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Pharmaceutical economics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348194/health-care-costs-associated-with-incident-complications-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-germany
#1
Katharina Kähm, Michael Laxy, Udo Schneider, Wolf H Rogowski, Stefan K Lhachimi, Rolf Holle
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to provide reliable regression-based estimates of costs associated with different type 2 diabetes complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used nationwide statutory health insurance (SHI) data from 316,220 patients with type 2 diabetes. Costs for inpatient and outpatient care, pharmaceuticals, rehabilitation, and nonmedical aids and appliances were assessed in the years 2013-2015. Quarterly observations are available for each year...
January 18, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342285/serial-participation-and-the-ethics-of-phase-1-healthy-volunteer-research
#2
Rebecca L Walker, Marci D Cottingham, Jill A Fisher
Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials-which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects-appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase 1 trials...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329775/recent-advances-and-strategies-in-process-and-strain-engineering-for-the-production-of-butyric-acid-by-microbial-fermentation
#3
REVIEW
Hongzhen Luo, Rongling Yang, Yuping Zhao, Zhaoyu Wang, Zheng Liu, Mengyu Huang, Qingwei Zeng
Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324831/the-plantlibra-consumer-survey-findings-on-the-use-of-plant-food-supplements-in-italy
#4
Patrizia Restani, Chiara Di Lorenzo, Alicia Garcia-Alvarez, Gianfranco Frigerio, Francesca Colombo, Franco M Maggi, Raimon Milà-Villarroel, Lluis Serra-Majem
BACKGROUND: Food supplements, and in particular those containing botanicals (plant food supplements, PFS), have in recent decades been of great interest both to consumers and to food/pharmaceutical industries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to examine replies by Italian consumers to the PlantLIBRA consumers' survey in order to: 1) assess the behaviour of an Italian population with respect to the use of PFS, and to compare it with that of other 5 countries involved in the whole survey; 2) identify different habits in the 4 Italian cities selected according to their geographical distribution; 3) collect independent information on the actual intake of PFS and consumers' behaviour...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323930/the-economic-burden-of-asthma-in-the-united-states-2008-2013
#5
Tursynbek Nurmagambetov, Robin Kuwahara, Paul Garbe
RATIONALE: Asthma is a chronic disease that affects quality of life, productivity at work and school, healthcare use, and can result in death. Measuring the current economic burden of asthma provides important information on the impact of asthma on society. This information can be used to make informed decisions about allocation of limited public health resources. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we provide a comprehensive approach to estimate current prevalence, medical costs, cost of absenteeism (missed work and schooldays) and mortality attributable to asthma from a national perspective...
January 11, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322278/impacts-of-chronic-non-communicable-diseases-on-households-out-of-pocket-healthcare-expenditures-in-sri-lanka
#6
Asankha Pallegedara
This article examines the effects of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on households' out-of-pocket health expenditures in Sri Lanka. We explore the disease specific impacts on out-of-pocket health care expenses from chronic NCDs such as heart diseases, hypertension, cancer, diabetics and asthma. We use nationwide cross-sectional household income and expenditure survey 2012/2013 data compiled by the department of census and statistics of Sri Lanka. Employing propensity score matching method to account for selectivity bias, we find that chronic NCD affected households appear to spend significantly higher out-of-pocket health care expenditures and encounter grater economic burden than matched control group despite having universal public health care policy in Sri Lanka...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Health Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320891/the-political-economy-of-the-assessment-of-value-of-new-health-technologies
#7
Jonathan Karnon, Laura Edney, Hossein Afzali
Health technology assessment provides a common framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of new health technologies to inform decisions on the public funding of new pharmaceuticals and other health technologies. In Australia and England, empirical analyses of the opportunity costs of government spending on new health technologies suggest more quality adjusted life years are being forgone than are being gained by a non-trivial proportion of funded health technologies. This essay considers the relevance of available empirical estimates of opportunity costs and explores the relationship between the public funding of health technologies and broader political and economic factors...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317918/awareness-of-the-implementation-of-the-falsified-medicines-directive-among-pharmaceutical-companies-professionals-in-the-european-economic-area
#8
Urszula WŁodarczak, Damian Swieczkowski, Urszula Religioni, Milosz Jaguszewski, Jerzy Krysinski, Piotr Merks
Background: The Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD) is a response of the European Union to the increasing number of falsified medicines present in the legal supply chain within the Member States of the community. Effective implementation of the new regulations will depend on the effective cooperation of all parties involved in the distribution of medicinal products including the managers of pharmaceutical companies. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine awareness of the Implementation of the FMD among pharmaceutical company professionals in the European Economic Area...
October 2017: Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312658/economic-burden-of-nosocomial-infections-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#9
Laura Puchter, Iris Freya Chaberny, Frank Schwab, Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Franz-Christoph Bange, Ella Ebadi
Background: Nosocomial infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major problem during the last years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic burden of nosocomial VRE infections in a European university hospital. Methods: A retrospective matched case-control study was performed including patients who acquired nosocomial infection with either VRE or vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) within a time period of 3 years...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310332/quantifying-the-direct-public-health-care-cost-of-systemic-sclerosis-a-comprehensive-data-linkage-study
#10
Kathleen Morrisroe, Wendy Stevens, Joanne Sahhar, Gene-Siew Ngian, Candice Rabusa, Nava Ferdowsi, Catherine Hill, Susanna Proudman, Mandana Nikpour
To quantify the direct healthcare cost of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and identify its determinants. Healthcare use was captured through data linkage, wherein clinical and medication data for SSc patients from the state of Victoria enrolled in the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study were linked with the Victorian hospital admissions and emergency presentations data sets, and the Medicare Benefits Schedule which contains all government subsidized ambulatory care services, for the period 2011-2015. Medication cost was determined from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310227/quantitative-analysis-of-drug-distribution-by-ambient-mass-spectrometry-imaging-method-with-signal-extinction-normalization-strategy-and-inkjet-printing-technology
#11
Zhigang Luo, Jingjing He, Jiuming He, Lan Huang, Xiaowei Song, Xin Li, Zeper Abliz
Quantitative mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a robust approach that provides both quantitative and spatial information for drug candidates' research. However, because of complicated signal suppression and interference, acquiring accurate quantitative information from MSI data remains a challenge, especially for whole-body tissue sample. Ambient MSI techniques using spray-based ionization appear to be ideal for pharmaceutical quantitative MSI analysis. However, it is more challenging, as it involves almost no sample preparation and is more susceptible to ion suppression/enhancement...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290170/cost-effectiveness-of-drugs-to-treat-relapsed-refractory-multiple-myeloma-in-the-united-states
#12
Josh J Carlson, Gregory F Guzauskas, Richard H Chapman, Patricia G Synnott, Shanshan Liu, Elizabeth T Russo, Steven D Pearson, Elizabeth D Brouwer, Daniel A Ollendorf
BACKGROUND: New 3-drug regimens have been developed and approved to treat multiple myeloma (MM). The absence of direct comparative data and the high cost of treatment support the need to assess the relative clinical and economic outcomes across all approved regimens. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatments for relapsed and/or refractory MM from a U.S. health system perspective. METHODS: We developed a partition survival model with 3 health states (progression-free, progression, and death) to evaluate the following regimens: carfilzomib (CFZ), elotuzumab (ELO), ixazomib (IX), daratumumab (DAR), and panobinostat (PAN) in combination with lenalidomide (LEN) or bortezomib (BOR) plus dexamethasone (DEX) in the second and/or third line of therapy...
January 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285002/historical-contribution-of-pharmaceutics-to-botany-and-pharmacognosy-development
#13
REVIEW
Lejla Zunic, Armin Skrbo, Amra Dobraca
Introduction: Pharmacy and medicine belong to the oldest human activities, so the development of these sciences is closely related to the socio-economic, cultural and religious opportunities of the nations within which they have been developing. Goals: To present the historical influence of pharmacy on the development of the human being from its very beginning; To present the historical link between pharmaceutical and medical activity, as well as early development of independent pharmaceutical activity; To present the historical influence of pharmacists on the development of botany and pharmacognosy and to present the historical influence of the first written herbarium and incunabula on the development of pharmacognosy...
December 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284908/contribution-of-arabic-medicine-and-pharmacy-to-the-development-of-health-care-protection-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina-the-first-part
#14
REVIEW
Izet Masic, Armin Skrbo, Nabil Naser, Salih Tandir, Lejla Zunic, Senad Medjedovic, Aziz Sukalo
The time interval from the 9th to the 13th century remained known as the "Golden period of the Arab science", and a significant place among the taught sciences are occupied by Medicine and Pharmacy. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine, also known as Arabic medicine, refers to the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic Arabs were able to use their cultural and natural resources and trade links to contribute to the strong development of pharmacy. After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks...
October 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284029/cyp51-is-an-essential-drug-target-for-the-treatment-of-primary-amoebic-meningoencephalitis-pam
#15
Anjan Debnath, Claudia M Calvet, Gareth Jennings, Wenxu Zhou, Alexander Aksenov, Madeline R Luth, Ruben Abagyan, W David Nes, James H McKerrow, Larissa M Podust
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283325/emerging-trends-in-non-interferon-based-genotype-specific-antiviral-agents-pharmaceutical-perspectives
#16
Tahir Farooq, Arruje Hameed, Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Matloob Ahmed, Tahsin Gulzar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) presents a serious global health threat. Initially, the health-care community mainly focused on interferon (IFN)-based therapeutic options to eradicate HCV, but with the passage of time, these applications became unsuitable due to some serious side effects related to the use of IFN. In recent years, research conducted on different phases of HCV's life cycle has opened a new gateway for the use of a direct-acting new generation of anti-HCV agents. Their safer and ultrarapid response has made possible the introduction of triple therapy and use of IFN-free therapeutic treatment strategies...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278307/biotransformation-of-plant-derived-phenolic-acids
#17
REVIEW
Ruchanok Tinikul, Pirom Chenprakhon, Somchart Maenpuen, Pimchai Chaiyen
Phenolic acids are abundant biomass feedstock that can be derived from the processing of lignin or other byproducts from agro-industrial waste. Although phenolic acids such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid, syringic acid and ferulic acid can be used directly in various applications, their value can be significantly increased when they are further modified to high value-added compounds. This review summarizes and discusses the new advances in cell free and whole-cell biocatalysis technologies for reactions important for conversion of phenolic acids including esterification, decarboxylation, amination, halogenation, hydroxylation and ring-breakage reactions...
December 26, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277174/characteristics-of-managed-entry-agreements-in-australia
#18
Maxine F Robinson, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Tracy Merlin, Elizabeth Roughead
OBJECTIVES: Australia relies on managed entry agreements (MEAs) for many medicines added to the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Previous studies of Australian MEAs examined public domain documents and were not able to provide a comprehensive assessment of the types and operation of MEAs. This study used government documents approved for release to examine the implementation and administration of MEAs implemented January 2012 to May 2016. METHODS: We accessed documents for medicines with MEAs on the PBS between January 2012 and May 2016...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274224/what-is-bending-the-cost-curve-an-exploration-of-possible-drivers-and-unintended-consequences
#19
Kimberlyn McGrail, Megan Ahuja
Health expenditures in most OECD countries have increased at a slower rate since 2008/2009. Potential drivers of this bending of the cost curve include: (1) changes in pharmaceuticals and technology innovations; (2) healthcare reforms, and specifically those focusing on care for complex and high-user patients and (3) government expenditure controls resulting from general economic conditions. We use publicly available National Health Expenditure data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information to assess the merits of each of these drivers, with a focus on British Columbia...
November 2017: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236427/sharing-samples-and-generics-an-antitrust-framework
#20
Michael A Carrier
Rising drug prices are in the news. By increasing price, drug companies have placed vital, even life-saving, medicines out of the reach of consumers. In a recent development, brand firms have prevented generics even from entering the market. The ruse for this strategy involves risk-management programs known as Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies ("REMS"). Pursuant to legislation enacted in 2007, the FDA requires REMS when a drug's risks (such as death or injury) outweigh its rewards. Brands have used this regime, intended to bring drugs to the market, to block generic competition...
2017: Cornell Law Review
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