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involuntary movement

Dana Khaled Almedallah, Dana Yousef Alshamlan, Erum Mubbashir Shariff
Myoclonus is an abnormal involuntary movement that has been previously reported with administration of high doses of opioids for prolonged periods of time. In this case, however, we report an acute myoclonic reaction and review the literature on the possible causative pathophysiology. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who was admitted for postdated cesarean section. She started to have abnormal involuntary movements after administration of an epidural anesthesia containing 700 μg of fentanyl with 115 mL (0...
May 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Michael B Ryan, Chloe Bair-Marshall, Alexandra B Nelson
Action selection relies on the coordinated activity of striatal direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and iMSNs, respectively). Loss of dopamine in Parkinson's disease is thought to disrupt this balance. While dopamine replacement with levodopa may restore normal function, the development of involuntary movements (levodopa-induced dyskinesia [LID]) limits therapy. How chronic dopamine loss and replacement with levodopa modulate the firing of identified MSNs in behaving animals is unknown. Using optogenetically labeled striatal single-unit recordings, we assess circuit dysfunction in parkinsonism and LID...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Salam Rahmatalla, Jonathan DeShaw, Joshua Stilley, Gerene Denning, Charles Jennissen
STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective simulator study with 16 healthy male subjects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative efficacy of immobilization systems in limiting involuntary movements of the cervical spine using a dynamic simulation model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Relatively few studies have tested the efficacy of immobilization methods for limiting involuntary cervical movement, and only one of these studies used a dynamic simulation system to do so...
June 18, 2018: Spine
Wenche Iglebekk, Carsten Tjell, Peter Borenstein
Background and aim A diagnosis of chronic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is based on brief attacks of rotatory vertigo and concomitant nystagmus elicited by rapid changes in head position relative to gravity. However, the clinical course of BPPV may vary considerably from a self-limiting to a persisting and/or recurrent disabling problem. The authors' experience is that the most common complaints of patients with chronic BPPV are nautical vertigo or dizziness with other symptoms including neck pain, headache, widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and visual disturbances...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Andrew Ekelem, Michael Goldfarb
Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sebastian Walther, Katharina Stegmayer
Diagnosis and treatment of motor phenomena in schizophrenia spectrum disorders Abstract. Motor abnormalities are intrinsic features of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. They may be spontaneous or antipsychotic drug-induced. The four most important symptom groups are abnormal involuntary movements or dyskinesia, Parkinsonism, catatonia and neurological soft signs. In addition, there are further motor abnormalities, which are less frequent and less operationalized. The suspected etiology of motor abnormalities is strongly associated with altered neurodevelopment...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Ping Zhang, Yanli Li, Fengmei Fan, Chiang-Shan R Li, Xingguang Luo, Fude Yang, Yin Yao, Yunlong Tan
We explored resting-state brain activity and its potential links to clinical parameters in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) using fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations(fALFF). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 32 schizophrenic patients with TD (TD group), 31 without TD (NTD group), and 32 healthy controls (HC group). Clinical parameters including psychopathological symptoms, severity of TD, and cognitive function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, respectively...
June 14, 2018: Neuroscience
Fei Ye, Qiongqiong Zhan, Wenhuan Xiao, Weiwei Sha, Xiaobin Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Many research indicate that the tardive dyskinesia (TD) is generally linked with long-term antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a critical role in the protection of catecholaminergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic neurons. Thus, we examined the serum GDNF levels in schizophrenia patients with TD (WTD) and without TD (NTD) and compared with healthy controls (HC), respectively. METHODS: Totally 75 males with schizophrenia were recruited into this study...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Jack De Havas, Sho Ito, Patrick Haggard, Hiroaki Gomi
The Kohnstamm phenomenon is a prolonged involuntary aftercontraction following a sustained voluntary isometric muscle contraction. The control principles of the Kohnstamm have been investigated using mechanical perturbations, but previous studies could not dissociate sensorimotor responses to perturbation from effects of gravity. We induced a horizontal, gravity-independent Kohnstamm movement around the shoulder joint, and applied resistive or assistive torques of 0.5 Nm after 20° angular displacement. A No perturbation control condition was included...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Xana Carolina de Pereira E Souza, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães Abreu, Vera Lúcia Silva Resende, Lia Silva de Castilho
This study investigated risk factors for tooth injuries in individuals from a dental clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 493 dental charts of individuals with or without tooth injuries at their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental traumatic injuries and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases, mother's education, mouth breathing, hyperkinesis, pacifier use, thumb sucking, psychotropic drug use, tooth injuries at the first dental examination, involuntary movements, open bite, having one or more siblings and reports of seizures were the covariates...
March 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Jakob Meineke, Fabian Wenzel, Matteo de Marco, Annalena Venneri, Daniel J Blackburn, Kevin Teh, Iain D Wilkinson, Ulrich Katscher
As Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) is maturing, more clinical applications are being explored. With this comes the question whether QSM is sufficiently robust and reproducible to be directly used in a clinical setting where patients are possibly not cooperative and/or unable to suppress involuntary movements sufficiently.
 Subjects and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), 31 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 41 healthy controls (HC) were scanned on a 3T scanner, including a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence for QSM and an inversion-prepared segmented gradient-echo sequence (T1-TFE, MPRAGE)...
June 13, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Fen Pan, Shangda Li, Haimei Li, Yi Xu, Manli Huang
Background: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is characterized by sudden episodes of involuntary movements. PKD is a very rare movement disorder, and correct clinical diagnosis is often a challenge. Case: We present the case of a 23-year-old female with PKD. The patient showed episodes of twisting movements for 3 years. The symptoms lasted for about 5-10 minutes and subsided spontaneously. She was diagnosed as having epilepsy, and depressive and anxiety disorders successively...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Matteo Bologna, Alfredo Berardelli
Dystonia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions, twisting movements, and abnormal postures in various body regions. It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia are involved in the pathogenesis of dystonia. A growing body of evidence, however, is challenging the traditional view and suggest that the cerebellum may also play a role in dystonia. Studies on animals indicate that experimental manipulations of the cerebellum lead to dystonic-like movements. Several clinical observations, including those from secondary dystonia cases as well as neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies in human patients, provide further evidence in humans of a possible relationship between cerebellar abnormalities and dystonia...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Hai Lin, Xiao-Dong Cai, Dou-Dou Zhang, Jia-Li Liu, Wei-Ping Li
BACKGROUND: Primary dystonia is a neurological disease with the characteristics of abnormal, involuntary twisting and turning movements, which greatly affects life quality of patients. Treatments for dystonia consist of oral medications, botulinum neurotoxin injections, physical therapy and surgeries. For medication-refractory dystonia, surgeries, especially deep brain stimulation (DBS), are the optimal option. CASE DESCRIPTION: the patient was a 13-year-old boy suffering from extremely severe primary dystonia, with a BFMDRS-M score of 118 and a TWSTRS-S score of 29...
June 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Diego Kaski, Salman Haider, Amanda Male, Alex Radunovich, Fan Liu, Carla Cordivari, Kailash P Bhatia, Adolfo M Bronstein
Acquired periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) describes a horizontal jerk nystagmus that reverses its direction with a predictable cycle, and is thought to arise from lesions involving the brainstem and cerebellum. We report a 20-year-old patient with PAN who presented with an acute vertiginous episode and developed an involuntary head movement that initially masked the PAN. The involuntary head movements were abolished with a subtherapeutic dose of botulinum toxin to the neck muscles. We propose that the head movements initially developed as a compensatory movement to the nystagmus, to maintain visual fixation in the presence of the underlying nystagmus, and became an entrained involuntary behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Di-Sheng Lu, Ce Chen, Ya-Xin Zheng, Dai-Di Li, Guo-Qing Wang, Jie Liu, Jingshan Shi, Feng Zhang
Until now, the dopamine (DA) precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), remains the gold standard effective drug therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Nevertheless, long-term chronic L-DOPA administration leads to the drug efficacy loss and severe adverse effects, such as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Icariin (ICA), a flavonoid that is extracted from Epimedium, has been proved to evoke neuroprotection against DA neuronal loss in PD animal models. Here, the present study detected the effects of ICA combined with L-DOPA on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-elicited DA neurotoxicity and L-DOPA-induced motor dysfunction as well...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Mahesh Kamate, Nishant Mittal, Deepa Metgud
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic options for management of choreoathetoid cerebral palsy, which is a permanent disorder, are very limited. Available medications either have significant side effects or are unsuitable for long-term use. Risperidone has shown promise in the management of chorea and has been found to be safe in children less than five years. METHODS: Children with choreoathetoid cerebral palsy were enrolled after parental consent and given risperidone for six-month period along with standard care...
April 20, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Simona Portaro, Agnese Gugliandolo, Domenico Scionti, Simona Cammaroto, Rosa Morabito, Salvatore Leonardi, Filippo Fraggetta, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
RATIONALE: The aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency (AADCD) is a rare, autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by a deficit of the AADC that is involved in serotonin and dopamine biosynthesis, causing as a consequence, their deficits, but also a lack of norepinephrine and epinephrine, given that dopamine is their precursor. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a Caucasian 43-year-old woman heterozygous for p.Ser250Phe in DDC, encoding for AADC with a positive family history for behavioral problems...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Safia Fatima, Ayesha Hafeez, Aamir Ijaz, Naveed Asif, Afshan Awan, Ambreen Sajid
Classical homocystinuria, also known as cystathionine beta synthase deficiency, is a rare disorder of methionine metabolism, leading to an abnormal accumulation of homocysteine and its metabolites in blood and urine. A young child with homocystinuria is discussed, who presented with behavioral abnormalities, involuntary movement, mental retardation, and decreased vision since birth. The diagnosis of homocystinuria was not made at initial presentation. Subtle phenotypic features with developmental delay and MRI brain finding of bilateral medially dislocated lens, eventually provided the first indication at five years of age...
June 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Kazuya Yoshida
Oromandibular dystonia is a focal dystonia that manifests as involuntary masticatory and/or tongue muscle contractions. This movement disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as a temporomandibular disorder. Hence, it would be useful to establish a method that makes it possible for patients with the condition to find appropriate medical institutions by themselves. The author produced a website Involuntary movements of the stomatognathic region (https://sites. for patients with oromandibular dystonia, which is available in twenty languages...
March 30, 2018: Neurology International
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