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Thoracodorsal nerve block

Rakhi Rastogi, Virendra Budhiraja, Kshitij Bansal
Background. Knowledge of anatomical variations of posterior cord and its branches is important not only for the administration of anaesthetic blocks but also for surgical approaches to the neck, axilla, and upper arm. The present study aimed to record the prevalence of such variations with embryological explanation and clinical implication. Material and Method. 37 formalin-preserved cadavers, that is, 74 upper extremities from the Indian population, constituted the material for the study. Cadavers were dissected during routine anatomy classes for medical undergraduate...
2013: ISRN Anatomy
James A Angus, Ashenafi H Betrie, Christine E Wright
Recent reports have provided evidence for a new concept that in small resistance arteries α1D-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction is intimately linked to pannexin-1 (Px1) hemichannels that open to allow the release of ATP, from the smooth muscle effector cell, that acts back on P2Y purinoceptors to cause contraction. This concept mainly relied on using mefloquine 10-20μM as a putative selective Px1 channel-blocking agent to completely inhibit the contraction to phenylephrine, but not K(+) 40mM. Lower concentrations of mefloquine had no effect...
March 5, 2015: European Journal of Pharmacology
M Salih Sevdi, Isil Gunday, Cavidan Arar, Alkin Colak, Nesrin Turan
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that, after axillary block, positioning the patient in a lateral position with the injected side down and simultaneously in a 20° Trendelenburg position will increase the success rate and quality of the block. METHODS: Fifty patients with chronic renal failure (ASA 2-3) scheduled for arteriovenous fistula surgery were included in this study. In all patients, 30-40 ml of 0.25 % levobupivacaine were injected into the axillary sheath. The block was performed as three injections (multiple injection technique) with the arm in 90° abduction and 90° flexion in the supine position...
August 2014: Journal of Anesthesia
Özlem Kirazlı, Necati Tatarlı, Davut Ceylan, Hüsniye Hacıoğlu, Seda Uygun, Aşkın Şeker, Evren Keleş, Safiye Çavdar
During routine anatomical dissection of the upper extremity of a 64-year-old cadaver for educational purposes, we observed variations in the brachial plexus on each side. On the right an anomaly of cord formation was present and on the left there was a communication between the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) and median nerve (MN). On the right side the brachial plexus showed two trunks, superior (C5 and C6) and inferior (C7, C8, and T1); the middle trunk was absent. The superior trunk bifurcated into anterior and posterior divisions, the anterior division continued as the lateral cord forming the MCN...
December 2013: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Renu Baliyan, Vandana Mehta, Jyoti Arora, Ashish K Nayyar, R K Suri, Gaytri Rath
Variant branching pattern of the cords of brachial plexus coupled with erroneous communications has been an area of concern for surgeons opting to explore this region. Anaesthetic blocks and surgical approaches are the highlights of these interventions, where a keen familiarization of the anatomy of this region is mandatory. The present case description reports a unilateral variant branching pattern of the posterior cord coexistent with a neural communication between lateral and medial cords in an adult male cadaver...
2011: Acta Medica (Hradec Králové)
Johnstone M Muthoka, Simeon R Sinkeet, Swaleh H Shahbal, Ludia C Matakwa, Julius A Ogeng'o
BACKGROUND: Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the branching pattern of the posterior cord in a Kenyan population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five brachial plexuses from 68 formalin fixed cadavers were explored by gross dissection...
2011: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
O Orlowski, V Bullmann, V Vieth, T Filler, N Osada, H Van Aken, T P Weber
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a 20 degrees Trendelenburg position on the blockade of nerves that exit the brachial plexus proximally in patients undergoing single-injection axillary brachial plexus block. After a pilot study of eight cadavers suggested that a head-down and lateral position would encourage the proximal spread of local anaesthetic, 72 patients undergoing elective surgery were divided into two equal groups: a Supine group and a Modified Position group (lateral position, 20 degrees head-down tilt)...
June 2006: Anaesthesia
S Kapral, O Jandrasits, C Schabernig, R Likar, B Reddy, N Mayer, C Weinstabl
BACKGROUND: In the last few years infraclavicular plexus block has become a method of increasing interest. However, this block has been associated with high complication incidences and without advantage in the quality of blockade over the axillary approach. We prospectively studied 40 patients (ASA I-III) undergoing surgery of the forearm and hand, and investigated the performance of the lateral infraclavicular plexus block against an axillary paravascular block to evaluate the success rate as well as the extent and quality of blockade...
November 1999: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
S Kakinuma, F Sasabe, H Nogaki, K Negoro, M Morimatsu
A 66-year-old Japanese man underwent the resection of the upper lobe of the left lung for primary lung cancer. One year later, his back muscles neighboring the operation scar gradually began to twitch upwards intermittently. The involuntary muscle twitch was accompanied with severe local pain, and intensity of the pain and contraction slowly increased. The abnormal muscle contractions were confined to the left latissimus dorsi muscle on needle EMG. The pain and movement ceased by blocking of either thoracodorsal nerve or brachial plexus, and disappeared finally by resection of the nerve...
October 1994: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
K Wintsch, P Helaly
A flap of loose connective tissue based on the thoracodorsal vein and artery and lying between the latissimus dorsi and serratus lateralis can be raised and transferred as a local or free flap. This flap has been used to reconstruct the gliding mechanism in block adhesions of the flexor tendons at wrist level. It has also been used for staged tendon and nerve reconstruction at the same site. Technical details for raising the flap are described and other flaps for similar purposes are suggested. Results of five hands in four cases, including one failure, are detailed...
April 1986: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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