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Sea cucumber

Hui Wang, Zhuang Xue, Zhaoqun Liu, Weilin Wang, Feifei Wang, Ying Wang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca2+ dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that share structural homology in their carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, a novel CTL was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (named as AjCTL-2). The deduced amino acid sequence of AjCTL-2 was homologous to CTLs from other animals with the identities ranging from 33% to 40%. It contained a canonical signal peptide at the N-terminus, a low density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa), a C1r/C1s/Uegf/bone morphogenetic protein 1 (CUB), and a CRD with two motif Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) and Trp-Asn-Asp (WND) in Ca2+ binding site 2...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hongjuan Sun, Zunchun Zhou, Ying Dong, Aifu Yang, Yongjia Pan, Jingwei Jiang, Zhong Chen, Xiaoyan Guan, Bai Wang, Shan Gao, Bei Jiang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that mediate mRNA degradation or translation repression. Previous study showed that the expression of miRNAs was significantly changed in the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus after skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) infection, which is a dynamic process. However, the critical miRNAs from body wall that involved in different infection stages of SUS remain unknown. In this study, four cDNA libraries were constructed with the body wall from healthy and three SUS-infected stages of A...
May 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tongxiang Song, Huijie Liu, Tengteng Lv, Xuelin Zhao, Yina Shao, Qingxi Han, Chenghua Li, Weiwei Zhang
Under low iron bioavailability environment, many bacteria acquire iron for growth and survival through siderophore-mediated iron acquisition systems. However, until now, little research on the growth, siderophore production and siderophore receptors of Vibrio splendidus Vs under iron limited conditions has been reported. In our present study, V. splendidus Vs could survive in media supplemented with 160 µM 2,2'-dipyridyl (DIP), but 74.5% of the growth was suppressed at 48 h, while the siderophore production of V...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Wenjiao Yang, Ying Cai, Ronghua Yin, Lisha Lin, Zhongkun Li, Mingyi Wu, Jinhua Zhao
Sulfated polysaccharides such as fucosylated glycosaminoglycan and fucan sulfate from echinoderm possess complex chemical structure and various biological activities. The two sulfated polysaccharides were purified from the low-value sea cucumber Holothuria coluber. Their physicochemical properties and chemical structures were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Structural analysis clarified that the sea cucumber fucosylated glycosaminoglycan contains a chondroitin sulfate-like backbone and fucosyl branches with four various sulfation patterns...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yuri Khotimchenko
This review presents a detailed analysis of published research data focused on the pharmacological activity exerted by biologically active compounds isolated from sea cucumbers belonging to the class of Holothuroidea, phylum Echinodermata. The review contains descriptions of the structure, physico-chemical properties and pharmacological effects of these active substances. Particular attention is given to compounds with anticoagulant, antithrombotic, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-infectious, immune-stimulating and anti-ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) activities as well as to the substances exerting a regulating influence on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Samir Attoub, Kholoud Arafat, Tamam Khalaf, Shahrazad Sulaiman, Rabah Iratni
Over recent years, we have demonstrated that Frondoside A, a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from an Atlantic sea cucumber, has potent in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effects against human pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer. We have also demonstrated that Frondoside A is able to potentiate and/or synergize the anti-cancer effects of major classical cytotoxic agents, namely, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin, in the treatment of pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer, respectively. This study evaluates the impact of Frondoside A alone and in combination with the standard cytotoxic drugs oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of colon cancer using three human colon cancer cell lines, namely, HT-29, HCT-116, and HCT8/S11...
May 1, 2018: Nutrients
Da Huo, Lina Sun, Xiaoshang Ru, Libin Zhang, Chenggang Lin, Shilin Liu, Xiaoke Xin, Hongsheng Yang
Hypoxia is one of the most frequently occurring stressors confronted by industrial cultures of sea cucumber and can cause large economic losses and resource degradation. However, its responsive mechanisms are still lacking. In this paper, the physiological responses of Apostichopus japonicus to oxygen deficiency was illustrated, including induced oxidative response and immune defense and changed digestive enzymes activities. Significantly increased activities of alpha-amylase (AMS), acid phosphatase (ACP), lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, peroxidase, succinate dehydrogenase and higher content of malondialdehyde, and decreased activities of lipase and trypsin (TRY) were observed after hypoxia exposure (dissolved oxygen [DO] 2 mg/L)...
2018: PeerJ
Da Huo, Xiao Jiang, Xiaofen Wu, Chunhua Ren, Zonghe Yu, Jinshang Liu, Hongmei Li, Yao Ruan, Jin Wen, Ting Chen, Chaoqun Hu
Trehalases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of trehalose to glucose, and they are observed in most organisms. In this study, the first echinoderm trehalase, designated Hl-Tre, was identified from a tropical sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of H. leucospilota trehalase (Hl-Tre) is 2461 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1788 bp that encodes a 595-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 67.95 KDa. The Hl-Tre protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal and a functional trehalase domain, which includes the signature motifs 1 and 2...
April 29, 2018: Gene
Sandeep B Subramanya, Sanjana Chandran, Saeeda Almarzooqi, Vishnu Raj, Aisha Salem Al Zahmi, Radeya Ahmed Al Katheeri, Samira Ali Al Zadjali, Peter D Collin, Thomas E Adrian
Frondanol is a nutraceutical lipid extract of the intestine of the edible Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, with potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the current study, we investigated Frondanol as a putative anti-inflammatory compound in an experimental model of colonic inflammation. C57BL/6J male black mice (C57BL/6J) were given 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days to induce colitis. The colitis group received oral Frondanol (100 mg/kg body weight/per day by gavage) and were compared with a control group and the DSS group...
April 30, 2018: Marine Drugs
Magali Honey-escandÓn, Francisco A SolÍs-marÍn
In 1958 Deichmann synonymized Holothuria inornata Semper, 1868 with Holothuria kefersteinii (Selenka, 1867). This nomenclature has been adopted until now. However, some specimens recently collected from the Mexican Pacific matched the original description of H. inornata Semper (1868) whereas others matched the original description by Selenka (1867). A morphological, molecular and ecological study of the specimens was conducted to confirm the identification of these specimens. The morphological characters of our specimens were compared with those contained in the original descriptions and figures of the types of both species...
January 31, 2018: Zootaxa
D Y Saad, M M Soliman, A A Mohamed, G B Youssef
The current study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Holothurian atra (HA) extract; naturally occurring marine resource, against methotrexate (MTX) induced testicular dysfunction. Mature rats received either MTX (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline on the 7th day of experiment al design. Seven days prior and after MTX-injection, rats received HA at dose of 300 mg/kg intragastrically (HA + MTX group; HA group alone). Serum was extracted and testicular tissues were examined for the changes in serum biochemistry (liver & kidney biomarkers, testicular hormones and antioxidants), molecular and histopthological alterations using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry...
April 23, 2018: Andrologia
Ahmed S Thandar
Some materials in the Natural History Museum, London, originating from various parts of the world, proved on examination, to comprise two new species herein described as Cladodactyla pesdispersa n. sp. and Thyonina rasidae n. sp., and a new subspecies, Havelockia ferali andamanensis n. subsp. In addition, some specimens examined from the museum collections of the Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala in India contained, besides the well-known dendrochirotids, Aslia forbesi (Bell) and Stolus buccalis (Stimpson), two specimens which proved to also represent a new species of Thyonina, herein described as Thyonina bijui n...
December 19, 2017: Zootaxa
Dongxue Xu, Shun Zhou, Lina Sun
In this study, we explored the gene expression profiles in Apostichopus japonicus under continuous heat stress (6 h, 48 h and 192 h) by applying RNA-seq technique. A total of 676, 1010 and 1083 differentially expressed genes were detected at three heat stress groups respectively, which suggested complex regulation of various biological processes. Then we focused on the changing of immune system under HS in sea cucumbers. Key immune-associated genes were involved in heat stress response, which were classified into six groups: heat shock proteins, transferrin superfamily members, effector genes, proteases, complement system, and pattern recognition receptors and signaling...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
G Nishanthan, P A D A Kumara, M D S T de Croos, D V P Prasada, D C T Dissanayake
Processing and its impacts on proximate composition and fatty acid profile of six sea cucumber species; Bohadschia marmorata, Stichopus chloronotus, Holothuria spinifera, Thelenota anax, Holothuria scabra and Bohadschia sp. 1 collected from the northwest coast of Sri Lanka were analyzed. Sea cucumbers are processed into bêche - de - mer by both domestic and industrial level processors following the similar steps of cleaning, evisceration, first boiling, salting, second boiling and drying. However, domestically processed bêche - de - mer always reported a higher percentage of moisture, crude ash, crude fat and lower percentage of crude protein than industrially processed products...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Minghua Zhu, Hongxia Zhao, Deming Xia, Juan Du, Huaijun Xie, Jingwen Chen
An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with in-cell clean-up method coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine 21 antibiotics in sea cucumber. The analytes include 10 sulfonamides, 4 fluoroquinolones, 3 amphenicols, 2 beta-lactams, 1 lincosamide and trimethoprim. Optimal parameters of ASE method were obtained at 80 °C, 1 static cycle of 5 min with methanol/acetonitrile (1/1, v/v) using 2 g of C18 as adsorbent. Recoveries at 50...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Seong-Hoon Yun, Eun-Hye Sim, Sang-Heum Han, Jin-Yeong Han, Sung-Hyun Kim, Alexandra S Silchenko, Valentin A Stonik, Joo-In Park
Marine triterpene glycosides are attractive candidates for the development of anticancer agents. Holotoxin A₁ is a triterpene glycoside found in the edible sea cucumber, Apostichopus (Stichopus) japonicus. We previously showed that cladoloside C₂, the 25(26)-dihydro derivative of holotoxin A₁ induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by activating ceramide synthase 6. Thus, we hypothesized that holotoxin A₁, which is structurally similar to cladoloside C₂, might induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells through the same molecular mechanism...
April 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Ying Wang, Zhuang Xue, Qilin Yi, Hui Wang, Lingling Wang, Guangxia Lu, Yu Liu, Chen Qu, Yannan Li, Linsheng Song
F-type lectin (also known as fucolectin) is a newly identified family of fucose binding lectins with the sequence characters of a fucose binding motif and a unique lectin fold (the "F-type" fold). In the present study, a fucolectin was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (designated AjFL-1). The open reading frame (ORF) of AjFL-1 was of 546 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 181 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of about 20 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of AjFL-1 shared 30%-40% similarity with the fucolectins from other animals...
April 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jiamin Sun, Libin Zhang, Yang Pan, Chenggang Lin, Fang Wang, Hongsheng Yang
This study used controlled laboratory conditions to directly assess the role of water temperature in controlling diel feeding and locomotion behaviours, and digestive physiology in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus The results revealed that both the proportion of feeding individuals and ingestion rate were highest at 16 °C. Regardless of water temperatures, sea cucumbers appeared to be nocturnal and their peak feeding activity occurred at 00:00-04:00. Tentacle insertion rate was not significantly correlated with water temperature (< 24 °C)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jinghua Chen, Yichao Ren, Yuquan Li, Bin Xia
Bioflocs are not only a source of supplemental nutrition but also provide substantial probiotic bacteria and bioactive compounds, which play an important role in improving physiological health of aquatic organisms. A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the growth, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber in biofloc systems with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose and starch). Control (no biofloc) and three biofloc systems were set up, and each group has three replicates...
March 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zi-Qiang Liu, Feng-Yan Tuo, Liang Song, Yu-Xin Liu, Xiu-Ping Dong, Dong-Mei Li, Da-Yong Zhou, Fereidoon Shahidi
Trypsin, a representative serine proteinase, was used to hydrolyse the collagen fibres from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) to highlight the role of serine proteinase in the autolysis of sea cucumber. Partial disaggregation of collagen fibres into collagen fibrils upon trypsin treatment occurred. The trypsin treatment also caused a time-dependent release of water-soluble glycosaminoglycans and proteins. Therefore, the degradation of the proteoglycan bridges between collagen fibrils might account for the disaggregation of collagen fibrils...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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