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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717382/neurological-soft-signs-in-tunisian-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-and-relation-with-cannabis-use
#1
Ahmed Mhalla, Bochra Ben Mohamed, Christoph U Correll, Badii Amamou, Anouar Mechri, Lotfi Gaha
BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are minor non-localizing neurological abnormalities that are conceptualized as neurodevelopmental markers that mediate the biological risk for psychosis. We aimed to explore the relationship between NSS and cannabis use, an environmental risk factor of psychosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in consecutively admitted patients hospitalized for first-episode psychosis. NSS were assessed by the NSS scale (23 items exploring motor coordination, motor integrative function, sensory integration, involuntary movements or posture, quality of lateralization)...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708753/effectiveness-of-preoperative-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-compared-with-oral-midazolam-for-the-prevention-of-emergence-delirium-in-the-pediatric-patient-undergoing-general-anesthesia-a-systematic-review
#2
James FitzSimons, Laura S Bonanno, Stephanie Pierce, Jennifer Badeaux
BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium is defined as a cognitive disturbance during emergence from general anesthesia resulting in hallucinations, delusions and confusion manifested by agitation, restlessness, involuntary physical movement and extreme flailing in bed. Postoperative emergence delirium develops in 12% to 18% of all children undergoing general anesthesia for surgery. This post-anesthetic phenomenon changes cognitive and psychomotor behavior, and puts pediatric patients and health care personnel at risk of injury...
July 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706744/management-of-oromandibular-dystonia-a-case-report-and-literature-update
#3
Suma Gn, Adrita Nag
Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, paroxysmal, and patterned muscle contractions of varying severity resulting in sustained spasms of masticatory muscles, affecting the jaws, tongue, face, and pharynx. It is most commonly idiopathic or medication-induced, but peripheral trauma sometimes precedes the condition. We present a case report of a 26-year-old female patient who suffered repetitive bouts of hemifacial muscle contractions for 2 years on closing the mouth which interfered in patient's well-being and quality of life by hampering her ability to eat and talk and to the extent of inability to breath due to contractions of her neck muscles...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703446/paroxysmal-dyskinesia-in-border-terriers-clinical-epidemiological-and-genetic-investigations
#4
Q E M Stassen, L L E Koskinen, F G van Steenbeek, E H Seppälä, T S Jokinen, P G M Prins, H G J Bok, M M J M Zandvliet, M Vos-Loohuis, P A J Leegwater, H Lohi
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, a disorder characterized by episodes of involuntary movements and dystonia has been recognized in Border Terriers. OBJECTIVES: To define clinical features of paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD) in a large number of Border Terriers and to study the genetics of the disease. ANIMALS: 110 affected and 128 unaffected client-owned Border Terriers. METHODS: A questionnaire regarding clinical characteristics of PD was designed at Utrecht University and the University of Helsinki...
July 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701080/neurocognitive-outcomes-in-children-with-unilateral-basal-ganglia-arterial-ischemic-stroke-and-secondary-hemidystonia
#5
Robyn Westmacott, Kyla P McDonald, Gabrielle deVeber, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Nomazulu Dlamini, Rand Askalan, Tricia S Williams
Dystonia is a movement disorder that involves excessive, involuntary muscle contractions resulting in repetitive movements and/or abnormal posturing. One common cause of unilateral dystonia in childhood is ischemic stroke involving the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. Virtually nothing is known about neuropsychological outcomes in children who have dystonia following basal ganglia stroke. The present study explored whether or not children with secondary dystonia experience additional cognitive challenges when compared to children with similar patterns of brain injury, but no dystonia...
July 12, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699794/valbenazine-for-the-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#6
Lauren C Seeberger, Robert A Hauser
Tardive dyskinesia (Td) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder that may result from treatment with antipsychotics or other dopamine receptor blocking agents. Underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood but since the 1970s dopamine depleting agents have been used to reduce involuntary movements. The search for safe, effective treatments for Td is ongoing. Valbenazine, a novel VMAT2 inhibitor, has recently been FDA approved for treatment of Td. Areas Covered: An overview of Td, unmet medical needs and current treatment guidelines are presented...
July 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692958/grift-a-device-for-quantifying-physiological-and-pathological-mirror-movements-in-children
#7
E Jaspers, K Klingels, C Simon-Martinez, H Feys, D G Woolley, N Wenderoth
Mirror movements (MM) typically occur during unilateral actions and manifest as involuntary muscle activity of the passive limb, which "mirror" voluntary actions executed by the contralateral homologous body part. They are a normal motor feature in young children and gradually disappear during the first decade of life. In children suffering from neurological disorders, e.g. due to an early brain lesion as in unilateral cerebral palsy, the amplitude and occurrence of MM has been proposed to yield relevant information for diagnosis and therapy...
July 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691197/loss-of-dcc-in-the-spinal-cord-is-sufficient-to-cause-a-deficit-in-lateralized-motor-control-and-the-switch-to-a-hopping-gait
#8
Jimmy Peng, Julien Ferent, Qingyu Li, Mingwei Liu, Ronan Vinicius da Silva, Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer, Artur Kania, Ying Zhang, Frédéric Charron
BACKGROUND: Humans with heterozygous mutations in the axon guidance receptor DCC display congenital mirror movements (MMs), which are involuntary movements of body parts, such as fingers, on one side of the body that mirror voluntary movement of the opposite side. In mice, the homozygous Dcc(kanga) mutant allele causes synchronous MM-like hindlimb movements during locomotion, resulting in hopping. In both human and mice, the neuroanatomical defect responsible for the deficit in lateralized motor control remains to be elucidated...
July 10, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690922/axial-sensory-tricks-in-chorea-acanthocytosis-insights-into-phenomenology
#9
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Ruth H Walker
BACKGROUND: Trunk flexion and axial extension are characteristic symptoms of chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc). PHENOMENOLOGY SHOWN: A 41-year-old male with ChAc (confirmed by VPS13A mutations) reported that his involuntary axial movements were significantly ameliorated by either folding his arms over his chest or putting his hands behind his head. EDUCATIONAL VALUE: These apparent "sensory tricks" suggest a dystonic pathophysiology, and also merit further study to analyze their potential for symptom control in ChAc...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687327/masking-of-random-walk-motion-by-flicker-and-its-role-in-the-allocation-of-motion-in-the-on-line-jitter-illusion
#10
Adela S Y Park, Phillip A Bedggood, Andrew B Metha, Andrew J Anderson
Typically, perceptual stabilization mechanisms make us unaware of the retinal image motion produced by the small, involuntary eye movements our eyes constantly make during fixation. The breakdown of perceptual stability is demonstrated by the on-line jitter illusion, in which a circular static pattern appears to jitter coherently when surrounded by a flickering annular pattern. Although both regions of the stimulus are subject to retinal motion from eye movements, the visual system attributes this motion to the central static region in the form of visual jitter, while the surrounding flickering region remains perceptually stable...
July 13, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685486/conditional-control-in-visual-selection
#11
REVIEW
Wieske van Zoest, Stefan Van der Stigchel, Mieke Donk
Attention and eye movements provide a window into the selective processing of visual information. Evidence suggests that selection is influenced by various factors and is not always under the strategic control of the observer. The aims of this tutorial review are to give a brief introduction to eye movements and attention and to outline the conditions that help determine control. Evidence suggests that the ability to establish control depends on the complexity of the display as well as the point in time at which selection occurs...
July 6, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668671/deutetrabenazine-for-treatment-of-involuntary-movements-in-patients-with-tardive-dyskinesia-aim-td-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-3-trial
#12
Karen E Anderson, David Stamler, Mat D Davis, Stewart A Factor, Robert A Hauser, Jouko Isojärvi, L Fredrik Jarskog, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Rajeev Kumar, Joseph P McEvoy, Stanislaw Ochudlo, William G Ondo, Hubert H Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia results from exposure to dopamine receptor antagonists, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics. If clinically appropriate, clinicians often manage this disorder by lowering the dose of, or discontinuing, the causative drug. There is a significant unmet need for a treatment option that does not disrupt treatment regimens for underlying psychiatric illnesses. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fixed doses of deutetrabenazine-a novel vesicular monoamine transporter-2 inhibitor-in patients with tardive dyskinesia...
June 28, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658799/a-prospective-study-of-adverse-drug-reactions-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-in-psychiatry-outpatient-department-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
Aashal Shah, Preeti P Yadav, Mayur Chaudhari, Ankit Vataliya, N D Kantharia, Ritambhara Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is a chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics are first line drugs for bipolar disorder. They have significant adverse effects. AIM: The study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the pattern of occurrence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in the patients with bipolar disorder and to assess their causality, severity and preventability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective and observational study - carried out in the psychiatry outpatient department of New Civil Hospital, Surat for 15 months...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649394/functional-neuroimaging-and-chorea-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Debra J Ehrlich, Ruth H Walker
Chorea is a hyperkinetic movement disorder consisting of involuntary irregular, flowing movements of the trunk, neck or face. Although Huntington's disease is the most common cause of chorea in adults, chorea can also result from many other neurodegenerative, metabolic, and autoimmune conditions. While the pathophysiology of these different conditions is quite variable, recent advances in functional imaging have enabled the development of new methods for analysis of brain activity and neuronal dysfunction. In this paper we review the growing body of functional imaging data that has been performed in chorea syndromes and identify particular trends, which can be used to better understand the underlying network changes within the basal ganglia...
2017: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648114/pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-1b-a-rare-cause-of-tetany-case-report
#15
Catarina Garcia, Cátia R Correia, Lurdes Lopes
Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare group of disorders characterised by end-organ resistance to the parathyroid hormone (PTH). A 16-year-old boy presented with a 2-year history of involuntary dystonic movements involving mainly the left hand, initially after writing and later during physical exercise. Serum calcium was 1.37 mmol/L (2.20-2.69), phosphate 2.1 mmol/L (0.8-1.45) and PTH 302 ng/L (12-88). CT scan of the head demonstrated multiple subcortical and diffuse basal ganglia calcifications. Genetic analysis confirmed a methylation defect in the GNAS cluster on chromosome 20q13...
June 26, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641773/incidence-of-tonic-spasms-as-the-initial-presentation-of-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-in-slovenia
#16
Neli Bizjak, Damjan Osredkar, Nuška Pečarič Meglič, Mirjana Perković Benedik
Tonic spasms (TS) are involuntary movement patterns that can present in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). They have been first described decades ago, but are frequently missed and misdiagnosed, particularly in the pediatric MS patients and if appearing ahead of hallmark neurological signs and symptoms of MS. Slovenia is a country with the population of about 2 million people. In the years from 1992 to 2016, we have treated 57 sequential pediatric patients with MS at our hospital, which is the only tertiary medical institution for treating children with MS in the country...
July 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638597/rest-tremor-revisited-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Wei Chen, Franziska Hopfner, Jos Steffen Becktepe, Günther Deuschl
Tremor is the most common movement disorder characterized by a rhythmical, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part. Since distinct diseases can cause similar tremor manifestations and vice-versa, it is challenging to make an accurate diagnosis. This applies particularly for tremor at rest. This entity was only rarely studied in the past, although a multitude of clinical studies on prevalence and clinical features of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and dystonia, have been carried out...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638324/stochastic-signatures-of-involuntary-head-micro-movements-can-be-used-to-classify-females-of-abide-into-different-subtypes-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#18
Elizabeth B Torres, Sejal Mistry, Carla Caballero, Caroline P Whyatt
Background: The approximate 5:1 male to female ratio in clinical detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) prevents research from characterizing the female phenotype. Current open access repositories [such as those in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE I-II)] contain large numbers of females to help begin providing a new characterization of females on the autistic spectrum. Here we introduce new methods to integrate data in a scale-free manner from continuous biophysical rhythms of the nervous systems and discrete (ordinal) observational scores...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638290/medication-induced-tardive-dyskinesia-a-review-and-update
#19
REVIEW
Elyse M Cornett, Matthew Novitch, Alan David Kaye, Vijay Kata, Adam M Kaye
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that causes involuntary, repetitive body movements and is commonly seen in patients who are on long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications. However, several other classes of medications with different mechanisms are also associated with TD. METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search using keywords and combined word searches that involved medication-induced TD, as well as agents that are associated with causing or are used to treat medication-induced TD...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638094/microsaccades-are-sensitive-to-word-structure-a-novel-approach-to-study-language-processing
#20
Maya Yablonski, Uri Polat, Yoram S Bonneh, Michal Ben-Shachar
Microsaccades are miniature eye movements that occur involuntarily during fixation. They are typically inhibited following stimulus onset and are released from inhibition about 300 ms post-stimulus. Microsaccade-inhibition is modulated by low level features of visual stimuli, but it is currently unknown whether they are sensitive to higher level, abstract linguistic properties. To address this question, we measured the timing of microsaccades while subjects were presented with written Hebrew words and pronounceable nonwords (pseudowords)...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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