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Pharmaceutical economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337710/high-efficient-n-butanol-production-by-co-culturing-clostridium-acetobutylicum-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-integrated-with-butyrate-fermentative-supernatant-addition
#1
Hongzhen Luo, Qingwei Zeng, Shuo Han, Zhaoyu Wang, Qing Dong, Yanhong Bi, Yuping Zhao
Butanol is not only an important chemical intermediate and solvent in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, but also considered as an advanced biofuel. Although species of the natural host Clostridium have been engineered, butanol titers in the anaerobe seem to be limited by its intolerance to butanol less than 13 g/L. Here we aimed to develop a technology for enhancing butanol production by a co-culture system with butyrate fermentative supernatant addition. First, when adding 4.0 g/L butyrate into the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth with single-shot at 24 h, the "acid crash" phenomenon occurred and the ABE fermentation performance deteriorated...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337491/meeting-report-unesco-merck-africa-research-summit-2015-accelerating-access-and-sustaining-innovation-from-africa-for-africa
#2
R W Omange, A O Ocholla, A O Kwallah, S N Kageha, J Mwangi, R K Cherutich, Odeny T A, T Nzomo, S Angwenyi, P Yonga, F Kariuki, M Kyalo, P C Mutai, F Nindo, E M Songok
BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease outbreak of 2014 was the largest, longest and most devastating in the history of the disease. It demonstrated the social and economic impact an emerging infectious disease can have in a globalized world. Health systems in affected countries were stretched to the point of near collapse, while social relations and traditional practices were negatively impacted. Heads of African research institutions, African government representatives, leaders of global pharmaceutical companies, global infectious disease experts and close to 100 young African researchers from 25 countries; Assembled in Geneva on 19 and 20th October 2015, for the inaugural UNESCO-Merck Africa Summit sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Science and Culture Organization and Merck KGA...
2017: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334528/why-prodrugs-and-propesticides-succeed
#3
John E Casida
What are the advantages of bioactivation in optimizing drugs and pesticides? Why are there so many prodrugs and propesticides? These questions are examined here by considering compounds selected on the basis of economic value or market success. The 100 major drugs and 90 major pesticides are divided into ones acting directly and those definitely or possibly requiring bioactivation. Established or candidate prodrugs accounted for 19% of the total drug sales with corresponding values of 20, 37 and 17% for proinsecticides, proherbicides and profungicides...
March 23, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333168/metallic-reductant-free-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-substituted-propionic-acid-derivatives-through-hydrocarboxylation-of-alkenes-with-a-formate-salt
#4
Jun Takaya, Ko Miyama, Chuan Zhu, Nobuharu Iwasawa
A PGeP-pincer palladium-catalyzed hydrocarboxylation of styrenes to obtain pharmaceutically important α-arylpropionic acid derivatives was achieved using a formate salt as both a reductant and a CO2 source. The reaction was also applicable to vinylsulfone and acrylates. Isotope labeling experiments demonstrated that a CO2-recycling mechanism is operative through generation and reaction of a benzylpalladium complex as a carbon nucleophile. This protocol has realized a mild and atom economical CO2-fixation reaction without the necessity of using strong metallic reductants...
March 23, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320542/evaluation-of-fixed-and-variable-hospital-costs-due-to-clostridium-difficile-infection-institutional-incentives-and-directions-for-future-research
#5
P Ryan, M Skally, F Duffy, M Farrelly, L Gaughan, P Flood, E McFadden, F Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: Economic analysis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) should consider the incentives facing institutional decision-makers. To avoid overstating the financial benefits of infection prevention, fixed and variable costs should be distinguished. AIM: To quantify CDI fixed and variable costs in a tertiary referral hospital during August 2015. METHODS: A micro-costing analysis estimated CDI costs per patient, including the additional costs of a CDI outbreak...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300617/sex-and-gender-related-prevalence-cardiovascular-risk-and-therapeutic-approach-in-metabolic-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Giacomo Pucci, Riccardo Alcidi, Lisanne Tap, Francesca Battista, Francesco Mattace-Raso, Giuseppe Schillaci
Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of metabolic abnormalities linked to insulin-resistance and abdominal obesity, is associated with an increased risk of Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular (CV) disease. Its prevalence is high, affecting 20% to 30% of the general population, and increases with age in a sex-specific manner: in fact, while below 50 years it is slightly higher in men, it reverses after 50 years. The pronounced age-related increase in the prevalence of MS in women occurs as the result of several factors, which may be classified into sex- and gender-related factors...
March 11, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287008/the-value-of-open-access-and-a-patient-centric-approach-to-oral-oncolytic-utilization-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-a-u-s-perspective
#7
Lopamudra Das, Matthew Gitlin, Lisa R Siegartel, Dinara Makenbaeva
Since the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has resulted in significant improvement in patient survival but at a higher pharmaceutical cost to payers. The recent introduction of generic imatinib presents an opportunity to lower pharmacy costs within a population that is growing due to improved survival. Recent literature has focused on the likely benefits to payers of step therapy through generic imatinib. Areas covered: This review provides a perspective that is broader than the evaluation of financial savings or narrowly defined health economic metrics by incorporating factors such as CML patient heterogeneity, including varying levels of disease progression risk, comorbidities, and genetic mutation status, differences in TKI product profiles, clinical guideline recommendations, and the importance of individualized patient care...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286958/construction-of-fused-polyheterocycles-through-sequential-4-2-and-3-2-cycloadditions
#8
Yadong Feng, Nian Tian, Yudong Li, Chunqi Jia, Xuening Li, Lianhui Wang, Xiuling Cui
A method for Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidative reaction of quinazolinones and alkynes has been developed for sequential [4 + 2] and [3 + 2] cycloadditions to assemble a novel fused-polycyclic system containing tetrahydropyridine and dihydrofuran rings. The reaction process involves C-H and N-H bond functionalization for the formation of tetrahydropyridine and an oxygen radical cyclization for the dihydrofuran ring. This atom- and step-economical synthesis is highly efficient and has good substrate tolerance, which provides a new approach for the construction of polycyclic molecules with potential pharmaceutical interest...
March 13, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284869/minimizing-e-factor-in-the-continuous-flow-synthesis-of-diazepam-and-atropine
#9
Anne-Catherine Bédard, Ashley R Longstreet, Joshua Britton, Yuran Wang, Hideki Moriguchi, Robert W Hicklin, William H Green, Timothy F Jamison
Minimizing the waste stream associated with the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and commodity chemicals is of high interest within the chemical industry from an economic and environmental perspective. In exploring solutions to this area, we herein report a highly optimized and environmentally conscious continuous-flow synthesis of two APIs identified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization, namely diazepam and atropine. Notably, these approaches significantly reduced the E-factor of previously published routes through the combination of continuous-flow chemistry techniques, computational calculations and solvent minimization...
February 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274238/the-health-impact-of-trade-and-investment-agreements-a-quantitative-systematic-review-and-network-co-citation-analysis
#10
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Sanjay Basu, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Regional trade agreements are major international policy instruments that shape macro-economic and political systems. There is widespread debate as to whether and how these agreements pose risks to public health. Here we perform a comprehensive systematic review of quantitative studies of the health impact of trade and investment agreements. We identified studies from searches in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Global Health Online. Research articles were eligible for inclusion if they were quantitative studies of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements or policy...
March 8, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273617/toxic-effects-of-the-antihistamine-cetirizine-in-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#11
Miguel Teixeira, Ângela Almeida, Vânia Calisto, Valdemar I Esteves, Rudolf J Schneider, Frederick J Wrona, Amadeu M V M Soares, Etelvina Figueira, Rosa Freitas
Recent studies have become increasingly focused on the assessment of pharmaceuticals occurrence in aquatic ecosystems, however the potential toxicity to non-target organisms is still largely unknown. The antihistamine cetirizine is a commonly used pharmaceutical, already detected in surface waters of marine aquatic systems worldwide. In the present study Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed to a range of cetirizine concentrations (0.3, 3.0, 6.0 and 12.0 μg/L), resembling moderate to highly contaminated areas, over 28 days...
March 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273576/performance-of-microwave-treatment-for-disintegration-of-cephalosporin-mycelial-dreg-cmd-and-degradation-of-residual-cephalosporin-antibiotics
#12
Chen Cai, Huiling Liu, Bing Wang
Significant amounts of cephalosporin mycelial dreg (CMD) are still being generated from biopharmaceutical processes, representing both an economic and environmental burden for pharmaceutical factories. This study investigates the microwave (MW) treatment of CMD at a relatively mild temperature (100°C) within 15min. The results reveal that the MW treatment disintegrates the CMD efficiently and that the residual cephalosporin C (CPC) is almost degraded after sufficient irradiation. MW heating temperature strongly influences the polymer's release...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265347/value-added-medicines-what-value-repurposed-medicines-might-bring-to-society
#13
Mondher Toumi, Cécile Rémuzat
Background & objectives: Despite the wide interest surrounding drug repurposing, no common terminology has been yet agreed for these products and their full potential value is not always recognised and rewarded, creating a disincentive for further development. The objectives of the present study were to assess from a wide perspective which value drug repurposing might bring to society, but also to identify key obstacles for adoption of these medicines and to discuss policy recommendations. Methods: A preliminary comprehensive search was conducted to assess how the concept of drug repurposing was described in the literature...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247260/biotechnological-advances-and-perspectives-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-production
#14
REVIEW
Ning Xu, Liang Wei, Jun Liu
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed among various organisms. Since GABA has several well-known physiological functions, such as mediating neurotransmission and hypotensive activity, as well as having tranquilizer effects, it is commonly used as a bioactive compound in the food, pharmaceutical and feed industries. The major pathway of GABA biosynthesis is the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which develops a safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative in comparison with traditional chemical synthesis methods...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246379/the-antibiotic-resistance-crisis-with-a-focus-on-the-united-states
#15
REVIEW
Evan Martens, Arnold L Demain
Beginning with the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in the late 1920s, antibiotics have revolutionized the field of medicine. They have saved millions of lives each year, alleviated pain and suffering, and have even been used prophylactically for the prevention of infectious diseases. However, we have now reached a crisis where many antibiotics are no longer effective against even the simplest infections. Such infections often result in an increased number of hospitalizations, more treatment failures and the persistence of drug-resistant pathogens...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237353/-evolution-of-reimbursement-of-high-cost-anticancer-drugs-financial-impact-within-a-university-hospital
#16
Amandine Baudouin, Emilie Fargier, Ariane Cerruti, Amélie Dubromel, Nicolas Vantard, Florence Ranchon, Vérane Schwiertz, Gilles Salles, Pierre-Jean Souquet, Luc Thomas, Frédéric Bérard, Stéphane Nancey, Gilles Freyer, Véronique Trillet-Lenoir, Catherine Rioufol
INTRODUCTION: In the context of health expenses control, reimbursement of high-cost medicines with a 'minor' or 'nonexistent' improvement in actual health benefit evaluated by the Haute Autorité de santé is revised by the decree of March 24, 2016 related to the procedure and terms of registration of high-cost pharmaceutical drugs. This study aims to set up the economic impact of this measure. METHOD: A six months retrospective study was conducted within a French university hospital from July 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015...
February 22, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236794/pharmaceutical-care-practice-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Dadier Antonio Arroyo Monterroza, José Francisco Castro Bolivar
INTRODUCTION: The impact of chronic kidney disease in health is no longer just a patient-physician issue, not only in terms of the increase in the number of patients diagnosed, but also regarding the human and economic cost for health systems. That is why Pharmaceutical Care should include SOPs structured by criteria reached by consensus to conduct Pharmaceutical Care Practice, which will enable to prevent, identify and solve any negative outcomes in patients that are associated with medication...
March 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236560/the-dynamics-of-contract-plasma-fractionation
#18
REVIEW
Albert Farrugia, Daniela Scaramuccia
Plasma Derived Medicinal Products (PMDPs) are an essential component of the modern therapeutic armamentarium. They are differentiated from most other medicines in several ways, particularly the unique nature of the raw material used for their manufacture. Human plasma has been fractionated to PDMPs for the past 75 years, and the economics of manufacturing requires currently that as many products are harvested from each litre as is feasible and reflective of clinical needs. PDMPs may be purchased on the open market from the various commercial and not-for-profit (NFP) manufacturers...
February 21, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228572/opposed-to-the-being-of-henrietta-bioslavery-pop-culture-and-the-third-life-of-hela-cells
#19
Marlon Rachquel Moore
Operating at the intersection of thanatopolitics and African-American cultural studies, this essay argues that the commercial sale of HeLa-themed art and other bioproducts perpetuates the bioslavery of HeLa cells, a circumstance created by legal and medical discourses tracing back to US racial slavery. Racial slavery normalised economic, social and legal inequities that the nation continues to struggle with and, the article posits, laid foundation for the dynamics that currently exist between Henrietta Lacks' genealogical family, the HeLa cell line, and the medical-pharmaceutical establishment...
March 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228230/expanding-professional-pharmacy-services-in-european-community-setting-is-it-cost-effective-a-systematic-review-for-health-policy-considerations
#20
REVIEW
Clémence Perraudin, Olivier Bugnon, Nathalie Pelletier-Fleury
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize cost-effectiveness analyses on professional pharmacy services (PPS) performed in Europe in order to contribute to current debates on their funding and reimbursement. METHODS: Systematic review in PubMed, Embase and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases to identify full economic evaluation studies of PPS in community setting from 2004. FINDINGS: Twenty-one studies were included, conducted in the United-Kingdom (n=13), the Netherlands (n=3), Spain (n=2), Belgium (n=1), France (n=1) and Denmark (n=1)...
December 2016: Health Policy
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