
May 1988: Medical Toxicology and Adverse Drug Experience
V B Breiting, K Helweg-Larsen, H Staugaard, O Aalund, S B Albrektsen, L Danielsen, J Jacobsen, H Kjaerulff, J L Thomsen
As part of an European-South American study of deliberate violence cases of violence against women greater than or equal to 15 years of age and violence against and among children under the age of 15 years were registered at 3 Danish emergency wards and at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. 352 cases of violence against women and 46 cases of violence against children were registered in the three emergency wards corresponding to rates of about 1.6/1000 per year for women, 0.6/1000 per year for boys and 0...
June 1989: Forensic Science International
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