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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920157/mechanisms-of-cancer-cell-killing-by-sea-cucumber-derived-compounds
#1
REVIEW
Teresa Liliana Wargasetia, Widodo
The aim of cancer therapy is to specifically eradicate tumor cells while causing minimal damage to normal tissues and minimal side-effects. Because of this, the use of natural substances with low toxicity is a good option. Sea cucumbers are one of many potential marine animals that contain valuable nutrients and medicinal properties. The medicinal value of sea cucumbers is attributed to the presence of bioactive agents with promising biological and pharmacological properties that include cytotoxic activity, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of tumor growth, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties, and inhibition of drug resistance...
September 18, 2017: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916650/differential-expression-of-mirnas-in-the-respiratory-tree-of-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-under-hypoxia-stress
#2
Da Huo, Lina Sun, Xiaoni Li, Xiaoshang Ru, Shilin Liu, Libin Zhang, Lili Xing, Hongsheng Yang
Sea cucumber, an important economic species, has encountered high mortality since 2013 in northern China because of seasonal environmental stress such as hypoxia, high temperature, and low salinity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in regulating gene expression in marine organisms in response to environmental change. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate alterations in miRNA expression in the sea cucumber under different levels of dissolved oxygen (DO). Nine small RNA libraries were constructed from the sea cucumber respiratory trees...
September 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911649/long-chain-bases-from-sea-cucumber-mitigate-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammation-in-obesity-mice
#3
Shiwei Hu, Jinhui Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue, Yuming Wang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation can induce hyperglycemia. Long-chain bases (LCBs) from sea cucumber exhibit antihyperglycemic activities. However, their effects on ER stress and inflammation are unknown. We investigated the effects of LCBs on ER stress and inflammatory response in high-fat, fructose diet-induced obesity mice. Reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids were measured. Inflammatory cytokines in serum and their mRNA expressions in epididymal adipose tissues were investigated...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892748/microsomal-glutathione-transferase-2-modulates-ltc4-synthesis-and-ros-production-in-apostichopus-japonicus
#4
Zhen Zhang, Zhimeng Lv, Zhixin Wei, Chenghua Li, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Jinbo Xiong
Microsomal glutathione transferase 2 (mGST2) is an integral membrane protein involved in detoxication of xenobiotics, and has also been suggested to catalyze the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory mediator leukotriene C4 (LTC4) as homologous to LTC4 synthase (LTC4S) in mammals. In the present study, a novel mGST2 homology was identified from Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjmGST2) by RACE approaches. The full-length cDNA of AjmGST2 was of 1917bp encoding a polypeptide of 161 amino acids residues. Multiple sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis together supported that AjmGST2 belonged to a new member in invertebrate mGSTs family and close to mammalian LTC4S...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867630/indole-reduces-the-expression-of-virulence-related-genes-in-vibrio-splendidus-pathogenic-to-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#5
Shanshan Zhang, Weiwei Zhang, Ningning Liu, Tongxiang Song, Huijie Liu, Xuelin Zhao, Wei Xu, Chenghua Li
Indole is a metabolite of tryptophan that can be synthesized by various bacteria. In the present study, production of indole by Vibrio splendidus Vs was determined using Kovac's reagent, and m/z was further determined by HPLC-MS. Extracellular indole reached a maximum concentration of 160 μM, when OD600 of V. splendidus Vs was approximately 0.9. In addition, glucose could reduce indole level, and 1% (m/v) glucose could reduce the mRNA level of tnaA, the gene encoding tryptophanase, down to 0.2%. To investigate the effects of indole on the mRNA levels of virulence related genes of V...
September 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864221/a-start-domain-containing-protein-is-a-novel-marker-of-nervous-system-components-of-the-sea-cucumber-holothuria-glaberrima
#6
Edwin A Rosado-Olivieri, Gibram A Ramos-Ortiz, Josué Hernández-Pasos, Carlos A Díaz-Balzac, Edwin Vázquez-Rosa, Griselle Valentín-Tirado, Irving E Vega, José E García-Arrarás
One of the main challenges faced by investigators studying the nervous system of members of the phylum Echinodermata is the lack of markers to identify nerve cells and plexi. Previous studies have utilized an antibody, RN1, that labels most of the nervous system structures of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima and other echinoderms. However, the antigen recognized by RN1 remained unknown. In the present work, the antigen has been characterized by immunoprecipitation, tandem mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning...
August 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860073/mir-92a-regulates-coelomocytes-apoptosis-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-via-targeting-aj14-3-3%C3%AE-in%C3%A2-vivo
#7
Miao Lv, Huahui Chen, Yina Shao, Chenghua Li, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Chunhua Jin, Jinbo Xiong
miR-92a, a well-documented oncogene, was previously found to be differentially expressed in diseased sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by high-throughput sequencing. In this study, we identified Aj14-3-3ζ as a novel target of miR-92a in this species and investigated their regulatory roles in vivo. The negative expression profiles between miR-92a and Aj14-3-3ζ protein were detected in both LPS-exposed primary coelomocytes and Vibrio splendidus-challenged sea cucumbers. Over-expression of miR-92a by injection of miR-92a agomir significantly depressed the mRNA and protein expression of Aj14-3-3ζ and promoted coelomocytes apoptosis with 5...
August 30, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852703/biomimetic-reversible-heat-stiffening-polymer-nanocomposites
#8
Elvis Cudjoe, Shaghayegh Khani, Amanda E Way, Michael J A Hore, Joao Maia, Stuart J Rowan
Inspired by the ability of the sea cucumber to (reversibly) increase the stiffness of its dermis upon exposure to a stimulus, we herein report a stimuli-responsive nanocomposite that can reversibly increase its stiffness upon exposure to warm water. Nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) that are grafted with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) polymer embedded within a poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) matrix show a dramatic increase in modulus, for example, from 1 to 350 MPa upon exposure to warm water, the hypothesis being that grafting the polymers from the CNCs disrupts the interactions between the nanofibers and minimizes the mechanical reinforcement of the film...
August 23, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846656/the-sea-as-a-rich-source-of-structurally-unique-glycosaminoglycans-and-mimetics
#9
REVIEW
Ariana A Vasconcelos, Vitor H Pomin
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are sulfated glycans capable of regulating various biological and medical functions. Heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate and hyaluronan are the principal classes of GAGs found in animals. Although GAGs are all composed of disaccharide repeating building blocks, the sulfation patterns and the composing alternating monosaccharides vary among classes. Interestingly, GAGs from marine organisms can present structures clearly distinct from terrestrial animals even considering the same class of GAG...
August 28, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844967/cdna-cloning-expression-and-immune-function-analysis-of-a-novel-rac1-gene-ajrac1-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#10
Kaiquan Li, Lin Liu, Shengnan Shang, Yi Wang, Yaoyao Zhan, Jian Song, Xiangxiang Zhang, Yaqing Chang
The ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) belongs to Ras homolog (Rho) small GTPases subfamily. As an important molecular switch, Rac1 regulates various processes in the cell, especially in cellular immune response. With attempt to clarify characters and functions of Rac1 in sea cucumbers, full length cDNA of a Rac1 homolog in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjRac1) was cloned by transcriptome database mining and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The open reading frame of AjRac1 is 579 bp encoding a protein with a length of 192 aa...
August 26, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821129/characterization-and-anticoagulant-activity-of-a-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-with-unusually-procoagulant-effect-from-sea-cucumber
#11
Mohamed Ben Mansour, Rafik Balti, Véronique Ollivier, Hichem Ben Jannet, Frédéric Chaubet, Raoui Mounir Maaroufi
The fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS) was isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria polii body wall and then purified by anion exchange chromatography and the structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Anticoagulant activity was measured in plasma by classical anticoagulation tests and the thrombin generation was assessed by calibrated automated thrombography. The results showed that the FuCS obtained at a yield of 4.66% possesses high sulfate content 43% and an average molecular mass of 45...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813020/nine-new-triterpene-glycosides-magnumosides-a%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-b%C3%A2-b%C3%A2-c%C3%A2-c%C3%A2-and-c%C3%A2-from-the-vietnamese-sea-cucumber-neothyonidium-massinium-magnum-structures-and-activities-against-tumor-cells-independently-and-in-synergy-with-radioactive-irradiation
#12
Alexandra S Silchenko, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Sergey A Avilov, Vladimir I Kalinin, Pelageya V Andrijaschenko, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Ekaterina A Chingizova, Svetlana P Ermakova, Olesya S Malyarenko, Tatyana N Dautova
Nine new sulfated triterpene glycosides, magnumosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), A₃ (3), A₄ (4), B₁ (5), B₂ (6), C₁ (7), C₂ (8) and C₄ (9) as well as a known colochiroside B₂ (10) have been isolated from the tropical Indo-West Pacific sea cucumber Neothynidium (=Massinium) magnum (Phyllophoridae, Dendrochirotida) collected in the Vietnamese shallow waters. The structures of new glycosides were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass-spectrometry. All the isolated new glycosides were characterized by the non-holostane type lanostane aglycones having 18(16)-lactone and 7(8)-double bond and differed from each other by the side chains and carbohydrate moieties structures...
August 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810632/a-novel-antitumor-compound-nobiliside-d-isolated-from-sea-cucumber-holothuria-nobilis-selenka
#13
Jia-Jia Zhang, Ke-Qi Zhu
An anticancer compound, triterpene glycoside, was isolated from Holothuria nobilis Selenka. Its chemical structure and configuration were determined by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The novel active compound was identified as nobiliside D, with the molecular formula C40H61O17SNa and chemical name 3-O-[-β-D-pyranosyl (1-2)-4'-O-sulfon-ate-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-alkoxy-9-ene-3β, 12α, 17α, 25β-4 alcohol. An antitumor test was performed using xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800457/fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-oligosaccharides-exert-anticoagulant-activity-by-targeting-at-intrinsic-tenase-complex-with-low-fxii-activation-importance-of-sulfation-pattern-and-molecular-size
#14
Junhui Li, Shan Li, Lufeng Yan, Tian Ding, Robert J Linhardt, Yanlei Yu, Xinyue Liu, Donghong Liu, Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are structurally unusual glycosaminoglycans isolated from sea cucumbers that exhibit potent anticoagulant activity. These fCSs were isolated from sea cucumber, Isostichopus badionotus and Pearsonothuria graeffei. Fenton reaction followed by gel filtration chromatography afforded fCS oligosaccharides, with different sulfation patterns identified by mass and NMR spectroscopy, and these were used to clarify the relationship between the structures and the anticoagulant activities of fCSs...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798909/analysis-of-urine-composition-in-type-ii-diabetic-mice-after-intervention-therapy-using-holothurian-polypeptides
#15
Yanyan Li, Jiajie Xu, Xiurong Su
Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from sea cucumber with commercial enzyme were studied on the hyperglycemic and renal protective effects on db/db rats using urine metabolomics. Compared with the control group the polypeptides from the two species could significantly reduce the urine glucose and urea. We also tried to address the compositions of highly expressed urinary proteins using a proteomics approach. They were serum albumins, AMBP proteins, negative trypsin, elastase, and urinary protein, GAPDH, a receptor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR), and Ig kappa chain C region...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797638/a-novel-tnfaip8-gene-mediates-l-arginine-metabolism-in-apostichopus-japonicus
#16
Yina Shao, Huahui Chen, Miao Lv, Chenghua Li, Weiwei Zhang, Ye Li, Xuelin Zhao, Yongbo Bao
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) family is a newly identified protein with vital roles in maintaining immune homeostasis. In the current study, we first cloned and characterized a TNFAIP8 gene from the invertebrate sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The gene was designated as AjTNFAIP8. The full-length cDNA of AjTNFAIP8 was 1455 bp long and encoded a matured protein of 201 amino acid residues. Structural analysis indicated that AjTNFAIP8 had a death effector domain (DED)-like domain and composed of six α-helices...
August 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777905/decompression-sickness-among-diving-fishermen-in-mexico-observational-retrospective-analysis-of-dcs-in-three-sea-cucumber-fishing-seasons
#17
Oswaldo Huchim-Lara, Walter Chin, Silvia Salas, Normando Rivera-Canul, Salvador Cordero-Romero, Juan Tec, Ellie Joo, Nina Mendez-Dominguez
The probabilities of decompression sickness (DCS) among diving fishermen are higher than in any other group of divers. Diving behavior of artisanal fishermen has been directed mainly to target high-value species. The aim of this study was to learn about the occurrence of DCS derived from sea cucumber harvesting in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. We conducted a retrospective chart review of diving fishermen treated at a multiplace hyperbaric chamber in Tizimín, Mexico. In total, 233 recompression therapies were rendered to 166 diving fishermen from 2014 to 2016...
March 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777817/effect-of-tea-saponin-on-ephyrae-and-polyps-of-the-moon-jellyfish-aurelia-sp-1
#18
Zhijun Dong, Tingting Sun, Likun Liang, Lei Wang
The moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.1) is thought to be a nuisance for the sea cucumber aquaculture, which commonly occur in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) culture ponds of the Yellow Sea, China. To develop an appropriate method to control Aurelia sp.1 blooms, the toxic effects of tea saponin on Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps were tested in laboratory experiments. Our results revealed that tea saponin caused significant morphological changes, behavioral abnormality and mortality in Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae and polyps in 24 h and 48 h exposure experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774490/hmgb3-modulates-ros-production-via-activating-tlr-cascade-in-apostichopus-japonicus
#19
Zhimeng Lv, Zhen Zhang, Zhixin Wei, Chenghua Li, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Jinbo Xiong
High mobility group box protein 3 (HMGB3) regulates proliferation and inflammatory response in vertebrates. However, its functional roles in invertebrates are largely unknown. In this study, a HMGB3 homologue molecule was identified from Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjHMGB3) by RACE approach. The full-length cDNA of AjHMGB3 was of 2298 bp with an open reading frame of 1320 bp encoding a 439-amino-acid (aa) residue protein. Structural analysis then conducted and the results revealed that AjHMGB3 processed two conserved HMGBs (133-204 and 210-279 aa) and an acidic tail...
August 1, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764027/chain-conformation-rheological-and-charge-properties-of-fucoidan-extracted-from-sea-cucumber-thelenota-ananas-a-semi-flexible-coil-negative-polyelectrolyte
#20
Xiaoqi Xu, Changhu Xue, Yaoguang Chang, Guanchen Liu
As a bioactive and functional polysaccharide, sea cucumber fucoidan has received increasing attention. Chain conformation and physicochemical properties of fucoidan extracted from Thelenota ananas (Ta-FUC) was investigated by utilizing HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI, microelectrophoresis and steady shear measurements. The conformation parameter αs (0.61±0.02), the Mark-Houwink-Kuhn-Sakurada exponent αη (0.92±0.01), αh (0.64±0.01) and the Smidsrød-Haug stiffness parameter B (0.036±0.010) consistently manifested that Ta-FUC adopted a semi-flexible coil conformation in NaCl solution...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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