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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138098/cytotoxic-activity-of-holothuria-tubulosa-echinodermata-coelomocytes
#1
Mirella Vazzana, Monica Celi, Marco Chiaramonte, Luigi Inguglia, Debora Russo, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Dominique Battaglia, Vincenzo Arizza
The immune system of marine invertebrates, in particular that of holothurians, still requires further study. Our research showed that coelomocyte cells contained in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumber, Holothuria tubulosa, are able to lyse, in vitro, red blood cells in rabbits and sheep. A plaque-forming assay showed spherule cells to be the effector cells, able to release cytotoxic molecules after xenogenic cell contact. The coelomocyte lysate supernatant, analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis overlay technique, using rabbit and sheep erythrocytes, showed two different haemolytic protein patterns: one calcium dependent and the other calcium independent...
November 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128641/cell-loss-by-apoptosis-is-involved-in-the-intestinal-degeneration-that-occurs-during-aestivation-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#2
Ke Xu, Qiuhan Yu, Jianshe Zhang, Zhenming Lv, Wandong Fu, Tianming Wang
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) commonly undergoes aestivation in response to high water temperatures. This process is accompanied by tissue regression and body mass reduction. Previous studies have suggested that apoptosis may play a role in the tissue remodeling that occurs during aestivation, although this has not definitively been shown. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study used A. japonicus as a model organism to examine cell loss through apoptosis in intestinal degeneration during aestivation...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127862/frondoside-a-potentiates-the-effects-of-conventional-therapeutic-agents-in-acute-leukemia
#3
F H Sajwani, P Collin, T E Adrian
Acute leukemia is the major cause of mortality in hematological malignancies. Despite improvement of survival with current chemotherapies, patients die from the disease or side-effects of treatment. Thus, new therapeutic agents are needed. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside originally isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa that has potent antitumor effects in various cancers. The current study investigated the effects of frondoside A in acute leukemia cell lines alone and in combination with drugs used for this malignancy...
November 8, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113862/comparative-expression-analysis-of-immune-related-factors-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#4
Jingwei Jiang, Zunchun Zhou, Ying Dong, Zelong Zhao, Hongjuan Sun, Bai Wang, Bei Jiang, Zhong Chen, Shan Gao
In order to preliminarily explore the joint involvement of different immune-related factors during the same immune process in Apostichopus japonicus, the transcriptional expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), c-type lysozyme (c-LYZ), i-type lysozyme (i-LYZ), cathepsin D, melanotransferrin (MTF), Toll, c-type lectin (c-LCT) and complement 3 (C3) during the development from fertilized eggs to juveniles and after challenging the juveniles with Vibrio splendidus, Pseudoalteromonas nigrifaciens, Shewanella baltica and Bacillus cereus, respectively, was measured using the method of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and then the correlations among different immune-related factors were analyzed...
November 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112144/evidence-for-a-saponin-biosynthesis-pathway-in-the-body-wall-of-the-commercially-significant-sea-cucumber-holothuria-scabra
#5
Shahida Akter Mitu, Utpal Bose, Saowaros Suwansa-Ard, Luke H Turner, Min Zhao, Abigail Elizur, Steven M Ogbourne, Paul Nicholas Shaw, Scott F Cummins
The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata) body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis...
November 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104230/cucumarioside-a%C3%A2-2-causes-macrophage-activation-in-mouse-spleen
#6
Evgeny A Pislyagin, Igor V Manzhulo, Tatiana Y Gorpenchenko, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Sergey A Avilov, Alexandra S Silchenko, Yun-Ming Wang, Dmitry L Aminin
The immunomodulatory effect of triterpene glycoside cucumarioside A₂-2 (CA₂-2), isolated from the Far Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica, was compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on mouse spleen. It has been shown that the intraperitoneal (i.p.) glycoside administration leads to increased spleen macrophage activating markers iba-1, IL-1β, iNOs, ROS and NO formation, with additional change of macrophage phenotype to M1. The mass spectrometry profiles of peptide/protein were obtained using MALDI-TOF-MS on the different parts of spleen sections isolated by laser mircodissection techniques...
November 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102628/dietary-supplementation-of-biofloc-influences-growth-performance-physiological-stress-antioxidant-status-and-immune-response-of-juvenile-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka
#7
Jinghua Chen, Yichao Ren, Guodong Wang, Bin Xia, Yuquan Li
Bioflocs are rich in various probiotics and bioactive compounds, which play an important role in improving growth and health status of aquatic organisms. A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, physiological stress, antioxidant status, expression of immune-related genes and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Juvenile sea cucumbers were fed five experimental diets containing graded levels of biofloc from 0% to 20% (referred as B0, B5, B10, B15 and B20, respectively)...
November 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102626/unveiling-the-structure-of-sulfated-fucose-rich-polysaccharides-via-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
REVIEW
Paulo As Mourão, Eduardo Vilanova, Paulo Ag Soares
Sulfated fucans from marine invertebrates are composed of regular repetitive fucose building-blocks with sulfation patterns differing in a species-specific manner. These polysaccharides can act as mediators of the acrosome reaction of sea-urchins or play a structural role in the body-wall of sea-cucumbers. Other fucose-rich polysaccharides found in the body-wall of sea-cucumbers are the fucosylated chondroitin sulfates composed of a vertebrate-like chondroitin sulfate decorated with species-specific fucose branches...
November 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097321/the-first-tropical-sea-cucumber-caspase-8-from-holothuria-leucospilota-molecular-characterization-involvement-of-apoptosis-and-inducible-expression-by-immune-challenge
#9
Aifen Yan, Chunhua Ren, Ting Chen, Xiao Jiang, Hongyan Sun, Da Huo, Chaoqun Hu, Jing Wen
In this study, the first tropical sea cucumber caspase-8 named HLcaspase-8 was identified from Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of HLcaspase-8 is 2293 bp in size, containing a 245 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 521 bp 3'-UTR and a 1527 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 508 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 57.47 kDa. Besides the common signatures of caspase family including conserved cysteine active site pentapeptide motif QACQG, P20 domain and P10 domain, HLcaspase-8 also contains a characteristic DED domain...
October 31, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079205/the-distribution-and-function-characterization-of-the-i-type-lysozyme-from-apostichopus-japonicus
#10
Cheng Li, Yu Zhao, Tingting Liu, Jun Huang, Qi Zhang, Benkang Liu, Shan Xiao, Han Wang, Bingnan Liu, Jihui Wang, Lina Cong
Lysozyme is a very important component of the innate immune system and a key molecule that protects against bacterial infection. Sea cucumber i-type lysozyme (Aj-iLys) has been shown to possess multiple functions. In this study, we investigated the function and characterization of Aj-iLys in detail. Spatial distribution analysis showed that Aj-iLys was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, with dominant expression in the tentacles and respiratory trees. Challenge with the pathogen V. splendidus and LPS stimulation both significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of Aj-iLys...
October 24, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065632/anti-skin-cancer-activities-of-apostichopus-japonicus-extracts-from-low-temperature-ultrasonification-process
#11
Nam Young Kim, Woon Yong Choi, Soo Jin Heo, Do Hyung Kang, Hyeon Yong Lee
OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to enhance anti-skin cancer activities of Apostichopus japonicus, spiky sea cucumber, through ultrasonification extraction process at low temperature. METHODS: Dried Apostichopus japonicus was extracted with an ultrasonification process at 50°C and 95 kHz for two hours (UE), and anti-skin cancer activities of the extract from the UE were also compared with those from conventional extraction processes using hot water (WE) or 70% ethanol at 80°C (EE) for 12 hours...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054873/the-enigmatic-genome-of-an-obligate-ancient-spiroplasma-symbiont-in-a-hadal-holothurian
#12
Li-Sheng He, Pei-Wei Zhang, Jiao-Mei Huang, Fang-Chao Zhu, Antoine Danchin, Yong Wang
Protective symbiosis has been reported in many organisms, but the molecular mechanisms of the mutualistic interactions between the symbionts and their host are unclear. Here, we sequenced the 424-Kbp genome of "Candidatus Spiroplasma holothuricola" that dominated the hindgut microbiome of a sea cucumber, a major scavenger captured in the Mariana trench (6140m depth). Phylogenetic relationships indicated that the dominant bacterium in the hindgut was derived from a basal group of Spiroplasma sp. In this organism, the genes responsible for biosynthesis of amino acids, glycolysis and sugar transporters were lost, strongly suggesting endosymbiosis...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054825/integrative-mrna-mirna-interaction-analysis-associate-with-immune-response-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-based-on-transcriptome-database
#13
Xiaoxu Zhou, Yaqing Chang, Yaoyao Zhan, Xiuli Wang, Kai Lin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a family of endogenous non-coding small RNAs that have been demonstrated to be the key effectors in mediating host-pathogen interactions. Additionally, high-throughput sequencing provides unexampled opportunities to identify the pathogenic mechanism underlying miRNAs. In the present study, the target genes of immune-related miRNAs (miR-31, miR-2008, miR-92a, miR-210 and miR-7) and specific miRNAs (miR-2004) in Echinodermata were predicted in silico and validated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of the target genes of these six miRNAs were conducted to further understand the regulatory function in the host immunity of Apostichopus japonicus (A...
October 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054501/transcriptomic-discovery-and-comparative-analysis-of-neuropeptide-precursors-in-sea-cucumbers-holothuroidea
#14
Saowaros Suwansa-Ard, Arada Chaiyamoon, Alzbeta Talarovicova, Ruchanok Tinikul, Yotsawan Tinikul, Tanes Poomtong, Maurice R Elphick, Scott F Cummins, Prasert Sobhon
Neuropeptides synthesized and released by neuronal cells play important roles in the regulation of many processes, e.g. growth, feeding, reproduction, and behavior. In the past decade, next-generation sequencing technologies have helped to facilitate the identification of multiple neuropeptide genes in a variety of taxa, including arthropods, molluscs and echinoderms. In this study, we extend these studies to Holothuria scabra, a sea cucumber species that is widely cultured for human consumption. In silico analysis of H...
October 17, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050584/molecular-size-is-important-for-the-safety-and-selective-inhibition-of-intrinsic-factor-xase-for-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate
#15
Lufeng Yan, Junhui Li, Danli Wang, Tian Ding, Yaqin Hu, Xingqian Ye, Robert J Linhardt, Shiguo Chen
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (FCS-Ib) showed potent anticoagulant activities without selectivity. The present study focused on developing safe FCS-Ib oligomers showing selective inhibition of intrinsic factor Xase (anti-FXase) prepared through partial N-deacetylation-deaminative cleavage. The N-deacetylation degree was regulated by reaction time, controlling the resulting oligomer distribution. Structure analysis confirmed the selectivity of degradation, and 12 high purity fractions with trisaccharide-repeating units were separated...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039760/sea-cucumber-glycosides-chemical-structures-producing-species-and-important-biological-properties
#16
REVIEW
Muhammad Abdul Mojid Mondol, Hee Jae Shin, M Aminur Rahman, Mohamad Tofazzal Islam
Sea cucumbers belonging to echinoderm are traditionally used as tonic food in China and other Asian countries. They produce abundant biologically active triterpene glycosides. More than 300 triterpene glycosides have been isolated and characterized from various species of sea cucumbers, which are classified as holostane and nonholostane depending on the presence or absence of a specific structural unit γ(18,20)-lactone in the aglycone. Triterpene glycosides contain a carbohydrate chain up to six monosaccharide units mainly consisting of d-xylose, 3-O-methy-d-xylose, d-glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and d-quinovose...
October 17, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035293/identification-of-z-2-3-diphenylacrylonitrileas-anti-cancer-molecule-in-persian-gulf-sea-cucumber-holothuria-parva
#17
Salimeh Amidi, Zahra Hashemi, Abbasali Motallebi, Melika Nazemi, Hoda Farrokhpayam, Enayatollah Seydi, Jalal Pourahmad
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also named cancerous hepatoma, is the most common type of malignant neoplasia of the liver. In this research, we screened the Persian Gulf sea cucumber Holothuria parva (H. parva) methanolic sub-fractions for the possible existence of selective toxicity on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of HCC. Next, we purified the most active fraction. Thus the structure of the active molecule was identified. HCC was induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) protocol...
October 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024273/the-first-brain-species-comparisons-and-evolutionary-implications-for-the-enteric-and-central-nervous-systems
#18
REVIEW
J B Furness, M J Stebbing
BACKGROUND: The enteric nervous system (ENS) and the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals both contain integrative neural circuitry and similarities between them have led to the ENS being described as the brain in the gut. PURPOSE: To explore relationships between the ENS and CNS across the animal kingdom. We found that an ENS occurs in all animals investigated, including hydra, echinoderms and hemichordates that do not have a CNS. The general form of the ENS, which consists of plexuses of neurons intrinsic to the gut wall and an innervation that controls muscle movements, is similar in species as varied and as far apart as hydra, sea cucumbers, annelid worms, octopus and humans...
October 11, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023486/the-sea-cucumber-genome-provides-insights-into-morphological-evolution-and-visceral-regeneration
#19
Xiaojun Zhang, Lina Sun, Jianbo Yuan, Yamin Sun, Yi Gao, Libin Zhang, Shihao Li, Hui Dai, Jean-François Hamel, Chengzhang Liu, Yang Yu, Shilin Liu, Wenchao Lin, Kaimin Guo, Songjun Jin, Peng Xu, Kenneth B Storey, Pin Huan, Tao Zhang, Yi Zhou, Jiquan Zhang, Chenggang Lin, Xiaoni Li, Lili Xing, Da Huo, Mingzhe Sun, Lei Wang, Annie Mercier, Fuhua Li, Hongsheng Yang, Jianhai Xiang
Apart from sharing common ancestry with chordates, sea cucumbers exhibit a unique morphology and exceptional regenerative capacity. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an economically important sea cucumber, A. japonicus, generated using Illumina and PacBio platforms, to achieve an assembly of approximately 805 Mb (contig N50 of 190 Kb and scaffold N50 of 486 Kb), with 30,350 protein-coding genes and high continuity. We used this resource to explore key genetic mechanisms behind the unique biological characters of sea cucumbers...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020752/erratum-to-draft-genome-of-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-and-genetic-polymorphism-among-color-variants
#20
Jihoon Jo, Jooseong Oh, Hyun-Gwan Lee, Hyun-Hee Hong, Sung-Gwon Lee, Seongmin Cheon, Elizabeth M A Kern, Soyeong Jin, Sung-Jin Cho, Joong-Ki Park, Chungoo Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
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