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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338969/current-and-future-challenges-of-radiation-oncology-in-iran-a-report-from-the-iranian-society-of-clinical-oncology
#1
A Ameri, M Barzegartahamtan, M Ghavamnasiri, R Mohammadpour, H Dehghan, A Sebzari, K Novin, M Aloosh
AIMS: Growth of the cancer incidence rate in Iran has been very high in recent years. Therefore, the Iranian health care system should be prepared for the treatment of a huge number of patients in the foreseeable future. One of the most important treatment options for cancer is radiation. However, there is no comprehensive information on infrastructure for radiation oncology in this country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2015, a questionnaire was designed by the Iranian Society of Clinical Oncology (ISCO) and all radiation oncology centres in the country were visited to determine four important components of radiation oncology services, including facilities, equipment, personnel and patients...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333114/carcinogenesis-induced-by-low-dose-radiation
#2
Igor Piotrowski, Katarzyna Kulcenty, Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Agnieszka Skrobała, Małgorzata Skórska, Marta Kruszyna-Mochalska, Anna Kowalik, Weronika Jackowiak, Julian Malicki
Background: Although the effects of high dose radiation on human cells and tissues are relatively well defined, there is no consensus regarding the effects of low and very low radiation doses on the organism. Ionizing radiation has been shown to induce gene mutations and chromosome aberrations which are known to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. The induction of secondary cancers is a challenging long-term side effect in oncologic patients treated with radiation. Medical sources of radiation like intensity modulated radiotherapy used in cancer treatment and computed tomography used in diagnostics, deliver very low doses of radiation to large volumes of healthy tissue, which might contribute to increased cancer rates in long surviving patients and in the general population...
December 2017: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313165/effectiveness-of-sacral-nerve-stimulation-in-fecal-incontinence-after-multimodal-oncologic-treatment-for-pelvic-malignancies-a-multicenter-study-with-2-year-follow-up
#3
M Schiano di Visconte, G A Santoro, N Cracco, G Sarzo, G Bellio, M Brunner, Z Cui, K E Matzel
BACKGROUND: To assess whether sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is an effective treatment for severe fecal incontinence (FI) after radiotherapy (RT)/chemoRT (CRT) in combination with pelvic surgery. METHODS: A multicenter study was conducted on patients with FI that developed after multimodal therapy for pelvic tumors and was refractory to non-operative management, who were treated with SNS between November 2009 and November 2012. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed...
January 8, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304828/oncogene-addiction-and-radiation-oncology-effect-of-radiotherapy-with-photons-and-carbon-ions-in-alk-eml4-translocated-nsclc
#4
Ying Dai, Quanxiang Wei, Christian Schwager, Janina Hanne, Cheng Zhou, Klaus Herfarth, Stefan Rieken, Kenneth E Lipson, Jürgen Debus, Amir Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Patients with Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive lung cancer are sensitive to ALK-kinase inhibitors. TAE684 is a potent second generation ALK inhibitor that overcomes Crizotinib resistance. Radiotherapy is an integral therapeutic component of locally advanced lung cancer. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effects of combined radiotherapy and ALK-inhibition via TAE684 in ALK-positive vs. wild type lung cancer cells...
January 5, 2018: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273957/oncological-strategies-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-with-synchronous-liver-metastases-interval-strategy-versus-rectum-first-strategy-a-comparison-of-short-term-outcomes
#5
H Salvador-Rosés, S López-Ben, M Casellas-Robert, P Planellas, N Gómez-Romeu, R Farrés, E Ramos, A Codina-Cazador, J Figueras
BACKGROUND: The goal of treatment for patients with synchronous liver metastases (SLM) from rectal cancer is to achieve a complete resection of both tumor locations. For patients with symptomatic locally advanced rectal cancer with resectable SLM at diagnosis, our usual strategy has been the rectum first approach (RF). However, since 2014, we advocate for the interval approach (IS) that involves the administration of chemo-radiotherapy followed by the resection of the SLM in the interval of time between rectal cancer radiation and rectal surgery...
December 22, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250970/-image-guided-radiotherapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-with-intravesical-lipiodol-injection-a-new-option-for-bladder-sparing-treatment
#6
Jorgo Kliton, Csaba Polgár, Péter Tenke, Gábor Kovács, Tibor Major, Gábor Stelczer, Péter Ágoston
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: To implement lipiodol as a fiducial marker of the tumor bed for image-guided radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost technique as part of radiochemotherapy for muscle invasive bladder tumors. METHOD: Since April 2016, radiochemotherapy was performed in 3 male patients with muscle invasive, transitional cell bladder carcinoma. Prior to radiochemotherapy, tumor bed resection was performed for each patient, at the same time 10 ml of lipiodol solution was injected submucosally into the resection site, thus marking the tumor bed for escalated dose irradiation...
December 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248399/palliative-chemoradiotherapy-versus-radiotherapy-alone-for-dysphagia-in-advanced-oesophageal-cancer-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-trog-03-01
#7
Michael G Penniment, Paolo B De Ieso, Jennifer A Harvey, Sonya Stephens, Heather-Jane Au, Christopher J O'Callaghan, Andrew Kneebone, Samuel Y Ngan, Iain G Ward, Rajarshi Roy, Jennifer G Smith, Tirath Nijjar, James J Biagi, Liam A Mulroy, Rebecca Wong
BACKGROUND: A short course of radiotherapy is commonly prescribed for palliative relief of malignant dysphagia in patients with incurable oesophageal cancer. We compared chemoradiotherapy with radiotherapy alone for dysphagia relief in the palliative setting. METHODS: This multicentre randomised controlled trial included patients with advanced or metastatic oesophageal cancer who were randomly assigned (1:1) through a computer-generated adaptive biased coin design to either palliative chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone for treatment of malignant dysphagia at 22 hospitals in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the UK...
December 13, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241706/placement-of-an-absorbable-rectal-hydrogel-spacer-in-patients-undergoing-low-dose-rate-brachytherapy-with-palladium-103
#8
Amandeep S Taggar, Tomer Charas, Gil'ad N Cohen, Keeratikarn Boonyawan, Marisa Kollmeier, Sean McBride, Nitin Mathur, Antonio L Damato, Michael J Zelefsky
PURPOSE: Rates of rectal toxicity after low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer are dependent on rectal dose, which is associated with rectal distance from prostate and implanted seeds. Placement of a hydrogel spacer between the prostate and rectum has proven to reduce the volume of the rectum exposed to higher radiation dose levels in the setting of external beam radiotherapy. We present our findings with placing a rectal hydrogel spacer in patients following LDR brachytherapy, and we further assess the impact of this placement on dosimetry and acute rectal toxicity...
December 11, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233574/the-principles-and-practice-of-re-irradiation-in-clinical-oncology-an-overview
#9
W Dörr, D Gabryś
Long-term cancer survivors are at risk of the development of recurrence or a new primary cancer that requires a second (or third) radio-oncological treatment. Publications on re-irradiation have been followed and are summarised in this overview. Information from clinical and experimental animal studies suggests that specific normal tissues can tolerate a considerable retreatment radiation dose. However, the risk of normal tissue damage and the impact on the quality of life must be considered. If a second course of radiotherapy needs to be administered, this should be done with maximum care and accuracy...
February 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233573/re-irradiation-in-gynaecological-malignancies-a-review
#10
A H Sadozye
Re-irradiation in gynaecological malignancies has become an increasingly frequent consideration. This can be delivered in multiple settings, with the most common being a patient with a history of cervical cancer developing a new vaginal cancer or endometrial cancer with local recurrence after hysterectomy and adjuvant pelvic radiation. A systematic review of the literature has unearthed a handful of reports, most delivering brachytherapy, with a small number on both external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic ablative radiotherapy...
February 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226334/early-stage-olfactory-neuroblastoma-and-the-impact-of-resecting-dura-and-olfactory-bulb
#11
Ashley C Mays, Diana Bell, Renata Ferrarotto, Jack Phan, Dianna Roberts, Clifton D Fuller, Steven J Frank, Shaan M Raza, Michael E Kupferman, Franco DeMonte, Ehab Y Hanna, Shirley Y Su
OBJECTIVE: Compare outcomes of patients with olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) without skull base involvement treated with and without resection of the dura and olfactory bulb. METHODS: Retrospective review of ONB patients treated from 1992 to 2013 at the MD Anderson Cancer Center (The University of Texas, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.). Primary outcomes were overall and disease-free survival. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients were identified. Most patients had Kadish A/B...
December 11, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225693/cytoreductive-prostate-radiotherapy-in-oligometastatic-prostate-cancer-a-single-centre-analysis-of-toxicity-and-clinical-outcome
#12
Giulia Riva, Giulia Marvaso, Matteo Augugliaro, Dario Zerini, Cristiana Fodor, Gennaro Musi, Ottavio De Cobelli, Roberto Orecchia, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa
Objectives: The current standard of care for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) at diagnosis is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with or without anti-androgen and chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to define the role of a local radiotherapy (RT) treatment in the mPCa setting. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients with PCa and bone oligometastases at diagnosis treated in our institution with ADT followed by cytoreductive prostate-RT with or without RT on metastases...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225692/recent-advances-in-radiation-oncology
#13
REVIEW
Cristina Garibaldi, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Samantha Dicuonzo, Damaris Patricia Rojas, Federica Cattani, Anna Starzyńska, Delia Ciardo, Alessia Surgo, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Rosalinda Ricotti
Radiotherapy (RT) is very much a technology-driven treatment modality in the management of cancer. RT techniques have changed significantly over the past few decades, thanks to improvements in engineering and computing. We aim to highlight the recent developments in radiation oncology, focusing on the technological and biological advances. We will present state-of-the-art treatment techniques, employing photon beams, such as intensity-modulated RT, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, stereotactic body RT and adaptive RT, which make possible a highly tailored dose distribution with maximum normal tissue sparing...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224827/humidification-mitigates-acute-mucosal-toxicity-during-radiotherapy-when-factoring-volumetric-parameters-trans-tasman-radiation-oncology-group-trog-radiohum-07-03-substudy
#14
A Macann, F Fauzi, J Simpson, G Sasso, H Krawitz, C Fraser-Browne, J Manitz, A Raith
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): To model in a subset of patients from TROG 07.03 managed at a single site the association between domiciliary based humidification use and mucositis symptom burden during radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) when factoring in volumetric radiotherapy parameters derived from tumour and normal tissue regions of interest. MATERIALS/METHODS: From June 2008 through June 2011, 210 patients with HNC receiving RT were randomised to either a control arm or humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier...
December 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218269/blood-based-biomarkers-for-precision-medicine-in-lung-cancer-precision-radiation-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Dirk De Ruysscher, Jianyue Jin, Tim Lautenschlaeger, Jin-Xiong She, Zhongxing Liao, Feng-Ming Spring Kong
Both tumors and patients are complex and models that determine survival and toxicity of radiotherapy or any other treatment ideally must take into account this variability as well as its dynamic state. The genetic features of the tumor and the host, and increasingly also the epi-genetic and proteomic characteristics, are being unraveled. Multiple techniques, including histological examination, blood sampling, measurement of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and functional and molecular imaging, can be used for this purpose...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218267/radiomics-in-precision-medicine-for-lung-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Julie Constanzo, Lise Wei, Huan-Hsin Tseng, Issam El Naqa
With the improvement of external radiotherapy delivery accuracy, such as intensity-modulated and stereotactic body radiation therapy, radiation oncology has recently entered in the era of precision medicine. Despite these precise irradiation modalities, lung cancers remain one of the most aggressive human cancers worldwide, possibly because of diverse genotypic alterations that drive and maintain lung tumorigenesis. It has been long recognized that imaging could aid in the diagnosis, tumor delineation, and monitoring of lung cancer...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198341/concomitant-use-of-corticosteroids-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-patients-with-hematologic-or-solid-neoplasms-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
A Garant, C Guilbault, T Ekmekjian, Z Greenwald, P Murgoi, T Vuong
PURPOSE: Clinical trials studying immune checkpoint inhibitors exclude patients on corticosteroids, due to the hypothesis that corticosteroids may antagonize immunotherapy. We performed a systematic review of the literature looking at the clinical outcomes of cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and concomitant corticosteroids. METHODS: The following databases were searched for relevant studies: MEDLINE, Embase Classic+Embase, BIOSIS Previews, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the CENTRAL Registry of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Scopus...
December 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189448/tumor-boost-using-external-beam-radiation-in-cervical-cancer-patients-unable-to-receive-intracavitary-brachytherapy-outcome-from-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-korean-radiation-oncology-group-1419
#18
Haeyoung Kim, Young Seok Kim, Ji Hyeon Joo, Keun-Yong Eom, Won Park, Jin Hee Kim, Jong Hoon Lee, Yeon Sil Kim, Seok Ho Lee, Kijung Ahn, Yong Bae Kim, Me-Yeon Lee, Sei Kyung Chang
PURPOSE: We conducted this study to evaluate the outcomes of external-beam radiotherapy tumor boost (EBRT-B) in cervical cancer patients who could not receive intracavitary brachytherapy. METHODS: A total of 11 hospitals provided the data of patients who received EBRT-B during the period from January 2005 through October 2012. RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were included. The median radiotherapy dose was 46 Gy (range, 40-54 Gy) for whole pelvis and 24 Gy (range, 9-35 Gy) for EBRT-B...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184783/contemporary-role-of-radiotherapy-in-the-management-of-penile-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Martin Arthur Korzeniowski, Juanita Mary Crook
Penile cancer is a rare clinical entity that contributes to significant patient morbidity and mortality. Human papilloma virus (HPV) plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is associated with improved clinical outcomes, and is predictive for response to treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Historically, treatment consisted of radical surgery with partial or total penectomy. While effective for local control, surgical resection can impart significant physical, psychological and sexual dysfunction for afflicted men...
October 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184441/potential-role-of-radiation-therapy-in-augmenting-the-activity-of-immunotherapy-for-gynecologic-cancers
#20
REVIEW
Christina H Son, Gini F Fleming, John W Moroney
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have become an area of intense interest in oncology and are actively being studied in a variety of cancer types with a wide range of success. In vitro data suggest mechanisms by which radiation can activate the immune system, and ongoing studies are exploring the potential interaction of checkpoint inhibitors with radiotherapy in both preclinical and clinical settings. Gynecologic malignancies are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying prognoses, intrinsic immunogenicity, and potential for response to immune-based therapies...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
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