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Alzheimers transcranial

Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
Irene Gonsalvez, Roey Baror, Peter Fried, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a looming public health crisis that currently lacks an effective treatment. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (NBS), particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), offers a promising alternative approach to pharmacological interventions for an increasing number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The aim of this review is summarize data from therapeutic trials of NBS in AD and other dementing illnesses. Despite the potential of NBS, there is limited theoretical framework and a lack of guidelines for its applications to AD...
September 30, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Peter J Fried, Lukas Schilberg, Anna-Katharine Brem, Sadhvi Saxena, Bonnie Wong, Aaron M Cypess, Edward S Horton, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accelerates cognitive aging and increases risk of Alzheimer's disease. Rodent models of T2DM show altered synaptic plasticity associated with reduced learning and memory. Humans with T2DM also show cognitive deficits, including reduced learning and memory, but the relationship of these impairments to the efficacy of neuroplastic mechanisms has never been assessed. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to compare mechanisms of cortical plasticity in humans with and without T2DM...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jose Martin Rabey, Evgenia Dobronevsky
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among the elderly. Common treatments available and non-pharmacological interventions have their limitations, and new therapeutic approaches are critically needed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that generates an electric current-inducing modulation in cortical excitability. The previous clinical trials showed that combinations of rTMS and cognitive training (rTMS-COG), as provided by the NeuroAD medical device system, offer a novel, safe, and effective method improving mild-to-moderate AD patients...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Łukasz Smoliński, Anna Członkowska
Small-caliber cerebral vessels change their diameters in response to alterations of key metabolite concentrations such as carbon dioxide or oxygen. This phenomenon, termed the cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR), is the basis for blood flow regulation in the brain in accordance with its metabolic status. Typically, CVMR is determined as the amount of change in cerebral blood flow in response to a vasodilating stimulus, which can be measured by various neuroimaging methods or by transcranial Doppler. It has been shown that CVMR is impaired in cerebrovascular diseases, but there is also evidence of a similar dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders...
August 5, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Paolo Maria Rossini, Riccardo Di Iorio, Giuseppe Granata, Francesca Miraglia, Fabrizio Vecchio
In a recent study, analyzing the modulation of γ-band oscillations, Naro and colleagues demonstrated that transcranial alternating current stimulation could drive the gamma rhythms in the human EEG in cognitive healthy elderly subjects but not in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) prodromal to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in early AD patients. Therefore, this method is proposed to intercept early in the disease course those MCI subjects who are in a pre-symptomatic stage of an already established AD. This prediction index may help the clinician to adopt a better prevention/follow-up strategy...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Caroline Lustenberger, Michael R Boyle, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Juliann M Mellin, Bradley V Vaughn, Flavio Fröhlich
Transient episodes of brain oscillations are a common feature of both the waking and the sleeping brain. Sleep spindles represent a prominent example of a poorly understood transient brain oscillation that is impaired in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, the causal role of these bouts of thalamo-cortical oscillations remains unknown. Demonstrating a functional role of sleep spindles in cognitive processes has, so far, been hindered by the lack of a tool to target transient brain oscillations in real time...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Therese M O'Neil-Pirozzi, Deniz Doruk, Jennifer M Thomson, Felipe Fregni
PURPOSE/AIM: Memory impairment post-TBI is common, frequently persistent, and functionally debilitating. The purposes of this pilot study were to assess and to compare immediate behavioral auditory working memory and electrophysiologic effects of three different, randomized, conditions of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to four neurotypical adults and four adults with chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIALS/METHODS: Pre- and post- anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS auditory memory performance, auditory event-related potentials (P300 amplitude and latency) and power of alpha and theta EEG bands were measured across individuals in each group...
July 24, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Olga Meulenbroek, Sarah O'Dwyer, Daan de Jong, Gerrita van Spijker, Sean Kennelly, Fiona Cregg, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Laila Abdullah, Anders Wallin, Cathal Walsh, Robert Coen, Rose Anne Kenny, Leslie Daly, Ricardo Segurado, Anne Borjesson-Hanson, Fiona Crawford, Michael Mullan, Ugo Lucca, Rita Banzi, Florence Pasquier, Laetitia Breuilh, Matthias Riepe, Janos Kalman, William Molloy, Magda Tsolaki, Robert Howard, Jessica Adams, Siobhan Gaynor, Brian Lawlor
INTRODUCTION: In conjunction with the NILVAD trial, a European Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo Controlled trial of Nilvadipine in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are four NILVAD substudies in which eligible NILVAD patients are also invited to participate. The main NILVAD protocol was previously published in BMJ Open (2014). The objectives of the NILVAD substudies are to determine whether frailty, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood biomarker profile and Apolipoprotein E (APOE) status predict response to Nilvadipine, and to investigate the effect of Nilvadipine on cerebral blood flow and blood biomarkers...
2016: BMJ Open
Żanna Pastuszak, Anna Stępień, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Bogdan Brodacki, Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a treatment option with proved effectiveness especially in drug resist depression. It is used in functional brain mapping before neurosurgery operations and diagnostic of corticospinal tract transmission. Many studies are performed to evaluate rTMS using in treatment of obsessive - compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, autism, strokes, tinnitus, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, cranial traumas. Moreover rTMS was used in treatment of multiple sclerosis, migraine, dystonia...
June 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Antonino Naro, Francesco Corallo, Simona De Salvo, Angela Marra, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Nunzio Muscarà, Margherita Russo, Silvia Marino, Rosaria De Luca, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
The differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not always straightforward, and the rate of progression of MCI to dementia is not negligible. Thus, there is a need for para-clinical approaches that can improve the differential diagnosis and identify patients that are at risk of progression. There is a growing interest, at present, in the role of the deterioration of brain oscillations as a predictor of MCI-to-AD conversion. For this reason, we experimentally modulated γ-band oscillations (GBO) in a sample of MCI and AD patients and an age-matched healthy elderly group, using a transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) protocol that was applied to different cortical sites...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Matthieu Bereau, Eloi Magnin, Magali Nicolier, Louis Berthet, Elfried Dariel, Sabrina Ferreira, Géraldine Sylvestre, Julie Monnin, Gilles Chopard, Hatem Bouladour, Pierre Vandel, Emmanuel Haffen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (hf-rTMS) improves language skills in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report the use of hf-rTMS in a patient with logopenic primary progressive aphasia (LPPA) due to AD. METHOD: hf-rTMS was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of a LPPA patient. Cerebral perfusion, neuropsychological and linguistic performances were evaluated before and 1 month after hf-rTMS. RESULTS: The tolerance was good...
2016: European Neurology
M V Galkin
Transcranial focused ultrasound is a modern medical technique, which provides non-invasive impact on the brain. Current development stage of this technique is no longer than 20 years and many possible applications of this technique are still at pre-clinical stage. The greatest progress has been made in the field of functional neurosurgery. Focused ultrasound enables non-invasive MRI-guided formation of small destruction foci in the relevant targets, providing therapeutic neuromodulating effects in patients with Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, pain syndromes, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and other diseases...
2016: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
R Yilmaz, A Pilotto, B Roeben, O Preiche, U Suenkel, S Heinzel, F G Metzger, C Laske, W Maetzler, D Berg
Purpose: One of the anatomical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the atrophy of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), yet cost-effective and broadly available methodological alternatives to the current imaging tools for screening of this brain area are not currently available. Materials and Methods: Using structural transcranial ultrasound (TCS), we attempted to visualize and measure the MTL, and compared the results of 32 AD patients and 84 healthy controls (HC). The MTL and the surrounding space were defined in the coronal plane on TCS...
June 7, 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Gary W Arendash
We have demonstrated in multiple studies that daily, long-term electromagnetic field (EMF) treatment in the ultra-high frequency range not only protects Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice from cognitive impairment, but also reverses such impairment in aged AD mice. Moreover, these beneficial cognitive effects appear to be through direct actions on the AD process. Based on a large array of pre-clinical data, we have initiated a pilot clinical trial to determine the safety and efficacy of EMF treatment to mild-moderate AD subjects...
May 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Francesco Di Lorenzo, Viviana Ponzo, Sonia Bonnì, Caterina Motta, Priscilla C Negrão Serra, Marco Bozzali, Carlo Caltagirone, Alessandro Martorana, Giacomo Koch
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered an age-related disorder. However, it is unclear whether AD induces the same pathological and neurophysiological modifications in synaptic functions independently from age of disease onset. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation tools to investigate the mechanisms of cortical plasticity and sensory-motor integration in AD patients with a wide range of disease onset. METHODS: We evaluated newly diagnosed sporadic AD (n = 54) in comparison with healthy age-matched controls (HS; n = 24)...
August 2016: Annals of Neurology
Bankim S Chander, Matthias Witkowski, Christoph Braun, Stephen E Robinson, Jan Born, Leonardo G Cohen, Niels Birbaumer, Surjo R Soekadar
BACKGROUND: Frontal midline theta (FMT) oscillations (4-8 Hz) are strongly related to cognitive and executive control during mental tasks such as memory processing, arithmetic problem solving or sustained attention. While maintenance of temporal order information during a working memory (WM) task was recently linked to FMT phase, a positive correlation between FMT power, WM demand and WM performance was shown. However, the relationship between these measures is not well understood, and it is unknown whether purposeful FMT phase manipulation during a WM task impacts FMT power and WM performance...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Pablo Martin-Trias, Véronique Bragulat, Cleofé Peña-Gómez, Roser Sala-Llonch, Laura Lanteaume, Catherine Cassé-Perrot, Olivier Blin, Joëlle Micallef, Alexandra Auffret, David Bartrés-Faz
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was proposed as a neurophysiological tool almost three decades ago. It now encompasses a very wide range of applications including clinical research and the treatment of psychiatric, neurologic and medical conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, addictions, post-traumatic stress disorders, pain, migraine, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, autism, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. By inducing electrical brain responses through the administration of magnetic pulses, TMS is in a unique position to painlessly modulate cortical regions and offers good spatial resolution and excellent temporal resolution, particularly when applied using single pulses...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jaroslav Pancak, Helena Wagnerova, Andrea Škultéty Szárazová, Andrej Blaho, Ondrej Durovsky, Judita Durovska
OBJECTIVES: Dementias are one of the most serious health and socioeconomic issues. Multi-infarct dementia (MID) and Alzheimer´s type dementia (AD) exhibit differences in cerebrovascular blood flow velocity profiles and in presence of microemboli, detected by transcranial Doppler sonography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 77 persons was divided into 4 subgroups: 1. subgroup of patients with MID (n=19; 10 male and 9 female, mean age was 74.32±8.30 years); 2. subgroup of patients with AD (n=19; 11 male and 8 female, mean age was 70...
2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
D Antonenko, A Flöel
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been successfully used in neuroscientific research to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies suggested that improvement of behavioral performance is associated with tDCS-induced modulation of neuronal activity and connectivity. Thus, tDCS may also represent a promising tool for reconstitution of cognitive functions in the context of memory decline related to Alzheimer's disease or aphasia following stroke; however, evidence from randomized sham-controlled clinical trials is still scarce...
August 2016: Der Nervenarzt
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