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Pharmaceutical economics

Martin S Weiß, Ioannis V Pavlidis, Paul Spurr, Steven P Hanlon, Beat Wirz, Hans Iding, Uwe T Bornscheuer
Application of amine transaminases (ATAs) for stereoselective amination of prochiral ketones represents an environmentally benign and economically attractive alternative to transition metal catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. However, the restrictive substrate scope has limited the conversion typically to non-sterically demanding scaffolds. Recently, we reported on the identification and design of fold class I ATAs that effect a highly selective asymmetric synthesis of a set of chiral aromatic bulky amines from the corresponding ketone precursors in high yield...
October 14, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Arka Chattopadhyay, Stephen Frey, Ghiselle Green
BACKGROUND: Bifeprunox is a novel antipsychotic drug designed to treat schizophrenia. However, research into the drug was ceased in 2009 due to rejection of licence to go to market by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), who could not approve the drug for acute or long-term symptoms of schizophrenia because more research was required to demonstrate convincing effects "beyond those already achieved" with currently licenced drugs. There were also concerns expressed over one death of a person whilst on the drug...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ruey Terng Ng, Way Seah Lee, Hak Lee Ang, Kai Ming Teo, Yee Ian Yik, Nai Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: Childhood constipation is a common problem with substantial health, economic and emotional burdens. Existing therapeutic options, mainly pharmacological, are not consistently effective, and some are associated with adverse effects after prolonged use. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES), a non-pharmacological approach, is postulated to facilitate bowel movement by modulating the nerves of the large bowel via the application of electrical current transmitted through the abdominal wall...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
W D Ludwig, S Dicheva
Biosimilar medicinal products (biosimilars) have been available in Europe for 10 years, allowing a wide use particularly in oncology. Biosimilars are being developed and approved by means of scientifically sound principles to assure close similarity with the reference products with regard to quality, efficacy, and safety. The scientific principles for establishing biosimilarity are the same as those for demonstrating comparability after a change in the manufacturing process of an already licensed biological...
October 10, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Stefano Vassanelli, Mufti Mahmud
Future technologies aiming at restoring and enhancing organs function will intimately rely on near-physiological and energy-efficient communication between living and artificial biomimetic systems. Interfacing brain-inspired devices with the real brain is at the forefront of such emerging field, with the term "neurobiohybrids" indicating all those systems where such interaction is established. We argue that achieving a "high-level" communication and functional synergy between natural and artificial neuronal networks in vivo, will allow the development of a heterogeneous world of neurobiohybrids, which will include "living robots" but will also embrace "intelligent" neuroprostheses for augmentation of brain function...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Dick B S Brashier, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Neha Akhoon
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Sabine Vogler, Nina Zimmermann, Kees de Joncheere
BACKGROUND: Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. METHODS: We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included...
September 20, 2016: Health Policy
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Niladri Mukherjee, Prajna Gayen, Priya Roy, Santi P Sinha Babu
Human diseases caused by the infectious parasites have been one of the major problems throughout the evolutionary journey. Protozoan and metazoan parasitic infections result in a large number of deaths, disabilities and socio-economic loss worldwide to date. Despite our best efforts of developing suitable antiparasitics, these infections take a massive toll on human health. The prevalence of emerging resistance to the existing drugs, lack of efficacy and toxic side effects came out as added complications. Being enlisted under 'neglected' category, serious diseases like leishmaniases, filariases, trypanosomiases etc...
October 4, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
José A Sacristán, Luís Lizan, Marta Comellas, Pilar Garrido, Cristina Avendaño, Juan J Cruz-Hernández, Javier Espinosa, Tatiana Dilla
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to explore the main factors explaining the relative weight of the different attributes that determine the value of oncologic treatments from the different perspectives of healthcare policy makers (HCPM), oncologists, patients and the general population in Spain. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to assess: (1) the importance of the attributes on treatment choice when comparing a new cancer drug with a standard cancer treatment; (2) the importance of survival, quality of life (QoL), costs and innovation in cancer; and (3) the most worrying side effects related to cancer drugs...
October 7, 2016: Advances in Therapy
Thomas Bieber, Stefan Vieths, Karl Broich
Atopic conditions (atopic dermatitis, rhinitis and asthma) belong to the most common non communicable diseases and are driven by chronic inflammatory reactions. They have a strong impact on the quality of life and represent a substantial and growing socio-economic burden. Interestingly, there is an increasing interest in the development of new therapeutic options with a number of biologics and small molecules targeting potential key mechanisms in atopic conditions. However, besides the safety issue, most of the new active substances are still evaluated according to the traditional efficacy paradigm focusing on the success in treating exacerbations and flares...
October 7, 2016: Allergy
Nasser Nassiri Koopaei, Mohammad Abdollahi
Pharmaceutical nanotechnology has generated breakthrough developments in improving health care and human life from its emergence. The biomaterials employed mainly aim at improving drug delivery systems, imaging and diagnostic technologies while the nanoscale materials are in widespread use in other industries such as electronics and optics. Such advancement may revolutionize the drug development and therapy with new and more efficient treatments. Although, nanotechnology assists humankind in improving its well being, it has certain limitations that entail thorough investigation by the regulatory and scientific authorities...
October 6, 2016: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tim Crocker-Buque, Sandra Mounier-Jack
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stakeholders' understanding and opinions of the International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm); to identify factors affecting funding levels; and to explore the future use of IFFIm. METHODS: Between July and September 2015, we interviewed 33 individuals from 25 organizations identified as stakeholders in IFFIm. In total 22.5 hours of semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a framework method. FINDINGS: Stakeholders' understanding of IFFIm's financing mechanism and its outcomes varied and many stakeholders wanted more information...
September 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Martin Harvey Allchurch, Dirceu Brás Aparecido Barbano, Marie-Hélène Pinheiro, Janis Lazdin-Helds
This report considers how the experience of the European regulatory system might be applied to help strengthen the regulatory systems for medicines in the Region of the Americas. The work of the European Medicines Agencies (EMA) is carried out through its scientific committees, composed of members from European Economic Area countries. A robust legal framework allows EMA to coordinate resources from Member States' competent authorities, including, for example, assisting candidate countries as they prepare to join the European Union (EU)...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Xiaolong Yu, Kehao Chen, Fan Yang, Shanke Zha, Jin Zhu
Despite their tremendous synthetic and pharmaceutical utility, primary azaaromatic amines remain elusive for access based on a generally applicable C-H functionalization strategy. An oxadiazolone-enabled approach is reported for convenient entry into N-unsubstituted 1-aminoisoquinolines through Co(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral, step-, atom-, and purification-economic C-H functionalization with alkynes. A (15)N labeling experiment reveals the effectiveness of both oxadiazolone N atoms as directing sites. The installed primary amine can be harnessed as a synthetically useful handle for attachment of divergent appendages...
October 5, 2016: Organic Letters
Péter Elek, Eszter Takács, Gergő Merész, Zoltán Kaló
External price referencing (EPR) is applied more and more frequently worldwide by payers to control pharmaceutical prices. Together with the parallel trade of pharmaceuticals, EPR may result in lower pharmaceutical prices in higher-income countries and higher prices in lower-income countries, which implies that pharmaceutical expenditure grows more rapidly in the latter than in the former group. Our objective was to assess this hypothesis. We used hierarchical linear models on country-level panel data to show that-after controlling for compounding factors such as GDP, the proportion of the old-age population or life expectancy-the annual growth rate of pharmaceutical expenditure was 2...
October 3, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Marian Bittner, Regina Schenk, Andreas Springer, Matthias F Melzig
INTRODUCTION: The medicinal plant Actaea racemosa L. (Ranunculaceae, aka black cohosh) is widely used to treat climacteric complaints as an alternative to hormone substitution. Recent trials prove efficacy and safety of the approved herbal medicinal products from extracts of pharmaceutical quality. This led to worldwide increasing sales. A higher demand for the plant material results in problems with economically motivated adulteration. Thus, reliable tools for herbal drug authentication are necessary...
September 30, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Kim Brøsen, Stig Ejdrup Andersen, Jeanett Borregaard, Hanne Rolighed Christensen, Palle Mark Christensen, Kim Peder Dalhoff, Per Damkier, Jesper Hallas, Jens Heisterberg, Niels Jessen, Gesche Jürgens, Jens Peter Konnerup Kampmann, Britt Elmedal Laursen, Torben Laursen, Lars Peter Nielsen, Birgitte Klindt Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Ljubica Vukelic Andersen, Thomas Senderovitz, Jesper Sonne
The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the Society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish health care system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees in both hospitals and in the primary sector...
September 29, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Joanna P MacEwan, Seth Seabury, Myrlene Sanon Aigbogun, Siddhesh Kamat, Emma van Eijndhoven, Clement Francois, Crystal Henderson, Leslie Citrome
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the level of private and public investment in research and development of treatments for schizophrenia and other mental disorders compared to other diseases in order to present data on the economic burden and pharmaceutical innovation by disease area, and to compare the level of investment relative to burden across different diseases. DESIGN: The levels of investment and pharmaceutical innovation relative to burden across different diseases were assessed...
July 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Hercília Maria Lins Rolim, Michely Laiany Vieira Moura
Diosgenin (3b-hydroxy-5-spirostene), saponin is a steroid with wide therapeutic application in different areas, with cardiovascular protective action and performance in the control of dyslipidemia. The objective of study was to conduct a systematic review of this Diosgenina, its pharmaceutical applications and the outlook on the application in Cardiovascular System diseases. Periodicals bases, such as ScienceDirect, PubMed and Virtual Health Library, were used, as well as technological basis of European Patent Office, World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office and data bank from Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property...
September 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Kelly A Landry, Treavor H Boyer
Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic costs to manage nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (i.e., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) and nutrients in human urine. Urine source separation was compared with centralized wastewater treatment (WWT) (biological or upgraded with ozonation). The current treatment method (i...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
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