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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334720/-responding-to-national-strategy-demand-for-a-new-era-and-grasping-key-problems-of-basic-frontiers-in-preventive-medicine-shuangqing-forum-no-192-of-national-natural-science-foundation-of-china
#1
L Q Qin, C Q Yu, Y F Dai, A H Gu, Z W Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334324/the-rite-of-passage-of-becoming-a-humanitarian-health-worker-experiences-of-retention-in-sweden
#2
Sara Albuquerque, Anneli Eriksson, Helle M Alvesson
BACKGROUND: Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. OBJECTIVE: To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333547/diverse-bimetallic-mechanisms-emerging-from-transition-metal-lewis-acid-base-pairs-development-of-co-catalysis-with-metal-carbenes-and-metal-carbonyl-anions
#3
Neal P Mankad
The rational development of catalytic reactions involving cooperative behavior between two catalytic reactive sites represents a frontier area of research from which novel reactivity and selectivity patterns emerge. Within this context, this Feature highlights the development of a cooperative system involving transition metal Lewis acid/base pairs. Bimetallic systems consisting of copper carbene Lewis acids and metal carbonyl anion Lewis bases, (NHC)Cu-[MCO], are easily synthesized from readily available organometallic building blocks (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene; [MCO]- = metal carbonyl anion, e...
January 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332069/the-history-of-movement-disorder-brain-surgery
#4
L Dade Lunsford, Ajay Niranjan
The first surgical procedures for abnormal movement disorders began in the 1930s, when surgeons first proposed ablative techniques of the caudate nucleus or transection of motor (pyramidal) pathways to reduce involuntary movements in patients with Parkinson's related tremor. During the 50-year interval between 1945 and 1995, the development of precise intracranial guiding devices, brain maps, and advanced imaging led to the refinement of appropriate deep brain targets affecting extrapyramidal pathways. Lesional surgery and subsequent neuroaugmentation using deep brain stimulation extended the role of deep brain surgery for a wider group of patients with tremor, rigidity, dyskinesia, and other involuntary movement disorders...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326297/current-status-and-future-directions-of-l%C3%A3-vy-walk-research
#5
REVIEW
Andy M Reynolds
Lévy walks are a mathematical construction useful for describing random patterns of movement with bizarre fractal properties that seem to have no place in biology. Nonetheless, movement patterns resembling Lévy walks have been observed at scales ranging from the microscopic to the ecological. They have been seen in the molecular machinery operating within cells during intracellular trafficking, in the movement patterns of T cells within the brain, in DNA, in some molluscs, insects, fish, birds and mammals, in the airborne flights of spores and seeds, and in the collective movements of some animal groups...
January 11, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324256/dft-td-semiempirical-study-on-the-structural-and-electronic-properties-and-absorption-spectra-of-supramolecular-fullerene-porphyrine-metalloporphyrine-triads-based-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#6
M Rezvani, M Darvish Ganji, S Jameh-Bozorghi, A Niazi
In the present work density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent semiempirical ZNIDO/S (TD-ZNIDO/S) methods have been used to investigate the ground state geometries, electronic structures and excited state properties of triad systems. The influences of the type of metal in the porphyrin ring, change in bridge position and porphyrine-ZnP duplicate on the energies of frontier molecular orbital and UV-Vis spectra has been studied. Geometry optimization, the energy levels and electron density of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO), chemical hardness (η), electrophilicity index (ω), electron accepting power (ω+) were calculated using ZINDO/S method to predict which molecule is the most efficient with a great capability to be used as a triad molecule in solar industry...
January 2, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323881/markov-state-models-from-an-art-to-a-science
#7
Brooke E Husic, Vijay S Pande
Markov state models (MSMs) are a powerful framework for analyzing dynamical systems, such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, that have gained widespread use over the past several decades. This review offers a complete picture of the MSM field to date, presented for a general audience as a timeline of key developments in the field. We sequentially address early studies that motivated the method, canonical papers that established the use of MSMs for MD analysis, and subsequent advances in software and analysis protocols...
January 11, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323878/electrical-matching-at-metal-molecule-contacts-for-efficient-heterogeneous-charge-transfer
#8
Shino Sato, Shigeru Iwase, Kotaro Namba, Tomoya Ono, Kenji Hara, Atsushi Fukuoka, Kohei Uosaki, Katsuyoshi Ikeda
In a metal/molecule hybrid system, unavoidable electrical mismatch exists between metal continuum states and frontier molecular orbitals. This causes energy loss in the electron conduction across the metal/molecule interface. For efficient use of energy in a metal/molecule hybrid system, it is necessary to control interfacial electronic structures. Here we demonstrate that electrical matching between a gold substrate and π-conjugated molecular wires can be obtained by using monoatomic foreign metal interlayers, which can change the degree of d-π* back donation at metal/anchor contacts...
January 11, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320190/electronic-and-nonlinear-optical-properties-of-l-histidine-on-silver-a-theoretical-and-experimental-approach
#9
U Reeta Felscia, Beulah J M Rajkumar, Monickaraj Nidya, Pranitha Sankar
Investigation on the electrostatic interactions between histidine and silver have been analysed using Density Functional Theory (DFT). Variations in the structural parameters were identified to be significant at those atoms of histidine near the silver cluster. Shifting of frontier molecular orbitals, reduction in bandgap, molecular electrostatic potential(MEP) and the overlap of Natural Bond Orbitals(NBO) between silver and histidine have been theoretically calculated. The results confirm the redistribution of charges consequent to the process of adsorption...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319313/orbital-control-of-photocurrents-in-large-area-all-carbon-molecular-junctions
#10
Amin Morteza Najarian, Akhtar Bayat, Richard L McCreery
Photocurrent generated by illumination of carbon-based molecular junctions were investigated as diagnostics of how molecular structure and orbital energies control electronic behavior. Oligomers of eight aromatic molecules covalently bonded to an electron-beam deposited carbon surface were formed by electrochemical reduction of diazonium reagents, with layer thicknesses in the range of 5-12 nm. Illumination through either the top or bottom partially transparent electrodes produced both an open circuit potential (OCP) and a photocurrent (PC), and the polarity and spectrum of the photocurrent depended directly on the relative positions of the frontier orbitals and the electrode Fermi level (EF)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318829/-key-points-of-poverty-alleviation-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-industry-and-classification-of-recommended-chinese-herbal-medicines
#11
Lu-Qi Huang, Gang-Qiang Su, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Ming Sun, Xiao-Jun Wu, Lan-Ping Guo, Meng Li, Hui Wang, Zhi-Xian Jing
To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people's livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels. Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people's livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China's rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316824/fear-of-communicating-fear-versus-fear-of-terrorism-a-human-rights-violation-or-a-sign-of-our-time
#12
Chika Anyanwu
At its very first session, the United Nations General Assembly, adopted Resolution 59(I) which states that "freedom of information is a fundamental human right and … the touchstone of all the freedoms to which the United Nations is consecrated". In 1948, it proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Paris. Article 19 of that Declaration states that "everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers"...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316607/secondary-metabolites-of-mangrove-associated-strains-of-talaromyces
#13
REVIEW
Rosario Nicoletti, Maria Michela Salvatore, Anna Andolfi
Boosted by the general aim of exploiting the biotechnological potential of the microbial component of biodiversity, research on the secondary metabolite production of endophytic fungi has remarkably increased in the past few decades. Novel compounds and bioactivities have resulted from this work, which has stimulated a more thorough consideration of various natural ecosystems as conducive contexts for the discovery of new drugs. Thriving at the frontier between land and sea, mangrove forests represent one of the most valuable areas in this respect...
January 6, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315402/cardiac-optogenetics-the-next-frontier
#14
Amit Gruber, Oded Edri, Lior Gepstein
The emerging technology of optogenetics uses optical and genetic means to monitor and modulate the electrophysiological properties of excitable tissues. While transforming the field of neuroscience, the technology has recently gained popularity also in the cardiac arena. Here, we describe the basic principles of optogenetics, the available and evolving optogenetic tools, and the unique potential of this technology for basic and translational cardiac electrophysiology. Specifically, we discuss the ability to control (augment or suppress) the cardiac tissue's excitable properties using optogenetic actuators (microbial opsins), which are light-gated ion channels and pumps that can cause light-triggered membrane depolarization or hyperpolarization...
January 5, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314718/new-frontiers-in-rna-transport-and-local-translation-in-neurons
#15
REVIEW
S J Van Driesche, K C Martin
RNA localization to neuronal dendrites and axons is increasingly recognized as a significant and widespread mechanism of gene expression control in neurons. High-throughput RNA sequencing is rapidly expanding the universe of known localized mRNAs. Although there are inherent difficulties in preparing sequencing libraries from dendrites and axons in the context of intact brain, genetic labeling strategies have paved the way for improved studies of this type. As the list of localized mRNAs grows, there is increasing need for functional validation of localized transcripts - that is, do particular localized transcripts serve demonstrable physiologic functions in axons or dendrites? Finally, specific details about what localized mRNAs do once they reach distal processes have long been elusive...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314538/the-new-frontier-of-prostate-biopsy-determining-the-role-of-image-guidance-in-moving-the-needle
#16
EDITORIAL
Sean A Fletcher, Sebastian Berg, Quoc-Dien Trinh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305707/transcriptional-retargeting-of-herpes-simplex-virus-for-cell-specific-replication-to-control-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Weihua Lou, Fang Ji, Jianing Fu, Zhiqiang Han, Wen Di, Ning Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Oncolytic virotherapy has emerged as a novel frontier in the treatment of cancer. Among the viruses that entered clinical trials are the oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Current oncolytic HSV-1 approved for clinical practice, and those in clinical trials are attenuated viruses, often deleted in the neurovirulence gene γ134.5, and in additional genes, which may result in a much more attenuated virus with reduced replication efficiency. Therefore, the transcriptional retargeting strategy by modifying the regulator elements flanking essential viral genes to achieve tumor-specific replication while maintaining as much of the viral genome has been representing alternative promising oncolytic virotherapy modality...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303596/cationic-bis-cyclometalated-ir-iii-complexes-with-pyridine-carbene-ligands-photophysical-properties-and-photocatalytic-hydrogen-production-from-water
#18
Javier Torres, M Carmen Carrión, Jorge Leal, Félix A Jalón, José V Cuevas, Ana M Rodríguez, Gregorio Castañeda, Blanca R Manzano
Precursors of chelate pyridine-N-heterocyclic carbene (N^C:) ligands with methyl- or benzyl-substituted imidazolylidene fragments were synthesized. They were used to obtain 12 iridium bis-cyclometalated complexes of the type [Ir(C^N)2(N^C:)]+ (C^N = 2-(phenyl)pyridinato-C2,N, ppy, 2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-C2,N, dfppy). The ancillary N^C: ligands contain different structural modifications. The aim of the work was to analyze the effect that changes in the two types of ligands have on the photophysical and electrochemical properties and also on the behavior of these materials as photosensitizers...
January 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299850/region-based-shielding-of-visual-search-from-salient-distractors-target-detection-is-impaired-with-same-but-not-different-dimension-distractors
#19
Marian Sauter, Heinrich René Liesefeld, Michael Zehetleitner, Hermann J Müller
Shielding visual search against interference from salient distractors becomes more efficient over time for display regions where distractors appear more frequently, rather than only rarely Goschy, Bakos, Müller, & Zehetleitner (Frontiers in Psychology 5: 1195, 2014). We hypothesized that the locus of this learned distractor probability-cueing effect depends on the dimensional relationship of the to-be-inhibited distractor relative to the to-be-attended target. If the distractor and target are defined in different visual dimensions (e...
January 3, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298314/improving-mapping-for-ebola-response-through-mobilising-a-local-community-with-self-owned-smartphones-tonkolili-district-sierra-leone-january-2015
#20
Laura M Nic Lochlainn, Ivan Gayton, Georgios Theocharopoulos, Robin Edwards, Kostas Danis, Ronald Kremer, Karline Kleijer, Sumaila M Tejan, Mohamed Sankoh, Augustin Jimissa, Jane Greig, Grazia Caleo
BACKGROUND: During the 2014-16 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, the Magburaka Ebola Management Centre (EMC) operated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Tonkolili District, Sierra Leone, identified that available district maps lacked up-to-date village information to facilitate timely implementation of EVD control strategies. In January 2015, we undertook a survey in chiefdoms within the MSF EMC catchment area to collect mapping and village data. We explore the feasibility and cost to mobilise a local community for this survey, describe validation against existing mapping sources and use of the data to prioritise areas for interventions, and lessons learned...
2018: PloS One
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