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Pharmaceutical economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902397/vesivirus-2117-capsids-more-closely-resemble-sapovirus-and-lagovirus-particles-than-other-known-vesivirus-structures
#1
Michaela Conley, Edward Emmott, Richard Orton, David Taylor, Daniel Carneiro, Kazuyoshi Murata, Ian Goodfellow, Grant Hansman, David Bhella
Vesivirus 2117 is an adventitious agent that in 2009, was identified as a contaminant of CHO cells propagated in bioreactors at a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant belonging to Genzyme. The consequent interruption in supply of Fabrazyme and Cerezyme (drugs used to treat Fabry and Gaucher disease respectively), caused significant economic losses. Vesivirus 2117 is a member of the Caliciviridae; a family of small icosahedral viruses encoding a positive sense RNA genome. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and three dimensional image reconstruction to calculate a structure of vesivirus 2117 virus like particles as well as feline calicivirus and a chimeric sapovirus...
November 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898017/assessment-of-macro-level-socioeconomic-factors-that-impact-waterborne-diseases-the-case-of-jordan
#2
John M Polimeni, Ahmad Almalki, Raluca I Iorgulescu, Lucian-Liviu Albu, Wendy M Parker, Ray Chandrasekara
The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890574/modeling-the-role-of-information-and-limited-optimal-treatment-on-disease-prevalence
#3
Anuj Kumar, Prashant K Srivastava, Yasuhiro Takeuchi
Disease outbreaks induce behavioural changes in healthy individuals to avoid contracting infection. We first propose a compartmental model which accounts for the effect of individual's behavioural response due to information of the disease prevalence. It is assumed that the information is growing as a function of infective population density that saturates at higher density of infective population and depends on active educational and social programmes. Model analysis has been performed and the global stability of equilibrium points is established...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882840/a-comparison-of-health-care-resource-utilization-and-costs-for-patients-with-allergic-rhinitis-on-single-product-or-free-combination-therapy-of-intranasal-steroids-and-intranasal-antihistamines
#4
Brooke Harrow, Ahmad R Sedaghat, Amanda Caldwell-Tarr, Robert Dufour
BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common condition that can be treated with a number of different therapies. Treatments such as intranasal antihistamines (INAs) and intranasal steroids (INSs) are widely used by AR patients. For some allergy sufferers, a combination of therapies, specifically an INA and an INS, is required to address their symptoms. A new treatment, the formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone pro-pionate used as a single spray (MP-AzeFlu), has become available for AR patients who need both types of treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881277/impact-of-health-policy-changes-on-trends-in-the-pharmaceutical-market-in-turkey
#5
Esra Safak Yılmaz, Güvenç Koçkaya, Fatma Betül Yenilmez, Mete Saylan, Mehtap Tatar, Akif Akbulat, Hakkı Gürsöz, Saim Kerman
BACKGROUND: The implementation phase of the Turkish Health Transformation Program (HTP) began in 2003, with the aim of organizing, financing, and delivering health care services effectively, efficiently, and equally. The HTP impacted all clinical and economic outcomes of health, including pharmaceutical sales, by improving access to health services. OBJECTIVES: To understand the impact of five selected major policy changes that made an impact on supply, demand, or price in the pharmaceutical market between 1998 and 2012...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863486/costs-of-conservative-management-of-early-stage-prostate-cancer-compared-to-radical-prostatectomy-a-claims-data-analysis
#6
Alina Brandes, Florian Koerber, Larissa Schwarzkopf, Matthias Hunger, Wolf H Rogowski, Raphaela Waidelich
BACKGROUND: Due to widespread PSA testing incidence rates of localized prostate cancer increase but curative treatment is often not required. Overtreatment imposes a substantial economic burden on health care systems. We compared the direct medical costs of conservative management and radical therapy for the management of early-stage prostate cancer in routine care. METHODS: An observational study design is chosen based on claims data of a German statutory health insurance fund for the years 2008-2011...
November 18, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862695/pan-genotypic-treatment-regimens-for-hepatitis-c-virus-advantages-and-disadvantages-in-high-and-low-income-regions
#7
REVIEW
C Hézode
During the last 5 years, the availability of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents has revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compared with interferon/ribavirin-the previous standard of care-DAA combination regimens offer improved sustained virological response (SVR) rates, shorter treatment durations of 8-24 weeks, convenient once-daily single-tablet formulations and more favourable tolerability profiles. HCV treatment is complex, and the choice of therapy must consider a complex range of factors, including baseline viral load, fibrosis stage, the HCV genotype and subgenotype, and the presence of resistance-associated substitutions at baseline...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862122/rising-cost-of-cancer-pharmaceuticals-cost-issues-and-interventions-to-control-costs
#8
Ashley E Glode, Megan Brafford May
The rising cost of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, cancer drugs has made headline news in recent years. Several factors contribute to increasing costs and the burden this places on the health care system and patients. Some of these factors include costly cancer pharmaceutical research and development, longer clinical trials required to achieve drug approval, manufacturing costs for complex compounds, and the economic principles surrounding oncology drug pricing. Strategies to control costs have been proposed, and some have already been implemented to mitigate cancer drug costs such as the use of clinical treatment pathways and tools to facilitate cost discussions with patients...
November 12, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855094/protocol-for-a-within-trial-economic-evaluation-of-a-psychoeducational-intervention-tailored-to-people-at-high-risk-of-developing-a-second-or-subsequent-melanoma
#9
M Dieng, A E Cust, N A Kasparian, P Butow, D S J Costa, S W Menzies, G J Mann, R L Morton
INTRODUCTION: Psychological support programmes are not currently funded for people with a history of melanoma. A major barrier to the implementation of effective psychological interventions in routine clinical care is a lack of cost-effectiveness data. This paper describes the planned economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial of a psychoeducational intervention for people with a history of melanoma who are at high risk of developing new primary disease. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: The economic evaluation is a within-trial analysis to evaluate the incremental costs and health outcomes of a psychoeducational intervention compared to usual care from the perspective of the Australian healthcare system...
October 6, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847300/a-review-of-the-progress-and-pitfalls-of-fda-policy-process-planning-a-pathway-for-pharmaceutical-interventions-for-hearing-loss-development
#10
Tanisha L Hammill
The Federal Food and Drug Administration, or FDA is generally considered a powerful gatekeeper, able to deliver or withhold life-saving cures and create or destroy economic windfalls. As the decades go by, and technologies, diseases, public health demands, and politics evolve, we can identify patterns of change, action and inter-action among some of these traditional stakeholders in the FDA's policy sphere. A careful examination of this agency's colorful history can shed light on central features of the agency's policy process, which has been quite receptive to its stakeholders and adaptive to change over the decades and, in turn, show the way for development in lanes which do not fit neatly into the current paradigms offered by the agency...
November 12, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843493/recognizing-chemicals-in-patents-a-comparative-analysis
#11
Maryam Habibi, David Luis Wiegandt, Florian Schmedding, Ulf Leser
Recently, methods for Chemical Named Entity Recognition (NER) have gained substantial interest, driven by the need for automatically analyzing todays ever growing collections of biomedical text. Chemical NER for patents is particularly essential due to the high economic importance of pharmaceutical findings. However, NER on patents has essentially been neglected by the research community for long, mostly because of the lack of enough annotated corpora. A recent international competition specifically targeted this task, but evaluated tools only on gold standard patent abstracts instead of full patents; furthermore, results from such competitions are often difficult to extrapolate to real-life settings due to the relatively high homogeneity of training and test data...
2016: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833835/comparison-of-pharmaceutical-pricing-and-reimbursement-systems-in-turkey-and-certain-eu-countries
#12
Enver Kagan Atikeler, Gulbin Özçelikay
Recently, the need for health care services has increased gradually and the limitations in sources allocated for this area have been recognized. Moving from this fact, it has gained a supreme importance to determine what health programs or technologies will be given priority. According to Danzon (Reference pricing: theory and evidence, reference pricing and pharmaceutical policy: perspectives on economics and innovation, springer, New York, pp 86-126, 2001), arrangements towards controlling the expenses through price and profit controls, reimbursement methods and incentives have recently gained wide currency...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825357/fermentative-production-and-direct-extraction-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-in-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli
#13
Gui Hwan Han, Seong Keun Kim, Paul Kyung-Seok Yoon, Younghwan Kang, Byoung Su Kim, Yaoyao Fu, Bong Hyun Sung, Heung Chae Jung, Dae-Hee Lee, Seon-Won Kim, Seung-Goo Lee
BACKGROUND: (-)-α-Bisabolol, also known as levomenol, is an unsaturated sesquiterpene alcohol that has mainly been used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products due to its anti-inflammatory and skin-soothing properties. (-)-α-Bisabolol is currently manufactured mainly by steam-distillation of the essential oils extracted from the Brazilian candeia tree that is under threat because its natural habitat is constantly shrinking. Therefore, microbial production of (-)-α-bisabolol plays a key role in the development of its sustainable production from renewable feedstock...
November 8, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813018/potential-impact-of-biologically-derived-hyaluronic-acid-on-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-in-the-united-states
#14
Jeffrey Rosen, Parag Sancheti, Anke Fierlinger, Faizan Niazi, Herman Johal, Asheesh Bedi
INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis is one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA-HA) is a treatment modality that provides a minimally invasive treatment option for the management of osteoarthritis-related symptoms. This study examined the current and potential economic impact of using a biologically derived, high molecular weight hyaluronic acid preparation (Euflexxa) on the US population for the management of knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: A model was developed to estimate the total number of patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in the US in 2015, distributed by Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade, and the number of people living with total knee arthroplasty (TKA)...
November 3, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807824/green-synthesis-characterization-and-uses-of-palladium-platinum-nanoparticles
#15
REVIEW
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen
Biogenic synthesis of palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles from plants and microbes has captured the attention of many researchers because it is economical, sustainable and eco-friendly. Plant and their parts are known to have various kinds of primary and secondary metabolites which reduce the metal salts to metal nanoparticles. Shape, size and stability of Pd and Pt nanoparticles are influenced by pH, temperature, incubation time and concentrations of plant extract and that of the metal salt. Pd and Pt nanoparticles are broadly used as catalyst, as drug, drug carrier and in cancer treatment...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805459/the-problem-of-adherence-to-therapy-in-ulcerative-colitis-and-the-potential-utility-of-multi-matrix-system-mmx-technology
#16
Cristina Bezzio, Federica Fascì-Spurio, Chiara Viganò, Gianmichele Meucci, Claudio Papi, Simone Saibeni
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic condition and for the vast majority of patients, life-long treatment is required. Low adherence to therapy is an emerging issue. Since low adherence is associated with poor clinical outcomes and increased costs, it is becoming crucial to identify strategies in order to improve it. Areas covered: We performed literature searches in PubMed using the terms "adherence", "mesalamine", "budesonide MMX", "MMX technology" in combination with "ulcerative colitis". Firstly, we present the key-concepts of therapy for UC and discuss the problem of the adherence and how to measure it...
November 2, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803730/quick-assessment-of-the-economic-value-of-olive-mill-waste-water
#17
Riccardo Delisi, Filippo Saiano, Mario Pagliaro, Rosaria Ciriminna
BACKGROUND: Olive biophenols are emerging as a valued class of natural products finding practical application in the food, pharmaceutical, beverage, cosmetic and nutraceutical industries due to their powerful biological activity which includes antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Olive mill waste water (OMWW), a by-product in olive oil manufacturing, is rich in biophenols such as hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The amount of biophenols depends on the cultivar, the geographical area of cultivation, and the seasonal conditions...
2016: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801641/a-systematic-review-and-economic-evaluation-of-bisphosphonates-for-the-prevention-of-fragility-fractures
#18
Sarah Davis, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Jean Sanderson, John Stevens, Edward Goka, Andrew Rawdin, Susi Sadler, Ruth Wong, Fiona Campbell, Matt Stevenson, Mark Strong, Peter Selby, Neil Gittoes
BACKGROUND: Fragility fractures are fractures that result from mechanical forces that would not ordinarily result in fracture. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of bisphosphonates [alendronic acid (Fosamax(®) and Fosamax(®) Once Weekly, Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd), risedronic acid (Actonel(®) and Actonel Once a Week(®), Warner Chilcott UK Ltd), ibandronic acid (Bonviva(®), Roche Products Ltd) and zoledronic acid (Aclasta(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd)] for the prevention of fragility fracture and to assess their cost-effectiveness at varying levels of fracture risk...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785833/the-inadequacies-of-pre-market-chemical-risk-assessment-s-toxicity-studies-the-implications
#19
REVIEW
Anthony C Tweedale
Industry provides essentially all the data for most (pre-market) chemical risk assessments (RA); academics study a chemical once it is marketed. For two randomly-chosen high production chemicals, despite new European Union mandates to evaluate all data, just 13% of the herbicide bentazon and 15% of the flame-retardant hexabromocyclododecane's published toxicity studies were found in their pre-market RA, and a systematic review on bentazon concludes it has greater hazards than indicated in its RA. More important, for both, academia's toxicity studies were designated as lower quality than industries were, despite showing hazards at lower doses...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784255/clear-shot-at-primary-aim-susceptibility-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-organelles-structures-and-molecular-targets-to-drug-treatment
#20
Rubem Figueiredo Sadok Menna-Barreto, Solange Lisboa de Castro
Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, stands out due to its socio- economic effects on low-income tropical populations. This disease affects millions of people worldwide. The current chemotherapy for it is based on benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox (Nif) and is unsatisfactory. In this review, we will focus on the search for potential target organelles and molecules for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease. We consider as potential target organelles those that are absent or significantly different in host cells and present in the clinically relevant forms of the parasite (trypomastigotes and amastigotes), which are the mitochondrion, cytoskeletal- related structures, the acidocalcisomes/contractile vacuole complex and glycosomes...
October 25, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
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