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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088913/a-comparative-study-of-short-term-efficacy-of-aripiprazole-and-risperidone-in-schizophrenia
#1
P B Sajeev Kumar, Ravi S Pandey, Jagadisha Thirthali, P T Siva Kumar, C Naveen Kumar
Objective To compare the short term anti-schizophrenic efficacy and side effect profile of aripiprazole with risperidone. Methodology The study was a non-randomized, naturalistic, rater blinded, prospective, 8-12 weeks, comparative trial between risperidone and aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia. Patients already getting treatment with aripiprazole (10 to 30 mg/day) or risperidone (3 to 8mg/day) are recruited. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), Simpson Angus Scale (SAS), Udvalg for Klinske Undersogelser (UKU) Scale, Clinical Global Impression-severity scales were administered by principal investigator on the day of recruitment...
January 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088347/disparity-configuration-influences-depth-discrimination-in-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-but-not-in-children
#2
Laurie M Wilcox, Brittney Hartle, Aliya Solski, Kevin J Mackenzie, Deborah Giaschi
We report a series of experiments in which we assess depth discrimination performance in adults and children using a disparity-balanced target configuration to avoid the effects of anticipatory vergence eye movements. In our first study we found that children outperformed adults by a substantial margin, and the adults were consistently near chance. This was surprising given that we initially tested naïve adults to provide a benchmark for the children's data, and all observers met the criterion for stereoacuity...
January 11, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055131/subthalamic-nuclei-stimulation-in-patients-with-pantothenate-kinase-associated-neurodegeneration-pkan
#3
Ziyuan Liu, Yang Liu, Yingmai Yang, Lin Wang, Wanchen Dou, Jinzhu Guo, Yu Wang, Yi Guo, Xinhua Wan, Wenbin Ma, Renzhi Wang
INTRODUCTION: Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease that leads to extrapyramidal symptoms, such as dystonia, ataxia, dysarthria, and involuntary movements. Treatment of PKAN with deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported, but mainly focuses on targeting the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Subthalamic nuclei (STN) may also be a potential target for treatment of PKAN. METHODS: In this study, we reviewed three patients with PKAN (two with typical PKAN and one with atypical PKAN) treated by bilateral STN stimulation and present a review of the literature...
January 5, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042962/analysis-of-recurrent-sacrococcygeal-teratoma-in-children-clinical-features-relapse-risks-and-anorectal-functional-sequelae
#4
Yi Wang, Yeming Wu, Lifeng Wang, Xiaojun Yuan, Mawei Jiang, Yuhua Li
BACKGROUND Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is a relatively uncommon tumor. Recurrence with poor survival and anorectal dysfunction are the 2 leading problems for patients. Here, we would review the clinic features of patients with SCTs in our hospital to identify risk factors of recurrent SCTs and to analyze anorectal functional sequelae. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective review of all patients with SCTs in our center between 2007 and 2013 was performed. We analyzed the recorded data on each patient and performed follow-up through phone calls...
January 2, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033433/covert-spatial-attention-is-functionally-intact-in-amblyopic-human-adults
#5
Mariel Roberts, Rachel Cymerman, R Theodore Smith, Lynne Kiorpes, Marisa Carrasco
Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention-the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements-to the same degree as neurotypical observers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032313/development-of-research-on-huntington-disease-in-china
#6
REVIEW
Hong-Lei Li, Yan-Bin Zhang, Zhi-Ying Wu
Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized with the typical manifestations of involuntary movements, cognitive dysfunction, and psychiatric or behavioral disturbance. It results from an expansion in the number of CAG repeats in the first exon of the huntingtin (HTT) gene. In China, since the first case report in 1959, the knowledge of this disorder has been involving a lot, especially in the latest decade. In this review, we meta-analysis and summarize the research reports that were published by Chinese researchers since 1959, so that researchers whose native language were not Chinese can get a general idea of the research development of HD in China...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026778/proactive-selective-inhibition-targeted-at-the-neck-muscles-this-proximal-constraint-facilitates-learning-and-regulates-global-control
#7
Ian Loram, Brian Bate, Peter Harding, Ryan Cunningham, Alison Loram
While individual muscle function is known, the sensory and motor value of muscles within the whole-body sensorimotor network is complicated. Specifically, the relationship between neck muscle action and distal muscle synergies is unknown. This work demonstrates a causal relationship between regulation of the neck muscles and global motor control. Studying violinists performing unskilled and skilled manual tasks, we provided ultrasound feedback of the neck muscles with instruction to minimize neck muscle change during task performance and observed the indirect effect on whole-body movement...
December 21, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018189/auditory-somatosensory-temporal-sensitivity-improves-when-the-somatosensory-event-is-caused-by-voluntary-body-movement
#8
Norimichi Kitagawa, Masaharu Kato, Makio Kashino
When we actively interact with the environment, it is crucial that we perceive a precise temporal relationship between our own actions and sensory effects to guide our body movements. Thus, we hypothesized that voluntary movements improve perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between auditory and movement-related somatosensory events compared to when they are delivered passively to sensory receptors. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tapped a button, and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012542/audiological-findings-in-children-with-ataxia-telangiectasia-a-t-syndrome
#9
Pretty O Afifi, Hanaa Hussein Elsanadiky
AIM: To assess peripheral and central hearing in children with A-T. METHOD: 3 children diagnosed with A-T according to the diagnostic criteria for A-T of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies. Involuntary movements were seen in the form of chorea-athetosis together with tremors. They were examined to assess both peripheral and central hearing was assessed (hearing thresholds). Sound-field testing, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs) and Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR) were done for all of them...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011457/citalopram-induced-dyskinesia-of-the-tongue-a-video-presentation
#10
Marissa Gaanderse, Jasper Kliffen, Wim Linssen
We describe a 51-year-old man with sudden onset involuntary movements of the tongue 2 weeks after initiation of citalopram. The movements were continuous and isolated to the tongue. Speech was minimally dysarthric. Further examination revealed no abnormalities. Citalopram was continued and spontaneous improvement was noticed in the following weeks. There was complete recovery 5 weeks after symptoms had started. We argue that the involuntary tongue movements were a side effect of citalopram. Furthermore, our patient used concomitant citalopram and methylphenidate, a combination which potentially elicits side effects...
December 23, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999892/electromyographic-assessment-of-paratonia
#11
Lucio Marinelli, Laura Mori, Matteo Pardini, David Beversdorf, Leonardo Cocito, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Carlo Trompetto
Many years after its initial description, paratonia remains a poorly understood concept. It is described as the inability to relax muscles during muscle tone assessment with the subject involuntary facilitating or opposing the examiner. Although related to cognitive impairment and frontal lobe function, the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. Moreover, criteria to distinguish oppositional paratonia from parkinsonian rigidity or spasticity are not yet available. Paratonia is very frequently encountered in clinical practice and only semi-quantitative rating scales are available...
December 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994349/approach-to-a-tremor-patient
#12
Soumya Sharma, Sanjay Pandey
Tremors are commonly encountered in clinical practice and are the most common movement disorders seen. It is defined as a rhythmic, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part around one or more joints. In the majority of the population, tremor tends to be mild. They have varying etiology; hence, classifying them appropriately helps in identifying the underlying cause. Clinically, tremor is classified as occurring at rest or action. They can also be classified based on their frequency, amplitude, and body part involved...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992533/grey-matter-microstructural-integrity-alterations-in-blepharospasm-are-partially-reversed-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-therapy
#13
Hanganu Alexandru, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Venkata Chaitanya Chirumamilla, Nabin Koirala, Burcu Paktas, Günther Deuschl, Kirsten E Zeuner, Sergiu Groppa
OBJECTIVE: Benign Essential Blepharospasm (BEB) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders of facial muscles. Although similar in clinical presentation different pathophysiological mechanisms are assumed. Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) is a standard evidence-based treatment for both conditions. In this study we aimed to assess grey matter microstructural differences between these two groups of patients and compared them with healthy controls. In patients we furthermore tracked the longitudinal morphometric changes associated with BoNT therapy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992085/muscle-atrophy-is-associated-with-cervical-spinal-motoneuron-loss-in-bachd-mouse-model-for-huntington-s-disease
#14
Priscila Aparecida Costa Valadão, Bárbara Campos de Aragão, Jéssica Neves Andrade, Matheus Proença S M Gomes, Giselle Foureaux, Julliane Vasconcelos Joviano-Santos, José Carlos Nogueira, Fabíola Mara Ribeiro, Juan Carlos Tapia, Cristina Guatimosim
Involuntary choreiform movements are clinical hallmark of Huntington's disease, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene. Involuntary movements start with an impairment of facial muscles and then affect trunk and limbs muscles. Huntington's disease symptoms are caused by changes in cortex and striatum neurons induced by mutated huntingtin. However little is known about the impact of this abnormal protein in spinal cord motoneurons that control movement...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990258/case-report-84-year-old-woman-with-alien-hand-syndrome
#15
Ihtesham Aatif Qureshi, Daniel Korya, Darine Kassar, Mohammed Moussavi
Background: Alien hand syndrome [AHS] is a rare and ill-defined neurological disorder. It produces complex, goal-directed motion of one hand that is involuntarily instigated. This syndrome characteristically arises after brain trauma, brain surgery, stroke or encephalitis. We describe a case of AHS in a patient who had a previous episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage affecting the left frontal lobe and corpus callosum. Case presentation: An 84-year-old woman presented to the emergency department complaining of headaches and several episodes of her left arm moving as if it was groping around trying to grab at her own body...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978821/metabolic-syndrome-and-adverse-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#16
Ya-Mei Bai, Cheng-Ta Li, Shih-Jen Tsai, Pei-Chi Tu, Mu-Hong Chen, Tung-Ping Su
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent among patients with bipolar disorder. MetS may cause complications in the brain, but studies investigating MetS-associated clinical psychiatric outcomes remain scant. METHODS: We enrolled clinically stable outpatients with bipolar disorder aged 18-65 years and performed anthropometric and fasting biochemical assessments to investigate MetS prevalence. We then performed clinical assessments by using the Young Mania Rating Scale for manic symptoms, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale for depressive symptoms, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for psychotic symptoms, the Involuntary Movement Scale for tardive dyskinesia, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale for akathisia, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser for general side effects, the Schedule for Assessment of Insight for insight, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale for global functioning, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for cognitive executive function...
December 15, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956068/axial-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias-and-neuronal-activity-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#17
Stephanie L Alberico, Young-Cho Kim, Tomas Lence, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are abnormal involuntary movements that limit the effectiveness of treatments for Parkinson's disease. Although dyskinesias involve the striatum, it is unclear how striatal neurons are involved in dyskinetic movements. Here we record from striatal neurons in mice during levodopa-induced axial dyskinesias. We developed an automated 3-dimensional motion tracking system to capture the development of axial dyskinesias at ∼10ms resolution, and correlated these movements with neuronal activity of striatal medium spiny neurons and fast-spiking interneurons...
December 9, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940768/case-report-of-a-severe-recurrent-tongue-self-injury-in-an-infant-with-dystonia
#18
Oliver Brissaud, Noëlie-Brunehilde Thébaud, Julie Guichoux, Rawen Smirani, Frédéric Villega, Raphaël Devillard
Dystonia is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive movements, postures, or both that are typically patterned, twisting, and sometimes tremulous. It is often initiated or worsened by voluntary action and associated with overflow muscle activation. In this article we report a case of severe oromandibular dystonia, which is a specific form of dystonia characterized by involuntary, action-induced tonic or clonic spasms of the masticatory, lingual, and pharyngeal musculature...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939583/functional-genomic-analyses-of-mendelian-and-sporadic-disease-identify-impaired-eif2%C3%AE-signaling-as-a-generalizable-mechanism-for-dystonia
#19
Joseph E Rittiner, Zachary F Caffall, Ricardo Hernández-Martinez, Sydney M Sanderson, James L Pearson, Kaylin K Tsukayama, Anna Y Liu, Changrui Xiao, Samantha Tracy, Miranda K Shipman, Patrick Hickey, Julia Johnson, Burton Scott, Mark Stacy, Rachel Saunders-Pullman, Susan Bressman, Kristina Simonyan, Nutan Sharma, Laurie J Ozelius, Elizabeth T Cirulli, Nicole Calakos
Dystonia is a brain disorder causing involuntary, often painful movements. Apart from a role for dopamine deficiency in some forms, the cellular mechanisms underlying most dystonias are currently unknown. Here, we discover a role for deficient eIF2α signaling in DYT1 dystonia, a rare inherited generalized form, through a genome-wide RNAi screen. Subsequent experiments including patient-derived cells and a mouse model support both a pathogenic role and therapeutic potential for eIF2α pathway perturbations...
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935170/ultrasound-of-oral-and-masticatory-muscles-why-every-neuromuscular-swallow-team-should-have-an-ultrasound-machine
#20
Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Marloes Lagarde, Nens van Alfen
Patients with neuromuscular disorders often present with swallowing difficulties due to oral phase problems and pharyngeal residue after swallow. It is important to assess the underlying pathology and cause of the swallowing disturbance in this patient group, such as dystrophic changes in oral and masticatory muscles. This allows for more patient-tailored recommendations, for example optimal compensation strategies to maintain function for longer. Ultrasound can show structural changes caused by dystrophy or denervation of muscles, detect involuntary movements such as fasciculations, and provide dynamic video images of tongue motion during swallowing attempts...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
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