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Pharmaceutical economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647541/response-tailored-protocol-versus-the-fixed-12weeks-of-dual-sofosbuvir-daclatasvir-treatment-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-infection-a-randomized-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#1
Mostafa Yakoot, Alaa M Abdo, Siham Abdel-Rehim, Sherine Helmy
BACKGROUND: The most recent European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) 2016 Guidelines on treatment of hepatitis C (HCV), allowed for shortening the course of treatment for some subsets of patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and with grazoprevir/elbasvir based on cutoff baseline HCV RNA values. We hypothesized that it would be prudent to also consider an objectively assuring very rapid, on-treatment, virologic response to therapy at week 2 (vRVR) before taking the decision of shortening the treatment duration...
May 17, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645015/mid-infrared-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-rapid-detection-of-gardeniae-fructus-by-a-liquid-liquid-extraction-process
#2
Lingyan Tao, Zhonglin Lin, Jiashan Chen, Yongjiang Wu, Xuesong Liu
Gardeniae Fructus is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, and many studies have confirmed its medical and economic value. In this study, samples collected from different liquid-liquid extraction batches of Gardeniae Fructus were detected by mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Seven analytes, neochlorogenic acid (5-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), chlorogenic acid (3-CQA), geniposidic acid (GEA), deacetyl-asperulosidic acid methyl ester (DAAME), genipin-gentiobioside (GGB), and gardenoside (GA), were chosen as quality property indexes of Gardeniae Fructus...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641511/microbial-lipase-mediated-by-health-beneficial-modification-of-cholesterol-and-flavors-in-food-products-a-review
#3
Ranjana Sharma, Nivedita Sharma
BACKGROUND: The tremendous need of lipase in varied applications in biotechnological increases its economical value in food and allied industries. Lipase has an impressive number of applications viz. enhancements of flavor in food products (Cheese, butter, alcoholic beverages, milk chocolate and diet control food stuffs), detergent industry in removing oil, grease stain, organic chemical processing, textile industry, oleochemical industry, cosmetic industry and also as therapeutic agents in pharmaceutical industries...
June 14, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640624/synthesis-of-4-acylpyrazoles-from-saturated-ketones-and-hydrazones-featured-with-multiple-c-sp3-h-bond-functionalization-c-c-bond-cleavage-and-re-organization
#4
Miaomiao Tian, Xiaonan Shi, Xinying Zhang, Xuesen Fan
In this paper, an efficient and convenient one-pot synthesis of diversely substituted 4-acylpyrazole derivatives via copper-catalyzed one pot cascade reactions of saturated ketones with hydrazones is reported. Mechanistically, the formation of the title compounds involves the in situ formation of an enone intermediate through the dehydrogenation of saturated ketone, and the [2+3] cyclization of enone with hydrazone followed by an aromatization-driven C-C bond cleavage and re-organization. To our knowledge, this should be the first example in which the biologically and pharmaceutically important yet otherwise difficult-to-obtain 4-acylpyrazole derivatives were directly prepared from saturated ketones and hydrazones featured with multiple aliphatic C-H bond functionalization, C-C bond cleavage and re-organization...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637316/incorporating-comparative-genomics-into-the-design-test-learn-cycle-of-microbial-strain-engineering
#5
Maria Sardi, Audrey P Gasch
Engineering microbes with new properties is an important goal in industrial engineering, to establish biological factories for production of biofuels, commodity chemicals, and pharmaceutics. But engineering microbes to produce new compounds with high yield remains a major challenge toward economically viable production. Incorporating several modern approaches, including synthetic and systems biology, metabolic modeling, and regulatory rewiring have proven to significantly advance industrial strain engineering...
June 16, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629443/parents-and-guardians-perceptions-on-availability-and-pricing-of-medicines-and-healthcare-for-children-in-ethekwini-south-africa-a-qualitative-study
#6
Velisha Ann Perumal-Pillay, Fatima Suleman
BACKGROUND: Inadequate access to affordable essential medicines poses a challenge to achieving Universal Health Coverage. Access to essential medicines for children has been in the spotlight in recent research. However, information from the end users of medicines, i.e. patients is scarce. Obtaining information at a household level is integral to understanding how people access, obtain and use medicines. This study aimed to gather opinions and perceptions from parents/guardians on availability, affordability and quality of medicines and healthcare for children in SA...
June 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627150/-applying-a-set-of-indicators-to-evaluate-the-primary-health-care
#7
Antonio Giampietro Russo, Maria Teresa Greco
OBJECTIVES: to develop a system of indicators to monitor the quality of health care, in terms of safety, effectiveness, and appropriateness to allow the integrated promotion of the welfare of the effectiveness and quality. DESIGN: retrospective study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: all general practitioners (GPs) with at least 100 patients in loading at 1.1.2015 were included. The setting chosen is the Primary Care of the Agency for Health Protection of the Province of Milan (Northern Italy)...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625625/economic-burden-of-clinical-trials-in-lung-cancer-in-a-german-comprehensive-cancer-center
#8
F Kron, A Kostenko, M Scheffler, D Müller, J-P Glossmann, R Fischer, S Michels, L Nogova, M Hallek, T Zander, J Wolf
OBJECTIVES: The recent success of individualized lung cancer therapy has triggered fundamental changes in clinical research strategies. To date there is a strong focus on early proof of concept trials in genetically preselected small patient subgroups. This analysis focuses on the economic burden caused by such trials for advanced lung cancer patients in a German Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). METHODS: The profit margins between recruiting groups with ≤3 and >3 patients were compared...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625149/stability-indicating-reverse-phase-hplc-method-for-estimation-of-rifampicin-and-piperine-in-pharmaceutical-dosage-form
#9
Umang H Shah, Shraddha Patel, Manan Raval
BACKGROUND: High performance liquid chromatography is an integral analytical tool in assessing drug product stability. HPLC methods should be able to separate, detect, and quantify the various drug-related degradants that can form on storage or manufacturing, plus detect and any drug-related impurities that may be introduced during synthesis. OBJECTIVE: A simple, economic, selective, precise, and stability-indicating HPLC method has been developed and validated for analysis of Rifampicin (RIFA) and Piperine (PIPE) in bulk drug and in the formulation...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625003/when-science-is-not-enough-a-framework-towards-more-customer-focused-drug-development
#10
REVIEW
Nektarios Oraiopoulos, William C N Dunlop
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify the key barriers to a customer-focused drug development process and develop a comprehensive framework to overcome them. METHODS: The paper draws on existing literature, both academic and practitioner, across a range of disciplines (innovation management, marketing, organizational behavior, behavioral economics, health economics, industry reports). On the basis of this extensive review, a conceptual framework is developed that offers concrete suggestions on how organizations can overcome the barriers and enable a more customer-focused development process...
June 17, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622543/quantitative-analysis-of-anti-inflammatory-drugs-using-ftir-atr-spectrometry
#11
Sonia T Hassib, Ghaneya S Hassan, Asmaa A El-Zaher, Marwa A Fouad, Enas A Taha
Four simple, accurate, sensitive and economic Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (ATR-FTIR) methods have been developed for the quantitative estimation of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The first method involves the determination of Etodolac by direct measurement of the absorbance at 1716cm(-1). In the second method, the second derivative of the IR spectra of Tolfenamic acid and its reported degradation product (2-chlorobenzoic acid) was used and the amplitudes were measured at 1084...
June 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619448/the-future-of-pharmaceutical-quality-and-the-path-to-get-there
#12
Lawrence X Yu, Michael Kopcha
While six sigma quality has long been achieved in other industries, it is rarely seen in the pharmaceutical sector. However, consumers and patients deserve six sigma quality pharmaceuticals with minimal risks of shortages or recalls. We propose that the future of pharmaceutical quality is six sigma, meaning that no more than 3.4 defects occur per million opportunities. We discuss the path to get there, including economic drivers, performance-based regulation, Quality by Design, advanced manufacturing technologies, and continuous improvement and operational excellence...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614365/modelling-community-control-strategies-to-protect-hospital-resources-during-an-influenza-pandemic-in-ottawa-canada
#13
Patrick Saunders-Hastings, Bryson Quinn Hayes, Robert Smith, Daniel Krewski
BACKGROUND: A novel influenza virus has emerged to produce a global pandemic four times in the past one hundred years, resulting in millions of infections, hospitalizations and deaths. There is substantial uncertainty about when, where and how the next influenza pandemic will occur. METHODS: We developed a novel mathematical model to chart the evolution of an influenza pandemic. We estimate the likely burden of future influenza pandemics through health and economic endpoints...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607506/cost-effectiveness-of-pharmacogenetic-guided-treatment-are-we-there-yet
#14
REVIEW
M Verbelen, M E Weale, C M Lewis
Pharmacogenetics (PGx) has the potential to personalize pharmaceutical treatments. Many relevant gene-drug associations have been discovered, but PGx-guided treatment needs to be cost-effective as well as clinically beneficial to be incorporated into standard health-care. We reviewed economic evaluations for PGx associations listed in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labeling. We determined the proportion of evaluations that found PGx-guided treatment to be cost-effective or dominant over the alternative strategies, and estimated the impact on this proportion of removing the cost of genetic testing...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598411/ruthenium-ii-catalysed-remote-c-h-alkylations-as-a-versatile-platform-to-meta-decorated-arenes
#15
Jie Li, Korkit Korvorapun, Suman De Sarkar, Torben Rogge, David J Burns, Svenja Warratz, Lutz Ackermann
The full control of positional selectivity is of prime importance in C-H activation technology. Chelation assistance served as the stimulus for the development of a plethora of ortho-selective arene functionalizations. In sharp contrast, meta-selective C-H functionalizations continue to be scarce, with all ruthenium-catalysed transformations currently requiring difficult to remove or modify nitrogen-containing heterocycles. Herein, we describe a unifying concept to access a wealth of meta-decorated arenes by a unique arene ligand effect in proximity-induced ruthenium(II) C-H activation catalysis...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593879/deciphering-the-route-to-cyclic-monoterpenes-in-chrysomelina-leaf-beetles-source-of-new-biocatalysts-for-industrial-application
#16
Antje Burse, Wilhelm Boland
The drastic growth of the population on our planet requires the efficient and sustainable use of our natural resources. Enzymes are indispensable tools for a wide range of industries producing food, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, or biofuels. Because insects constitute one of the most species-rich classes of organisms colonizing almost every ecological niche on earth, they have developed extraordinary metabolic abilities to survive in various and sometimes extreme habitats. Despite this metabolic diversity, insect enzymes have only recently generated interest in industrial applications because only a few metabolic pathways have been sufficiently characterized...
May 8, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589028/do-changes-to-supply-chains-and-procurement-processes-yield-cost-savings-and-improve-availability-of-pharmaceuticals-vaccines-or-health-products-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#17
Gabriel Seidman, Rifat Atun
INTRODUCTION: Improving health systems performance, especially in low-resource settings facing complex disease burdens, can improve population health. Specifically, the efficiency and effectiveness of supply chains and procurement processes for pharmaceuticals, vaccines and other health products has important implications for health system performance. Pharmaceuticals, vaccines and other health products make up a large share of total health expenditure in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), and they are critical for delivering health services...
March 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588965/long-shadow-of-fear-in-an-epidemic-fearonomic-effects-of-ebola-on-the-private-sector-in-nigeria
#18
Sulzhan Bali, Kearsley A Stewart, Muhammad Ali Pate
BACKGROUND: The already significant impact of the Ebola epidemic on Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, was worsened by a fear of contagion that aggravated the health crisis. However, in contrast to other Ebola-affected countries, Nigeria fared significantly better due to its swift containment of the disease. The objective of our study was to describe the impact of Ebola on the Nigerian private sector. This paper introduces and defines the term fearonomic effect as the direct and indirect economic effects of both misinformation as well as fear-induced aversion behaviour, exhibited by individuals, organisations or countries during an outbreak or an epidemic...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588129/complete-biosynthesis-of-anthocyanins-using-e-coli-polycultures
#19
J Andrew Jones, Victoria R Vernacchio, Shannon M Collins, Abhijit N Shirke, Yu Xiu, Jacob A Englaender, Brady F Cress, Catherine C McCutcheon, Robert J Linhardt, Richard A Gross, Mattheos A G Koffas
Fermentation-based chemical production strategies provide a feasible route for the rapid, safe, and sustainable production of a wide variety of important chemical products, ranging from fuels to pharmaceuticals. These strategies have yet to find wide industrial utilization due to their inability to economically compete with traditional extraction and chemical production methods. Here, we engineer for the first time the complex microbial biosynthesis of an anthocyanin plant natural product, starting from sugar...
June 6, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578712/pharmacoeconomic-studies-in-world-health-organization-eastern-mediterranean-countries-reporting-completeness
#20
Qais Alefan, Karen Rascati
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of reporting necessary information in published health economic research in World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Countries (WHO EMC). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar to identify pharmacoeconomic studies conducted in WHO EMC. The inclusion criteria for the studies were: (i) original studies, (ii) compared pharmaceutical services or drugs, (iii) conducted in WHO EMC, (iv) manuscript published in English...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
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