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radiation oncology radiotherapy cancer

Ales Hlavka, Jaroslav Vanasek, Karel Odrazka, Jan Stuk, Martin Dolezel, Vit Ulrych, Martina Vitkova, Jiri Mynarik, Iveta Kolarova, Zdenka Vilasova
Image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) enables the achievement of higher precision in radiation delivery, a reduction in safety margins and a reduced risk of toxicity in healthy tissues. The present study investigated the magnitude of safety margins for the radiation boost setup on skin marks or metal clips implanted into the tumor bed during breast cancer surgery. One hundred eighty-four patients after breast conserving surgery with implanted metal clips into tumor bed were analyzed. The present study investigated the difference in safety margin required for the treatment setup on skin marks and metal clips...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Laura Curr Beamer, Marcia Grant
PURPOSE: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the relationship between skin-related quality of life (SR-QOL) and global quality of life (G-QOL) among women experiencing breast radiodermatitis, measure change in SR-QOL and G-QOL between the start and fifth week on radiotherapy, and examine the trend in SR-QOL and severity of radiodermatitis over time on treatment. METHODS: A descriptive longitudinal study using repeated measurements was implemented. Forty women undergoing whole breast 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy at a comprehensive community cancer center completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) weekly and Quality of Life-Breast Cancer Patient Version at baseline before and at five weeks on radiotherapy...
April 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
Krista C J Wink, Erik Roelofs, Charles B Simone, David Dechambre, Alina Santiago, Judith van der Stoep, Wim Dries, Julia Smits, Stephen Avery, Filippo Ammazzalorso, Nicolas Jansen, Urszula Jelen, Timothy Solberg, Dirk de Ruysscher, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: To compare dose to organs at risk (OARs) and dose-escalation possibility for 24 stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in a ROCOCO (Radiation Oncology Collaborative Comparison) trial. METHODS: For each patient, 3 photon plans [Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and CyberKnife], a double scattered proton (DSP) and an intensity-modulated carbon-ion (IMIT) therapy plan were created. Dose prescription was 60 Gy (equivalent) in 8 fractions...
March 12, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Bernadette Brown, Jane Young, David P Smith, Andrew B Kneebone, Andrew J Brooks, Sam Egger, Miranda Xhilaga, Amanda Dominello, Dianne L O'Connell, Mary Haines
BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether a theoretically conceptualised tailored intervention centred on multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) increased clinician referral behaviours in line with clinical practice guideline recommendations. METHODS: Nine hospital Sites in New South Wales (NSW), Australia with a urological MDT and involvement in a state-wide urological clinical network participated in this pragmatic stepped wedge, cluster randomised implementation trial...
March 12, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Lucyna Kepka, Joanna Socha
We greatly appreciate the recent publication of a Japan Lung Cancer Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology consensus-based computed tomographic atlas for defining regional lymph node stations (LNSs) for radiotherapy for lung cancer. This atlas is based on the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) consensus lymph node map, which resolved differences between the Japanese and American classification and was incorporated into the seventh edition of the TNM staging system. The authors must be commended for providing a very clear, comprehensive presentation of the borders of the mediastinal and hilar LNSs, using a multidisciplinary approach...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Sunil W Dutta, Kristine Bauer-Nilsen, Jason C Sanders, Daniel M Trifiletti, Bruce Libby, Donna H Lash, Melody Lain, Deborah Christodoulou, Constance Hodge, Timothy N Showalter
PURPOSE: To evaluate the delivery cost of frequently used radiotherapy options offered to patients with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer using time-driven activity-based costing and compare the results with Medicare reimbursement and relative value units (RVUs). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Process maps were created to represent each step of prostate radiotherapy treatment at our institution. Salary data, equipment purchase costs, and consumable costs were factored into the cost analysis...
March 5, 2018: Brachytherapy
Hosein Azimian, Mahdieh Dayyani, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Mahmoud Mahmoudi
Objectives: Radiotherapy is one of the most effective modalities of cancer therapy, but clinical responses of individual patients varies considerably. To enhance treatment efficiency it is essential to implement an individual-based treatment. The aim of present study was to identify the mechanism of intrinsic apoptosis pathway on radiosensitivity and normal tissue complications caused by the radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten breast cancer patients were exposed to 6MV X-rays to deliver 1 and 2 Gy...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Abdelfettah Zidane, Adil Arsalane, Mohammed Lahkim, Issam Lalya, Abderrahim Ktaibi, Ismail Essadi
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy associated with chemotherapy is a well-established treatment modality for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. Radiation-induced second malignancies, particularly radiation-induced sarcomas, are rare. Some authors reported a recent increase in the incidence of this rare complication, especially because of the improved prognosis and survival of patients after radiotherapy. Pathogenic mechanisms of radiation-induced sarcomas are poorly understood. However, diagnosis criteria are well established...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Nathalie Donis, Cécile Oury, Marie Moonen, Patrizio Lancellotti
Available data indicate that survivors of breast cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma who received mediastinal radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases (RICVD) one or two decades after treatment. Although the risk with modern radiation treatment is likely to be lower in these patient groups, cardiotoxicity is still observed in a subset of patients. In addition, radiation-associated cardiovascular complications can, in the future, extend to other groups of cancer patients who are treated for tumors that are localized near the heart...
March 1, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Eleftheria Alexopoulou, Theodora Katsila, Maria Tolia, Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Michael Leontsinidis, George Kyrgias, Vasilios Kouloulias, George P Patrinos, Despoina Spyropoulou, Dimitrios Kardamakis
BACKGROUND/AIM: Radiation dermatitis is observed in 95% of breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between protein expression in tumor cells and the risk of developing radiation dermatitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Breast cancer patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy were included in this study. Tumor specimens from 122 patients were examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression of Ki67, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, hypoxia-inducible factor-1-alpha (HIF-1a), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and a-glucosidase (aGluc)...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
Pierre-Yves McLaughlin, Weidong Kong, Catherine de Metz, Timothy P Hanna, Michael Brundage, Padraig Warde, Eric Gutierrez, William J Mackillop
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The scope and effect of radiation oncology (RO) outreach activities within centralized radiotherapy (RT) systems is poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to describe the outreach activities of Ontario's regional cancer centres, and to explore the relationship between radiation oncology (RO) outreach clinics and rates of radiotherapy (RT) utilization at hospitals without RT on site (HWOS-RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ontario RO centres' outreach activities were identified by semi-structured interview...
February 22, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Ester Orlandi, Salvatore Alfieri, Christian Simon, Annalisa Trama, Lisa Licitra
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a rare disease that can affect different sites and is characterized by variable incidence and 5-year survival rates across Europe. Multiple factors need to be considered when choosing the most appropriate treatment for HNC patients, such as age, comorbidities, social issues, and especially whether to prefer surgery or radiation-based protocols. Given the complexity of this scenario, the creation of a highly specialized multidisciplinary team is recommended to guarantee the best oncological outcome and prevent or adequately treat any adverse effect...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Luca Tagliaferri, Carlo Gobitti, Giuseppe Ferdinando Colloca, Luca Boldrini, Eleonora Farina, Carlo Furlan, Fabiola Paiar, Federica Vianello, Michela Basso, Lorenzo Cerizza, Fabio Monari, Gabriele Simontacchi, Maria Antonietta Gambacorta, Jacopo Lenkowicz, Nicola Dinapoli, Vito Lanzotti, Renzo Mazzarotto, Elvio Russi, Monica Mangoni
The big data approach offers a powerful alternative to Evidence-based medicine. This approach could guide cancer management thanks to machine learning application to large-scale data. Aim of the Thyroid CoBRA (Consortium for Brachytherapy Data Analysis) project is to develop a standardized web data collection system, focused on thyroid cancer. The Metabolic Radiotherapy Working Group of Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) endorsed the implementation of a consortium directed to thyroid cancer management and data collection...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Carsten Nieder, Rosalba Yobuta, Bård Mannsåker, Astrid Dalhaug
BACKGROUND/AIM: Geriatric oncology practice should be based on dedicated studies and real-world experience. Therefore, we evaluated survival outcomes after palliative thoracic radiotherapy in octogenarian patients with lung cancer and analyzed prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of 51 patients with a median age of 83 years. Three different fractionation regimens were compared: two fractions of 8.5 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, and higher doses than 30 Gy (maximum biologically equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) was always lower than 50 Gy)...
March 2018: In Vivo
Seán Walsh, Erik Roelofs, Peter Kuess, Yvonka van Wijk, Ben Vanneste, Andre Dekker, Philippe Lambin, Bleddyn Jones, Dietmar Georg, Frank Verhaegen
We present a methodology which can be utilized to select proton or photon radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Four state-of-the-art competing treatment modalities were compared (by way of an in silico trial) for a cohort of 25 prostate cancer patients, with and without correction strategies for prostate displacements. Metrics measured from clinical image guidance systems were used. Three correction strategies were investigated; no-correction, extended-no-action-limit, and online-correction. Clinical efficacy was estimated via radiobiological models incorporating robustness (how probable a given treatment plan was delivered) and stability (the consistency between the probable best and worst delivered treatments at the 95% confidence limit)...
February 18, 2018: Cancers
Lynda R Corrigan, Dara M Bracken-Clarke, Anne M Horgan
Pancreatic and biliary tract cancers are aggressive malignancies. They commonly present with metastatic or unresectable disease. Those that do present with resectable cancer have high rates of recurrence. Despite recent advances in surgical technique, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy regimens, they are associated with poor survival outcomes. These cancers represent an exception to the trend of improved overall survival evident in most malignancies in recent decades. Depending on the goal of treatment, active management of pancreatic and biliary cancers involves surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, either alone or in combination...
January 31, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Suresh Senan, Chad G Rusthoven, Ben J Slotman, Shankar Siva
This review highlights key publications and abstracts in the field of radiation oncology for lung cancer in 2017 and attempts to place these in the context of developments for the broader thoracic oncology community.
February 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Tomas Kron, Brent Chesson, Nicholas Hardcastle, Melissa Crain, Natalie Clements, Mark Burns, David Ball
OBJECTIVE: A randomised clinical trial comparing Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) with conventional radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer has been conducted in Australia and New Zealand under the auspices of the TransTasman Radiation Oncology Group (NCT01014130). We report on the technical credentialing program as prerequisite for centres joining the trial. METHODS: Participating centres were asked to develop treatment plans for two test cases to assess their ability to create plans according to protocol...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Joshua R Niska, Sameer R Keole, Barbara A Pockaj, Michele Y Halyard, Samir H Patel, Donald W Northfelt, Richard J Gray, Nabil Wasif, Carlos E Vargas, William W Wong
Background: Recent trials in early-stage breast cancer support hypofractionated whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT) as part of breast-conserving therapy (BCT). Evidence also suggests that radiotherapy (RT) omission may be reasonable for some patients over 70 years. Among radiation-delivery techniques, intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is more expensive than 3-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT). Based on this evidence, in 2013, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) recommended hypofractionated schedules for women aged ≥50 years with early-stage breast cancer and avoiding routine use of IMRT for WBRT...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Kuai-Le Zhao, Yi Xia, Yun-Hai Li, Yun Chen, Qi Liu, Jun-Hua Zhang, Jia-Ying Deng, Ta-Shan Ai, Han-Ting Zhu, Harun Badakhshi
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess the efficacy and feasibility of definitive chemoradiotherapy consisting of weekly doses of combined paclitaxel and carboplatin concurrent with radiation therapy, followed by 2 cycles of consolidation chemotherapy for advanced esophageal carcinoma. METHODS: Eligibility criteria included local, advanced, newly diagnosed and postoperative local regional lymph node metastasis; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ≤ 2; and adequate organ function...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
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