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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658441/efficacy-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-combined-with-cognitive-training-in-the-treatment-of-apathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-trial
#1
Jean-Paul Nguyen, Claire Boutoleau-Bretonniere, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Alcira Suarez, Helene Gaillard, Guillaume Chapelet, Sebastien Abad, Aurelien Van Langhenhove, Julian Nizard, Laure de Decker
BACKGROUND: Apathy, commonly defined as loss of motivation, is a symptom frequently encountered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The treatment of apathy remains challenging in the absence of any truly effective medications. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve cognitive disorders, but do not appear to improve apathy. Isolated cognitive training also appears to have no effect on apathy. We propose to test the efficacy of a new procedure for the treatment of apathy in AD patients consisting of a combination of tDCS and cognitive training, based on the latest guidelines for the design of therapeutic trials in this field...
April 16, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614647/reduced-cerebrovascular-reserve-capacity-as-a-biomarker-of-microangiopathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Barbora Soukupova Urbanova, Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova, Hana Magerova, Petr Jansky, Hana Markova, Martin Vyhnalek, Jan Laczo, Jakub Hort, Ales Tomek
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microangiopathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes chronic hypoperfusion and probably accelerates neurodegenerative changes. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize microvascular impairment could be present already in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and can be revealed using transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) and the breath-holding maneuver. METHODS: Three groups of subjects (AD in the stage of dementia, MCI, and cognitively normal controls) with detailed neuropsychological testing and low cerebrovascular burden (no history of stroke, no intra- or extracranial artery stenoses, and no severe vascular lesions on brain MRI), underwent a TCCS assessment of peak systolic (PSV), mean flow (MFV), and end diastolic velocities (EDV) and resistance and pulsatility indices (RI, PI) in large intracranial vessels bilaterally...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560413/effect-of-donepezil-on-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-parameters-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Yun Tae Hwang, Lorenzo Rocchi, Paul Hammond, Chris Jd Hardy, Jason D Warren, Basil H Ridha, John Rothwell, Martin N Rossor
Introduction: There is a need for a reliable, noninvasive biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed whether short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm that assesses cholinergic circuits of the brain, could become such a biomarker. Methods: Nineteen patients with AD underwent four SAI testing sessions. The timing of their usual donepezil dose was altered to create different cholinergic states for each session. This was compared to the SAI results from 20 healthy subjects...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503329/neuroimaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Madhavi Tripathi, Atin Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal
Neuroimaging (NI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) includes functional techniques like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and morphological imaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial sonography to probe different aspects of the neurobiology of PD. Changes in neurotransmitters in various regions of the brain and their influence on brain networks is the basis for the motor symptoms of PD which are interrogated by NI. The recent Movement Disorders Society Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for PD (MDS-PD) have included the results of a few of these neuroimaging techniques to serve as single supportive criteria or absolute exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of PD...
March 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452906/extracranial-arterial-wall-volume-is-increased-and-shows-relationships-with-vascular-mri-measures-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Stephen Ball, Sarah Al-Bachari, Laura M Parkes, Hedley C A Emsley, Charles N McCollum
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by dementia. Cardiovascular risk factors and spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) are strongly associated with Alzheimer's (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). We measured SCE in the middle cerebral artery and arterial wall volume in the extracranial arteries in patients with IPD and controls, and explored the relationships with structural and physiological MRI brain neurovascular measures...
April 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439353/evaluating-peripersonal-space-through-the-functional-transcranial-doppler-are-we-paving-the-way-for-early-detecting-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-conversion
#6
Angela Marra, Antonino Naro, Antonino Chillura, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppa Maresca, Rosaria De Luca, Alfredo Manuli, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: Identifying the patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who may develop dementia (MDC) is challenging. The study of peripersonal space (PPS) by using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) could be used for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during motor tasks targeting PPS, which can predict MDC. METHODS: We evaluated the changes in CBF in 22 patients with MCI and 23 with dementia [Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD)] during a motor task (passive mobilization, motor imagery, and movement observation) in which the hand of the subject moved forward and backward the face...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415084/mr-guided-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-safely-enhances-interstitial-dispersion-of-large-polymeric-nanoparticles-in-the-living-brain
#7
David S Hersh, Pavlos Anastasiadis, Ali Mohammadabadi, Ben A Nguyen, Sijia Guo, Jeffrey A Winkles, Anthony J Kim, Rao Gullapalli, Asaf Keller, Victor Frenkel, Graeme F Woodworth
Generating spatially controlled, non-destructive changes in the interstitial spaces of the brain has a host of potential clinical applications, including enhancing the delivery of therapeutics, modulating biological features within the tissue microenvironment, altering fluid and pressure dynamics, and increasing the clearance of toxins, such as plaques found in Alzheimer's disease. Recently we demonstrated that ultrasound can non-destructively enlarge the interstitial spaces of the brain ex vivo. The goal of the current study was to determine whether these effects could be reproduced in the living brain using non-invasive, transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406914/cerebral-vasoreactivity-and-intima-media-thickness-in-down-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#8
M Colella, C Stilo, A Cocchella, D Bianchini, A Pilotto, P Del Sette, R Musolino
Subjects with Down Syndrome (DS) have high prevalence of cerebral vascular amyloidosis, cognitive decline and dementia. In Alzheimer Disease, impaired vasoreactivity has been reported as the results of vascular amyloid deposition. Aim of our study was to verify presence of impaired cerebral vasoreactivity and to study carotid intima media-thickness (IMT) by carotid and transcranial ultrasound. We studied 25 DS and compared them with 25 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Vasomotor reactivity was evaluated by means of breath-holding index (BHI) test...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338427/lipid-nanoparticles-for-intranasal-administration-application-to-nose-to-brain-delivery
#9
Luigi Battaglia, Pier Paolo Panciani, Elisabetta Muntoni, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Elena Biasibetti, Pasquale De Bonis, Silvia Mioletti, Marco Fontanella, Shankar Swaminathan
The blood brain barrier is a functional barrier allowing the entry into the brain of only essential nutrients, excluding other molecules. Its structure, although essential to keep the harmful entities out, is also a major roadblock for pharmacological treatment of brain diseases. Several alternative invasive drug delivery approaches, such as transcranial drug delivery and disruption of blood brain barrier have been explored, with limited success and several challenges. Intranasal delivery is a non-invasive methodology, which bypasses the systemic circulation, and, through the intra- and extra- neuronal pathways, provides direct brain drug delivery...
April 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331848/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-apathy-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-double-blind-randomized-sham-controlled-cross-over-pilot-study
#10
Prasad R Padala, Kalpana P Padala, Shelly Y Lensing, Andrea N Jackson, Cassandra R Hunter, Christopher M Parkes, Richard A Dennis, Melinda M Bopp, Ricardo Caceda, Mark S Mennemeier, Paula K Roberson, Dennis H Sullivan
Apathy is a common and disabling behavioral concomitant of many neurodegenerative conditions. The presence of apathy with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is linked with heightened rates of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Improving apathy may slow the neurodegenerative process. The objective was to establish the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving apathy in older adults with MCI. An 8-week, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled cross-over study was conducted in nine subjects (66 ± 9 years) with apathy and MCI...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318972/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-reverses-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-dysfunction-in-gamma-oscillation-during-working-memory
#11
Wenwen Bai, Tiaotiao Liu, Mengmeng Dou, Mi Xia, Jun Lu, Xin Tian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that gradually induces cognitive deficits in the elderly and working memory impairment is typically observed in AD. Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a causative factor for the cognitive impairments in AD. Gamma oscillations have been recognized to play important roles in various cognitive functions including working memory. Previous study reported that Aβ induces gamma oscillation dysfunction in working memory. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a technique for noninvasive stimulation to induce cortical activity and excitability changes and has been accepted for increasing brain excitability and regulating cognitive behavior...
January 9, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307007/neurophysiology-and-neurochemistry-of-corticobasal-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Aditya A Murgai, Mandar S Jog
Corticobasal syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, which presents with a progressive, asymmetrical, akinetic rigid syndrome and early cortical signs. However, clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological heterogeneity makes the understanding of this syndrome challenging. Corticobasal syndrome can have various pathological substrates including corticobasal degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-temporal degeneration with TDP inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277405/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-precuneus-enhances-memory-and-neural-activity-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Giacomo Koch, Sonia Bonnì, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Elias P Casula, Matteo Mancini, Romina Esposito, Viviana Ponzo, Silvia Picazio, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Laura Serra, Caterina Motta, Michele Maiella, Camillo Marra, Mara Cercignani, Alessandro Martorana, Carlo Caltagirone, Marco Bozzali
Memory loss is one of the first symptoms of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD), for which there are no effective therapies available. The precuneus (PC) has been recently emphasized as a key area for the memory impairment observed in early AD, likely due to disconnection mechanisms within large-scale networks such as the default mode network (DMN). Using a multimodal approach we investigated in a two-week, randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the PC on cognition, as measured by the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite in 14 patients with early AD (7 females)...
April 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274774/nanotherapy-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-vascular-dementia-targeting-senile-endothelium
#14
REVIEW
Joseph S D'Arrigo
Due to the complexity of Alzheimer's disease, multiple cellular types need to be targeted simultaneously in order for a given therapy to demonstrate any major effectiveness. Ultrasound-sensitive coated microbubbles (in a targeted lipid nanoemulsion) are available. Versatile small molecule drug(s) targeting multiple pathways of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis are known. By incorporating such drug(s) into the targeted "lipid-coated microbubble" [LCM]/"nanoparticle-derived" [ND] (or LCM/ND) nanoemulsion type, one obtains a multitasking combination therapeutic for translational medicine...
January 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259554/strengthening-of-existing-episodic-memories-through-non-invasive-stimulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#15
Rosa Manenti, Marco Sandrini, Elena Gobbi, Chiara Cobelli, Michela Brambilla, Giuliano Binetti, Maria Cotelli
Episodic memory is critical to daily life functioning. This type of declarative memory declines with age and is the earliest cognitive function to be compromised in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjective memory complaints are commonly reported by older adults and have been considered a risk factor for developing AD. The possibilities for prevention of memory disorders in older adults have increased substantially in recent years. Previous studies have shown that anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) applied over the left lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) after a contextual reminder strengthened existing verbal episodic memories, conceivably through reconsolidation, in elderly people...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234304/hypothesis-on-the-role-of-cryptochromes-in-inflammation-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-outcome
#16
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Ariel Barreto Nogueira, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV) in the day-night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24 ) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (<35°C). Specifically, we found that ICP24  = 6 (4 - TV) mmHg. TV is the ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal and the preceding diurnal periods. This result suggests that the circadian clock reflects brain plasticity mechanisms and its malfunctioning leads to deterioration of the neurologic status...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
February 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195744/discrimination-of-atypical-parkinsonisms-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#18
Alberto Benussi, Valentina Dell'Era, Valentina Cantoni, Clarissa Ferrari, Salvatore Caratozzolo, Luca Rozzini, Antonella Alberici, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian disorders, i.e. dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) still remains problematic. Furthermore, DLB may overlap with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the early stages of disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to classify atypical parkinsonian disorders and AD. METHODS: A paired-pulse TMS multi-paradigm approach assessing multiple intracortical circuits, as short interval intracortical inhibition-facilitation and short latency afferent inhibition, was used to model a decision tree analysis and determine diagnostic accuracy in classifying different neurodegenerative disorders...
March 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103291/current-and-future-uses-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-in-neurosurgery
#19
David S Hersh, Howard M Eisenberg
Focused ultrasound (FUS) produces a region of high intensity at the focal zone of the beam but with minimal effects at adjacent areas, allowing the sonication of deep targets throughout the body. Despite early obstacles to transmitting ultrasound energy through the skull, recent advances in ultrasound technology, software, and real-time monitoring have resulted in a renewed interest in the clinical applications of transcranial FUS. Following extensive pre-clinical studies, ultrasound-induced thermal ablation has been approved by several countries for the treatment of essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and neuropathic pain...
April 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103031/transcranial-sonography-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-decline
#20
Silvia Favaretto, Uwe Walter, Claudio Baracchini, Annachiara Cagnin
Transcranial sonography (TCS) of the brain parenchyma detects alterations in the substantia nigra (SN), raphe nuclei and basal ganglia; this technique has been established as a tool for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and differential diagnosis from atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here, we aimed to review the main applications of TCS in neurodegenerative diseases presenting with dementia syndrome, focusing on Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal lobar degeneration, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, and atypical and secondary parkinsonisms...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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