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Sea cucumber

Hongxia Zhao, Wuxia Guo, Wenna Quan, Jingqiu Jiang, Baocheng Qu
The occurrence and levels of nitrofuran metabolites (NFMs) in sea cucumber (SC) from Dalian, China, are reported. Four metabolites including 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM) and 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) in different SC products (fresh, instant and dry salted SCs) were measured. The frequency of occurrence for NFMs in all SC samples was 42.7%. The total NFM concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 64.6 ng g(-)(1), with a mean of 3.59 ng g(-1)...
October 17, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xufeng Zhang, Yu Liu, Ying Li, Xinda Zhao
Geographic traceability is an important issue for food quality and safety control of seafood. In this study,δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, as well as fatty acid (FA) content of 133 samples of A. japonicus from seven sampling points in northern China Sea were determined to evaluate their applicability in the origin traceability of A. japonicus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to different data sets in order to evaluate their performance in terms of classification or predictive ability...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jingyi Mo, Sylvain F Prévost, Liisa M Blowes, Michaela Egertová, Nicholas J Terrill, Wen Wang, Maurice R Elphick, Himadri S Gupta
The mutable collagenous tissue (MCT) of echinoderms (e.g., sea cucumbers and starfish) is a remarkable example of a biological material that has the unique attribute, among collagenous tissues, of being able to rapidly change its stiffness and extensibility under neural control. However, the mechanisms of MCT have not been characterized at the nanoscale. Using synchrotron small-angle X-ray diffraction to probe time-dependent changes in fibrillar structure during in situ tensile testing of sea cucumber dermis, we investigate the ultrastructural mechanics of MCT by measuring fibril strain at different chemically induced mechanical states...
October 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mahdokht Sadegh Vishkaei, Afshin Ebrahimpour, Azizah Abdul-Hamid, Amin Ismail, Nazamid Saari
Food protein hydrolysates are known to exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and can be used as a novel functional food for prevention of hypertension. This study evaluated the ACE inhibitory potentials of Actinopyga lecanora proteolysate (ALP) in vivo. The pre-fed rats with ALP at various doses (200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight) exhibited a significant (p ≤ 0.05) suppression effect after inducing hypertension. To determine the optimum effective dose that will produce maximal reduction in blood pressure, ALP at three doses was fed to the rats after inducing hypertension...
September 30, 2016: Marine Drugs
Taha Soliman, Okuto Takama, Iria Fernandez-Silva, James D Reimer
The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and nuclear histone H3 (H3) gene...
2016: PeerJ
Ryutaro Goto, Hiroshi Ishikawa
The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans). A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan...
2016: ZooKeys
S Mashjoor, M Yousefzadi
Pharmaceutical industries now accept that oceans contain a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties. As investigation of antimicrobial activity, three species of Holothuria sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra, Holothuria parva and Holothuria leucospilota) from the Persian Gulf, Iran, were obtained, their different organs: gonads (G), body wall (BW), intestine tract (IT), respiratory tree (RT) were isolated and extracted with organic solvents: ethyl acetate and methanol. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of each fraction was estimated with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk-diffusion method against the number (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Shixiong Cheng, Chenghua Li, Yi Wang, Limeng Yang, Yaqing Chang
As the most important disulfide bond reducates of intracellular oxidordeuctase, thioredoxin (TRX) plays a crucial role in maintaining reducing state of intracellular proteins to normally perform their function. In this study, a cDNA of TRX-like protein gene from Apostichopus japonicus (denoted as AjTRX) was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of AjTRXwas of 1870 bp, consisting of a 5'-UTR of 101 bp, a long 3'-UTR of 887 bp and a 882 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 293 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass and the theoretical PI of the deduced amino acids of AjTRX were 32...
September 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
M Taguchi, S Tsutsui, O Nakamura
Echinoderms have many types of coelomocytes, which have been known to form aggregates immediately after they are removed from the coelom. To assess the roles that each type of coelomocyte plays in aggregate formation, cellular components of coelomocyte aggregates of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated. The coelomocytes were tentatively classified into 12 types based on May-Grunwald/Giemsa staining. After the coelom was incubated for 30 min or 6 h, the aggregates were disaggregated completely with 200 mM EDTA...
September 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Aijun Zhu, Muyan Chen, Xiumei Zhang, Kenneth B Storey
The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is a good model for studying environmentally-induced aestivation by a marine invertebrate. One of the central requirements of aestivation is the repression of energy-expensive cellular processes such as cell cycle progression. The present study identified the gene structure of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin B, and detected the expression levels of this gene over three stages of the annual aestivation-arousal cycle. Furthermore, the DNA methylation characteristics of cyclin B were analyzed in non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages of sea cucumbers...
December 5, 2016: Gene
Jingjing Duan, Marina Ishida, Kazuhiko Aida, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki, Jin Zhang, Yuki Manabe, Takashi Hirata, Tatsuya Sugawara
Sphingolipids from marine sources have attracted more attention recently because of their distinctive structures and expected functions. In this study, the content and components of cerebroside from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were analyzed. The absorption of cerebroside from S. japonicus was investigated with an in vivo lipid absorption assay. The result revealed that S. japonicus is a rich source of cerebroside that contained considerable amounts of odd carbon chain sphingoid bases. The cumulative recoveries of d17:1- and d19:2-containing cerebrosides were 0...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Javad Baharara, Elaheh Amini, Najme Nikdel, Farzaneh Salek-Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant melanocytic neoplasm which resists against the most conventional therapies. Sea cucumber as one of marine organisms contains bioactive compounds such as polysaccharide, terpenoid and other metabolites which have anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anticancer potential of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilata alone and in combination with dacarbazine on B16F10 melanoma cell line...
July 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Maria I Bilan, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Eugenia A Tsvetkova, Alexander S Shashkov, Valentin A Stonik, Nikolay E Nifantiev, Anatolii I Usov
Two samples of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), AJ and AM, were isolated from holothurian species Apostichopus japonicus and Actinopyga mauritiana, respectively. Purification of FCS was performed by ion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration. Structure of the biopolymers was elucidated using chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. Both polysaccharides were shown to contain a typical chondroitin core built up of repeating disaccharide units →3)-β-d-GalNAc-(1→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→ and decorated by sulfate groups and α-l-Fuc branches...
November 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Miao-Miao Zhou, Yong Xue, Shu-Hong Sun, Min Wen, Zhao-Jie Li, Jie Xu, Jing-Feng Wang, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Yu-Ming Wang, Chang-Hu Xue
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major source of dietary choline, has been demonstrated to improve the capability of learning and memory in rodent and the amelioration of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on anti-aging and anti-oxidation is widely known as well. In this study, three kinds of PC were chose to demonstrate the role of different fatty acids composition on glycerol backbone in improving the brain function of mice induced by scopolamine which was used to impair cholinergic system and cause oxidative stress...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Chenghua Li, Mengru Zhao, Chi Zhang, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Xuemei Duan, Wei Xu
Immune responses of species in Echinodermata remains mysterious due to the lack of efforts made in the study of host defense mechanism in these species. More researches start focusing on this ancient immune system with the recognition the economic values of several species in this phylum, especially sea cucumbers. Here, we reported a study in the innate immunity of a sea cucumber species (Apostichopus japonicus) in response to infection of Vibrio splendidus. A novel differential expressed miRNA (miR-210) from the diseased sea cucumber coelomocytes was identified in our study...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Wenxia Li, Zhengfu Feng, Xiaojun Song, Wei Zhu, Yanjiang Hu
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are beneficial for maintaining the health, growth and development of an organism and could reduce the risk of some diseases. The ability to endogenously produce PUFA, especially in invertebrates, is largely unknown. To study the function of elongase genes in the PUFA biosynthesis of Apostichopus japonicus, we cloned an ELOVL5 homology gene from intestinal cDNA of A. japonicus (Aj-ELOVL5). The Aj-ELOVL5 gene encoded a 318 amino acid (AA) protein that exhibited all the characteristics of the ELOVL5 family, such as a histidine box motif and four putative transmembrane-spanning domains...
November 15, 2016: Gene
Alexandra S Silchenko, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Sergey A Avilov, Pelageya V Andryjaschenko, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Ekaterina A Yurchenko, Igor Yu Dolmatov, Salim Sh Dautov, Valentin A Stonik, Vladimir I Kalinin
The unusual non-holostane triterpene glycoside, colochiroside E (1) was isolated from the sea cucumber Colochirus robustus (Cucumariidae, Dendrochirotida). The structure of 1 was established by analysis of 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI MS data. Colochiroside E (1) belongs to a rare group of glycosylated 9β-H-lanosta-18(16)-lactones and has an unprecedented sulfated trisaccharide carbohydrate chain consisting of two glucose and one xylose units. In contrast with (9β-H)-7(8)-unsaturated holostane glycosides, the 7(8)-double bond in the having (9β-H)-configuration aglycone of colochiroside E is not capable of migration into the 8(9)- and then into the 9(11)-position on treatment with HCl...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
Yadollah Bahrami, Christopher M M Franco
Sea cucumbers have been valued for many centuries as a tonic and functional food, dietary delicacies and important ingredients of traditional medicine in many Asian countries. An assortment of bioactive compounds has been described in sea cucumbers. The most important and abundant secondary metabolites from sea cucumbers are triterpene glycosides (saponins). Due to the wide range of their potential biological activities, these natural compounds have gained attention and this has led to their emergence as high value compounds with extended application in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, medicinal and pharmaceutical products...
2016: Marine Drugs
Xiaoxu Zhou, Hongdi Wang, Jun Cui, Xuemei Qiu, Yaqing Chang, Xiuli Wang
Tube foot as one of the ambulacral appendages types in Aspidochirote holothurioids, is known for their functions in locomotion, feeding, chemoreception, light sensitivity and respiration. In this study, we explored the characteristic of transcriptome in the tube foot of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). Our results showed that among 390 unigenes which specifically expressed in the tube foot, 190 of them were annotated. Based on the assembly transcriptome, we found 219,860 SNPs from 34,749 unigenes, 97,683, 53,624, 27,767 and 40,786 were located in CDSs, 5'-UTRs, 3'-UTRs and non-CDS separately...
August 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Xiaoqi Xu, Changhu Xue, Yaoguang Chang, Jun Wang, Kunhao Jiang
Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
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