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Pharmaceutical economics

S Bockel, A Vallard, A Lévy, S François, M Bourdis, C Le Gallic, D Riccobono, P Annede, M Drouet, Y Tao, P Blanchard, É Deutsch, N Magné, C Chargari
Radiation-induced mucositis is a common toxicity, especially in patients with head and neck cancers. Despite recent technological advances in radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, radiation-induced mucositis is still causing treatment disruptions, negatively affecting patients' long and short term quality of life, and impacting medical resources use with economic consequences. The objective of this article was to review the latest updates in the management of radiation-induced mucositis, with a focus on pharmaceutical strategies for the prevention or treatment of mucositis...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Stella Pegoraro Alves, Denise Bueno
The scope of this study was to establish the profile of caregivers of pediatric patients diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and prospective study in which the caregivers of fibrocystic patients were interviewed during pharmaceutical consultation in a reference center of a University Hospital in southern Brazil. General information was obtained about the caregivers and about their understanding of the disease, drug consumption and dynamics of treatment at home and at school...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Mojgan Forootan, Nazila Bagheri, Mohammad Darvishi
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation is described as a common complication determined by difficult and/or rare passage of stool or both. The difference in definition of constipation has led to a wide range of reported prevalence (i.e., between 1% and 80%). Various factors are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, including type of diet, genetic predisposition, colonic motility, absorption, social economic status, daily behaviors, and biological and pharmaceutical factors. Diagnostic and therapeutic options play a key role in the treatment of chronic constipation...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jinju Ma, Liyi Ma, Hong Zhang, Zhongquan Zhang, Youqiong Wang, Kai Li, Xiaoming Chen
BACKGROUND: Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. RESULTS: The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112...
2018: PloS One
Daniel A Ollendorf, Richard H Chapman, Steven D Pearson
We find ourselves in an era of unprecedented growth in the development and use of so-called "orphan" drugs to treat rare diseases, which are poised to represent more than one-fifth of pharmaceutical expenditures by 2022. This widespread use has been facilitated by legislative and regulatory incentives in both the United States and abroad, yet US payers and health systems have not yet made a concerted effort to understand whether and how rare diseases require special considerations on their part and how to adapt traditional methods of health technology assessment and economic evaluation to accommodate these situations...
May 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
T Joseph Mattingly, Joseph F Levy, Julia F Slejko, Nneka C Onwudiwe, Eleanor M Perfetto
BACKGROUND: Drug costs are frequently estimated in economic analyses using wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), but what is the best approach to develop these estimates? Pharmaceutical manufacturers recently released transparency reports disclosing net price increases after accounting for rebates and other discounts. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether manufacturer net prices (MNPs) could approximate the discounted prices observed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)...
May 12, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Brian Salter, Charlotte Salter
In recent years ageing has travelled from the placid backwaters of politics into the mainstream of economic, social and cultural debate. What are the forces that have politicised ageing, creating a sustained opposition to the supply side hegemony of pharmaceuticals, medicine and state which has historically constructed, propagated and legitimised the understanding of ageing as decline in social worth? In addressing this question, the paper develops Gramsci's theory of hegemony to include the potentially disruptive demand side power of consumers and markets...
May 8, 2018: Sociology of Health & Illness
Jonathan J Chen, Lyndsey N Schmucker, Donald P Visco
When excessively activated, C1 is insufficiently regulated, which results in tissue damage. Such tissue damage causes the complement system to become further activated to remove the resulting tissue damage, and a vicious cycle of activation/tissue damage occurs. Current Food and Drug Administration approved treatments include supplemental recombinant C1 inhibitor, but these are extremely costly and a more economical solution is desired. In our work, we have utilized an existing data set of 136 compounds that have been previously tested for activity against C1...
May 7, 2018: Biomolecules
Ramesh Kumar Saini, So Hyun Moon, Young-Soo Keum
Globally, the amount of food processing waste has become a major concern for environmental sustainability. The valorization of these waste materials can solve the problems of its disposal. Notably, the tomato pomace and crustacean processing waste presents enormous opportunities for the extraction of commercially vital carotenoids, lycopene, and astaxanthin, which have diverse applications in the food, feed, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industries. Moreover, such waste can generate surplus revenue which can significantly improve the economics of food production and processing...
June 2018: Food Research International
Huiju Lin, Leilei Chen, Haipu Li, Zhoufei Luo, Jing Lu, Zhaoguang Yang
The occurrence of 36 pharmaceutically active compounds in surface water of the Xiangjiang River was investigated in two seasons (n = 38). Twenty-five of these compounds were detected, with cefotaxime (maximum concentration 830 ng L-1 ) the most abundant compound followed by amoxicillin (maximum concentration 710 ng L-1 ). The spatiotemporal distribution was observed; indicating that pollution hotspots were mostly located in economically developed and densely populated regions such as Changsha City...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Moussa Yabré, Ludivine Ferey, Issa Touridomon Somé, Karen Gaudin
The greening of analytical methods has gained increasing interest in the field of pharmaceutical analysis to reduce environmental impacts and improve the health safety of analysts. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) is the most widely used analytical technique involved in pharmaceutical drug development and manufacturing, such as the quality control of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations, as well as the analysis of drugs in biological samples. However, RP-HPLC methods commonly use large amounts of organic solvents and generate high quantities of waste to be disposed, leading to some issues in terms of ecological impact and operator safety...
May 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ana Monteiro, Diogo Paquincha, Florinda Martins, Rui P Queirós, Jorge A Saraiva, Jaroslava Švarc-Gajić, Nataša Nastić, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Ana P Carvalho
Fish canning industry generates large amounts of liquid wastes, which are discarded, after proper treatment to remove the organic load. However, alternative treatment processes may also be designed in order to target the recovery of valuable compounds; with this procedure, these wastewaters are converted into liquid by-products, becoming an additional source of revenue for the company. This study evaluated green and economically sustainable methodologies for the extraction of ω3 lipids from fish canning liquid by-products...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Shoyo Shibata, Maiko Matsushita, Yoshimasa Saito, Takeshi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Despite their benefits, the rapid development of new cancer treatments has been a significant driver of increasing health care expenditures in the face of limited health care budgets. In this study, we analyzed the prescribing trends for anticancer drugs from 2010 through 2016 in Japan and sought to identify unique trends that could provide a basis for future medical economic research aiming to develop more efficacious and cost-effective cancer therapies. METHODS: We used publicly available marketing data for anticancer drugs in Japan for 2010-2016...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Kassy Raymond Sylvestre Allou, Hinde Iraqi, Yahia Cherrah, Samir Ahid
OBJECTIVES: Do the state of affairs of the perception of free drug samples by a group of prescribers of drugs in the Morocco. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 381 physicians practising in different sectors (public, private) using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, conducted between December 2016 and March 2017. The questionnaire focused on assessing the general knowledge of prescriber on free drug sample, medical visit of medical representative of pharmaceutical laboratory, drug prescribing and free drug sample use...
April 13, 2018: Thérapie
Deborah Gleeson, Joel Lexchin, Ruth Lopert, Burcu Kilic
The final text of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), agreed between the 12 negotiating countries in 2016, included a suite of intellectual property provisions intended to expand and extend pharmaceutical company exclusivities on medicines. It drew wide criticism for including such provisions in an agreement that involved developing countries (Vietnam, Peru, Malaysia, Mexico, Chile and Brunei Darussalam) because of the effect on delaying the introduction of low-cost generics. While developing nations negotiated transition periods for implementing some obligations, all parties would have eventually been expected to meet the same standards had the TPP come into force...
April 2018: Global Social Policy
Hong Li, Gordon G Liu, Jing Wu, Jiu-Hong Wu, Chao-Hui Dong, Shan-Lian Hu
The China National Formulary (CNF) for reimbursable drug use, also known as the National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL), was formally established in 2000, revised in 2004 and 2009, and covers 52% of China's population under the government urban health insurance programs. A third major and long-awaited update to the formulary was completed in February 2017 based on intensive reviews by a group of experts in medicine, pharmacology, health economics, and health policy. Shortly after this major update, a pilot project at the central government level was implemented for negotiations mainly on innovative but expensive medicines that were still outside the National Formulary...
April 26, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Lukas Roth, Ameena Nalim, Beth Turesson, Laura Krech
BACKGROUND: The spread of substandard and falsified (SF) medical products constitutes a growing global public health concern. Some countries use portable, handheld screening technologies (STs) in the field to accelerate detection of SF medicines and reduce the number of medicine samples that undergo costly and time-consuming confirmatory analysis. METHODS: A multi-country, multi-stakeholder landscape assessment utilizing qualitative methodology was used to examine practices and perceptions related to the use of STs...
April 25, 2018: Globalization and Health
Karina da Silva Aguiar, Jamile Machado Dos Santos, Mônica Cristina Cambrussi, Solane Picolotto, Marcela Bechara Carneiro
Objective To demonstrate economic impact of pharmaceutical evaluation in detection and prevention of errors in antineoplastic prescriptions. Methods This was an observational and retrospective study performed in a cancer hospital. From July to August 2016 pharmacists checked prescriptions of antineoplastic and adjuvant drugs. Drug-related problems observed were classified and analyzed concerning drug, pharmaceutical intervention, acceptability and characteristic of the error. In case of problem related to dose, we calculated a deviation percentage related with correct dose and value spent or saved...
2018: Einstein
Kristell Lebozec, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Gilles Avenard, Olivier Favre-Bulle, Philippe Billiald
Monoclonal antibody fragments (Fab) are a promising class of therapeutic agents. Fabs are aglycosylated proteins and so many expression platforms have been developed including prokaryotic, yeast and mammalian cells. However, these platforms are not equivalent in terms of cell line development and culture time, product quality and possibly cost of production that greatly influence the success of a drug candidate's pharmaceutical development. This study is an assessment of the humanized Fab fragment ACT017 produced from two microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris) and one mammalian cell host (CHO)...
April 21, 2018: New Biotechnology
Bashir Daoud Agha Dit Daoudy, Mohammad Ammar Al-Khayat, Francois Karabet, Mohammad Amer Al-Mardini
Formaldehyde is a highly reactive impurity that can be found in many pharmaceutical excipients. Trace levels of this impurity may affect drug product stability, safety, efficacy, and performance. A static headspace gas chromatographic method was developed and validated to determine formaldehyde in pharmaceutical excipients after an effective derivatization procedure using acidified ethanol. Diethoxymethane, the derivative of formaldehyde, was then directly analyzed by GC-FID. Despite the simplicity of the developed method, however, it is characterized by its specificity, accuracy, and precision...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
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