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Farah Chedly Thabet, Faisal Ahmed alHaffaf, Iheb Mohamed Bougmiza, Hend Ali Bafaqih, May Said Chehab, Sulaiman Abdulkareem alMohaimeed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the off-hours admission has any effect on risk-adjusted mortality and length of stay for nonelective patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) without 24-hour in-house intensivist coverage. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A 34-bed tertiary PICU. PATIENTS: All consecutive nonelective patients aged 0 to 14 years admitted from January 2012 to June 2015. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 1254 patients were nonelectively admitted to the PICU...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Robert L Mango, Eric L Matteson, Cynthia S Crowson, Jay H Ryu, Ashima Makol
PURPOSE: The gender, age, and lung physiology (GAP) model, interstitial lung diseases-GAP (ILD-GAP) model, and the smoking history, age, and diffusion capacity of the lung (SADL) model were compared using a systemic sclerosis-ILD (SSc-ILD) cohort to evaluate which best determined prognosis. METHODS: The models were applied to a cohort of 179 patients with SSc seen at a tertiary care center within 1 year of ILD diagnosis. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and mortality were recorded...
May 21, 2018: Lung
Hideaki Kawaguchi, Soichi Koike, Ryota Sakurai, Kazuhiko Ohe
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detection of coronary artery stenosis, and healthcare providers can detect coronary artery disease in earlier stages before it develops into more serious clinical conditions such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We hypothesized that the mortality ratio of AMI in regions with a higher density of coronary CTA is lower than that in regions with a lower density of coronary CTA. METHODS: This ecological and cross-sectional study using secondary data targeted all secondary medical service areas (SMSAs) in Japan (n = 349)...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Angelo Caputo, Marco De Santis, Valerio Manno, Gabriella Cauzillo, Biagio Maria Bruni, Lorenzo Palumbo, Susanna Conti, Pietro Comba
OBJECTIVES: to estimate the health impact of asbestos fibres naturally occurring in Mount Pollino area (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy). DESIGN: geographic mortality, hospitalization, and incidence study. Setting and participant s: population resident in 12 Municipalities of Mount Pollino area with naturally occurring asbestos fibres. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized hospitalization rate (SHR) for asbestos-related diseases; standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for mesotheliomas...
March 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Fernanda Bolfi, Adriele Ferreira Neves, Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Vania Santos Nunes-Nogueira
OBJECTIVE: To compare the acromegaly mortality rates with those expected for the general population from studies published before and after 2008. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and included observational studies in which the number of deaths observed in acromegaly was compared with the expected mortality for the general population (O/E). The following electronic databases were used as our data sources: Embase, Medline and Lilacs. From the O/E, we recalculated all Standardized Mortality Rates (SMR), and their respective confidence intervals (95% CI) which were plotted in a meta-analysis using the software RevMan 5...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Jiwei Luo, Xue Li, Chengjun Ge, Karin Müller, Huamei Yu, Peng Huang, Jiatong Li, Daniel C W Tsang, Nanthi S Bolan, Jörg Rinklebe, Hailong Wang
Pollution of water by single antibiotics has been investigated in depth. However, in reality, a wide range of different contaminants is often mixed in the aquatic environment (contaminant cocktail). Here, single and competitive sorption dynamics of ionizable norfloxacin (NOR), sulfamerazine (SMR) and oxytetracycline (OTC) by both pristine and modified biochars were investigated. Sorption kinetics of the three antibiotics was faster in ternary-solute than single-solute system. Sorption efficiency was enhanced in the competitive system for NOR by the pristine biochar, and for OTC by both the pristine biochar and the modified biochar, while SMR sorption by the pristine biochar and the KOH-modified biochar was inhibited...
May 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xiang-He Meng, Xiang-Ding Chen, Jonathan Greenbaum, Qin Zeng, Sheng-Lan You, Hong-Mei Xiao, Li-Jun Tan, Hong-Wen Deng
PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is a common global health problem characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >100 genetic loci associated with BMD. However, the functional genes responsible for most associations remain largely unknown. We conducted an innovative summary statistic data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) analysis to identify novel causal genes associated with BMD and explored their potential functional significance...
May 12, 2018: Bone
Tricia M Markle, Kenneth H Kozak
Thermal acclimation is hypothesized to offer a selective advantage in seasonal habitats and may underlie disparities in geographic range size among closely-related species with similar ecologies. Understanding this relationship is also critical for identifying species that are more sensitive to warming climates. Here, we study North American plethodontid salamanders to investigate whether acclimation ability is associated with species' latitudinal extents and the thermal range of the environments they inhabit...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Robert G Micheletti, Zelma Chiesa-Fuxench, Megan H Noe, Sasha Stephen, Maria Aleshin, Ashwin Agarwal, Jennifer Boggs, Adela R Cardones, Jennifer K Chen, Jonathan Cotliar, Mark Dp Davis, Arturo Dominguez, Lindy P Fox, Shayna Gordon, Ronald Hamrick, Baran Ho, Lauren C Hughey, Larry M Jones, Benjamin H Kaffenberger, Kimball Kindley, Daniela Kroshinsky, Bernice Y Kwong, Daniel D Miller, Arash Mostaghimi, Amy Musiek, Alex G Ortega-Loayza, Raj Patel, Alba Posligua, Monica Rani, Sandeep Saluja, Victoria R Sharon, Kanade Shinkai, Jessica St John, Nicole Strickland, Erika M Summers, Natalie Sun, Karolyn A Wanat, David A Wetter, Scott Worswick, Caroline Yang, David J Margolis, Joel M Gelfand, Misha Rosenbach
Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a rare, severe mucocutaneous reaction with few large cohorts reported. This multicenter retrospective study included patients with SJS/TEN seen by inpatient consultative dermatologists at 18 academic medical centers in the United States. 377 adult patients with SJS/TEN between 1/1/2000 and 6/1/2015 were entered, including 69.0% from 2010 onward. The most frequent cause of SJS/TEN was medication reaction (89.7%), most often trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole (27...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Ali Ahmadabadi, Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan, Alireza Sedaghat, Seyed Hasan Tavousi, Nastaran Khorrampazhouh, Atiyeh Mohsenpour, Zeinab Goudarzi, Masoumeh Hassanpour
BACKGROUND: Burn injuries impose a considerable burden on healthcare systems. It is among the top ten causes of mortality and a major cause of disability. This study aimed to calculate and compare the lethal area fifty percent (LA50) and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in patients with burns. METHODS: This is a five-year cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 3284 patients with acute burns who were admitted to the Burn Department of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, from 2010 to 2015...
May 10, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Chun-Ping Lu, Chien-Yu Huang, Szu-Hsuan Wang, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Lan-Hui Li, Kuo-Feng Hua, Tzu-Hua Wu
Macrophages and inflammasome pathway are involved in high-glucose toxicity and development of insulin resistance. Silymarin (SMR) was known to modulate glucose homeostasis and reduce inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether SMR possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic-like knockout mice (Hnf-1αkin/- /Ins.cre mice) with insulin resistance and also unclear how SMR regulates LPS induced stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines under stresses of high glucose (HG) or NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
May 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Bradley J Edelman, Jianjun Meng, Nicholas Gulachek, Christopher C Cline, Bin He
EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) technology creates non-biological pathways for conveying a user's mental intent solely through noninvasively measured neural signals. While optimizing the performance of a single task has long been the focus of BCI research, in order to translate this technology into everyday life, realistic situations, in which multiple tasks are performed simultaneously, must be investigated. In this paper, we explore the concept of cognitive flexibility, or multitasking, within the BCI framework by utilizing a 2-D cursor control task, using sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs), and a four-target visual attention task, using steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), both individually and simultaneously...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
S E Humphries, J A Cooper, M Seed, N Capps, P N Durrington, B Jones, I F W McDowell, H Soran, H A W Neil
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) have an elevated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Here we compare changes in CHD mortality in patients with heterozygous (FH) pre 1992, before lipid-lowering therapy with statins was used routinely, and in the periods 1992-2008 and 2008-2016. METHODS: 1903 Definite (DFH) and 1650 Possible (PFH) patients (51% women) aged 20-79 years, recruited from 21 lipid clinics in the United Kingdom and followed prospectively between 1980 and 2016 for 67,060 person-years...
May 1, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Caroline Morbach, Diego Bellavia, Stefan Störk, Lissa Sugeng
BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation in ischemic heart disease (IMR) is a strong predictor of outcome but until now, pathophysiology is not sufficiently understood and treatment is not satisfying. We aimed to systematically evaluate structural and functional mitral valve leaflet and annular characteristics in patients with IMR to determine the differences in geometric and dynamic changes of the MV between significant and mild IMR. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with IMR (18 mild (m)MR, 19 significant (moderate+severe) (s)MR) and 33 controls underwent TEE...
May 10, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Debra A Stroiney, Rebecca L Mokris, Gary R Hanna, John D Ranney
Stroiney, DA, Mokris, RL, Hanna, GR, and Ranney, JD. Examination of self-myofascial release vs. instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization techniques on vertical and horizontal power in recreational athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study examined whether pre-exercise self-myofascial release (SMR) and instrument-assisted soft-tissue mobilization (IASTM) would improve performance on measures of vertical jump height and 40-yd sprint time. Differences in perceived pain levels were also examined...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Christian Salerno, Paola Marciani, Aniello Esposito, Lucio Antonio Palin
INTRODUCTION: Aim this study is to assess anomalous mortality rates from 2002 to 2012, in the municipalities of Ghemme and Cavaglio d'Agogna where a landfill has been active. Before the opening of the landfill (1988), studies highlighted the presence of noxious substances, in the ground layers, and not in the groundwater. Goal of our research is to monitor the health levels of the population in an area, with attention to long/midterm effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed the analysis on data of the National Institute of Statistics death records, and produced indirect standardized rates (SMR) using the rates of Local Healthcare Agencies (ASL) of Novara and Vercelli as reference population...
January 2018: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Naoko Masaki, Shuji Hashimoto, Miyuki Kawado, Toshiyuki Ojima, Tadashi Takeshima, Miyuki Matsubara, Kazuko Mitoku, Yukiko Ogata
Objective The number of deaths by suicide after the Great East Japan Earthquake was surveyed based on demographic statistics. In particular, this study examined whether or not there were excessive deaths due to suicide (excluding people who were injured in the earthquake) after the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster. This examination surveyed municipalities in coastal and non-coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (referred to below as the "three prefectures").Methods The demographic statistics questionnaire survey information supplied by Article 33 of the Statistics Act (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's published statistics Vol...
2018: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
Mehrnaz Moghimi, Nasrollah Mahboobi-Soofiani, Pedram Malekpouri
Beyond the role of anthropogenic activities, natural sources of metal contaminations are still controversial, together counting, however, as a major threat to inland and coastal waters, becoming an even more prominent stressor for aquatic life. To address the effects of metals on the physiological response of fish, standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and factorial aerobic scope (FAS) as well as specific rate of ammonia excretion (Jamm ) of Turcinoemacheilus bahaii were determined following different water-borne Cu2+ and Pb2+ treatments...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Isa Adriana Kernberger-Fischer, Carsten Krischek, Birgit Strommenger, Ulrike Fiegen, Martin Beyerbach, Lothar Kreienbrock, Günter Klein, Corinna Kehrenberg
Few studies have been conducted on the susceptibility of bacteria to biocides. A total of 182 methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from healthy or diseased humans and animals in Germany were included in the present study. Sixty-three isolates of animal origin and 119 human isolates were tested for their MICs to eight biocides or heavy metals by the broth microdilution method. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of human and animal isolates were equal or differed by not more than one dilution step and statistical analysis revealed that differences between MICs of human and animal isolates were not significant...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ann John, Joanna McGregor, Ian Jones, Sze Chim Lee, James T R Walters, Michael J Owen, Michael O'Donovan, Marcos DelPozo-Banos, Damon Berridge, Keith Lloyd
Studies assessing premature mortality in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are usually based in one setting, hospital (secondary care inpatients and/or outpatients) or community (primary care). This may lead to ascertainment bias. This study aimed to estimate standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people with SMI drawn from linked primary and secondary care populations compared to the general population. SMRs were calculated using the indirect method for a United Kingdom population of almost four million between 2004 and 2013...
April 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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