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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337772/anti-fatigue-activity-of-sea-cucumber-peptides-prepared-from-stichopus-japonicas-in-an-endurance-swimming-rat-model
#1
Jing Ye, Shen Caihong, Huang Yayan, Xueqin Zhang, Xiao Meitian
BACKGROUND: Sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) is a well-known nutritious and luxurious seafood in Asia which has attracted increasing attention because of its nutrition and bioactivities in recent years. In this study, the anti-fatigue activity of sea cucumber peptides (SCP) prepared from Stichopus japonicas was evaluated in a load-induced endurance swimming model. RESULTS: The SCP prepared in this study was mainly made up of low-molecular-weight peptides (<2 kDa)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325347/two-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfates-from-the-sea-cucumber-eupentacta-fraudatrix
#2
Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Maria I Bilan, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Nikolay E Nifantiev, Anatolii I Usov
Two fucosylated chondroitin sulfates EF1 and EF2 were isolated from the sea cucumber Eupentacta fraudatrix. Separation of the polysaccharides was performed using anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel by elution of 0.75M and 1.0M NaCl solutions. The structures of biopolymers were determined by chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The backbone of EF1 was found to be composed of chondroitin sulfate A and E units in a ratio of about 1:1. The core of EF2 along with chondroitin sulfate A and E fragments contained unusual disaccharide repeating units →4)-β-d-GlcpA2S3S-(1→3)-β-d-GalpNAc6S-(1→...
May 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298684/effects-of-heat-treatment-on-the-gel-properties-of-the-body-wall-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#3
Kai Zhang, Hu Hou, Lin Bu, Bafang Li, Changhu Xue, Zhe Peng, Shiwei Su
The sensory texture of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) was dramatically affected by heat treatment. In this study, sea cucumbers were heated under different thermal conditions (HSC), and divided into five groups (HSC-80, HSC-90, HSC-100, HSC-110, and HSC-120) according to the heating temperature (from 80 to 120 °C). The changes in texture, moisture, gel structure, and biochemical parameters of the HSC were investigated. With increasing heating time (from 10 to 80 min), the hardness and gel structure changed slightly, and the water activity decreased as the proportion of T21 increased by 133...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284150/effects-of-waterborne-cadmium-on-energy-metabolism-in-the-tropical-sea-cucumber-stichopus-horrens-and-a-comparison-of-tissue-specific-cadmium-accumulation-with-the-temperate-sea-cucumber-australostichopus-mollis
#4
Hannah Charan-Dixon, Sally Gaw, Sharyn J Goldstien, Chris N Glover
The sea cucumber Stichopus horrens is an important component of near-shore ecosystems, and in the Kingdom of Tonga it also comprises an important commercial and subsistence fishery. To assess the sensitivity of this species to the toxic trace metal cadmium (Cd), adult S. horrens were exposed for 96h to an environmental (15µgL(-1)) or effect (765µgL(-1)) concentration of waterborne Cd. The respiratory tree and intestine accumulated higher concentrations of Cd than the muscle and body wall, but there were no effects of Cd on tissue ions (sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium)...
March 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279766/structural-characterization-of-immunostimulating-protein-sulfated-fucan-complex-extracted-from-the-body-wall-of-a-sea-cucumber-stichopus-japonicus
#5
Rong-An Cao, Utoomporn Surayot, SangGuan You
The water soluble protein-sulfated fucan (PSF) complex isolated from the body wall of Stichopus japonicus was fractionated using an anion-exchange chromatography to obtain four purified fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and to investigate their structural characteristics and immuno-enhancing activities. The crude PSF and fractions mostly consisted of neutral sugars, proteins and sulfates in various proportions. Fucose was their major monosaccharide unit with small portion of mannose, glucose and galactose. The molecular weight (Mw) of the crude PSF and fractions ranged from 323...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276260/holothuria-scabra-extracts-exhibit-anti-parkinson-potential-in-c-elegans-a-model-for-anti-parkinson-testing
#6
Pawanrat Chalorak, Prapaporn Jattujan, Saksit Nobsathian, Tanate Poomtong, Prasert Sobhon, Krai Meemon
OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with aggregation of α-synuclein and selective death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, thereby leading to cognitive and motor impairments. Nowadays, the drugs commonly used for PD treatment, such as levodopa, provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, seeking new drugs against PD, especially from plants and marine organisms, is one of the major research areas to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the anti-Parkinson activity of the extracts from the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263876/molecular-phylogeny-of-extant-holothuroidea-echinodermata
#7
Allison K Miller, Alexander M Kerr, Gustav Paulay, Mike Reich, Nerida G Wilson, Jose I Carvajal, Greg W Rouse
Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are a morphologically diverse, ecologically important, and economically valued clade of echinoderms; however, the understanding of the overall systematics of the group remains controversial. Here, we present a phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea assessed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches using approximately 4.3 kb of mt- (COI, 16S, 12S) and nDNA (H3, 18S, 28S) sequences from 82 holothuroid terminals representing 23 of the 27 widely-accepted family-ranked taxa...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263544/smart-actuators-and-adhesives-for-reconfigurable-matter
#8
Hyunhyub Ko, Ali Javey
Biological systems found in nature provide excellent stimuli-responsive functions. The camouflage adaptation of cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish), rapid stiffness change of sea cucumbers, opening of pine cones in response to humidity, and rapid closure of Venus flytraps upon insect touch are some examples of nature's smart systems. Although current technologies are still premature to mimic these sophisticated structures and functions in smart biological systems, recent work on stimuli-responsive programmable matter has shown great progress...
March 6, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254498/effects-of-tussah-immunoreactive-substances-on-growth-immunity-disease-resistance-against-vibrio-splendidus-and-gut-microbiota-profile-of-apostichopus-japonicus
#9
Shuhui Ma, Yongxin Sun, Fuqiang Wang, Rui Mi, Zhixin Wen, Xuejun Li, Nan Meng, Yajie Li, Xingfan Du, Shuying Li
Tussah immunoreactive substance (TIS) comprises a number of active chemicals with various bioactivities. The current study investigated the effects of these substances on the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The specific growth rate (SGR) of TIS-fed sea cucumbers was significantly enhanced, whereas no significant difference in SGR was observed between those soaked in antibiotics and those fed with basal diet only. TIS also improved the immune response of the animals when given at a dose of 1.0% or 2.0%, as shown by increased phagocytic, lysozyme, superoxide dismutase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and catalase activities following injection with live Vibrio splendidus...
February 27, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238861/comparative-analysis-of-immunocompetence-between-females-and-males-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#10
Jingwei Jiang, Zunchun Zhou, Ying Dong, Shan Gao, Hongjuan Sun, Zhong Chen, Aifu Yang, Hesheng Su
In order to preliminarily understand the immune difference between females and males in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, the activities assay of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenoloxidase (PO), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with biochemical methods, the detection of PO isozymes with native-PAGE and catechol staining, and the test of antibacterial activities with bacterial growth curve determination method were performed in this study using cell-free coelomic fluid (CCF) and coelomocyte lysate supernatant (CLS) from females and males as the samples...
February 24, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229527/melanotransferrin-new-homolog-genes-and-their-differential-expression-during-intestinal-regeneration-in-the-sea-cucumber-holothuria-glaberrima
#11
Josué Hernández-Pasos, Griselle Valentín-Tirado, José E García-Arrarás
Melanotransferrin (MTf) is a protein associated with oncogenetic, developmental, and immune processes which function remains unclear. The MTf gene has been reported in numerous vertebrate and invertebrate species, including echinoderms. We now report the finding of four different MTfs in the transcriptome of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. Sequence studies and phylogenetic analyses were done to ascertain the similarities among the putative proteins and their relationship with other transferrin family members...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212329/enzyme-assisted-discovery-of-antioxidant-peptides-from-edible-marine-invertebrates-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Tsun-Thai Chai, Yew-Chye Law, Fai-Chu Wong, Se-Kwon Kim
Marine invertebrates, such as oysters, mussels, clams, scallop, jellyfishes, squids, prawns, sea cucumbers and sea squirts, are consumed as foods. These edible marine invertebrates are sources of potent bioactive peptides. The last two decades have seen a surge of interest in the discovery of antioxidant peptides from edible marine invertebrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient strategy commonly used for releasing antioxidant peptides from food proteins. A growing number of antioxidant peptide sequences have been identified from the enzymatic hydrolysates of edible marine invertebrates...
February 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189057/itraq-reveals-proteomic-changes-during-intestine-regeneration-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#13
Lina Sun, Dongxue Xu, Qinzeng Xu, Jingchun Sun, Lili Xing, Libin Zhang, Hongsheng Yang
Sea cucumbers have a striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration, which has drawn the interest of many researchers. In this study, the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was utilized to investigate protein abundance changes during intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. A total of 4073 proteins were identified, and 2321 proteins exhibited significantly differential expressions, with 1100 upregulated and 1221 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that intestine regeneration constitutes a complex life activity regulated by the cooperation of various biological processes, including cytoskeletal changes, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and ECM-receptor interactions, protein synthesis, signal recognition and transduction, energy production and conversion, and substance transport and metabolism...
February 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189056/metabolic-responses-to-intestine-regeneration-in-sea-cucumbers-apostichopus-japonicus
#14
Lina Sun, Jingchun Sun, Qinzeng Xu, Xiaoni Li, Libin Zhang, Hongsheng Yang
Sea cucumbers are excellent models for studying organ regeneration due to their striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration. In this study, we applied NMR-based metabolomics to determine the metabolite changes that occur during the process of intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis showed that there was significant differences in metabolism between regenerative intestines at 3, 7, and 14days post evisceration (dpe) and normal intestines...
February 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161535/4-o-sulfation-in-sea-cucumber-fucodians-contribute-to-reversing-dyslipidiaemia-caused-by-hfd
#15
Shan Li, Junhui Li, Zijian Zhi, Yaqin Hu, Jian Ge, Xingqian Ye, Ding Tian, Robert J Linhardt, Shiguo Chen
Fucodians extracted from sea cucumbers (SC-FUCs) possess linear chains with uniform repeating units. Sulfation patterns endow SC-FUCs unique structures and bioactivity. The present study investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of two fucodians isolated from sea cucumbers Pearsonothuria graeffei (fuc-Pg) and Isostichopus badionotus (fuc-Ib). The results indicate fuc-Pg dominated with a 4-O-sulfation pattern shows strong activity in reducing body weight, regulating lipid disorder (TC, TG, HLD-C, and LDL-C level), improving liver function (liver weight, GOP, GPT, and TBA concentrations) and increasing adiponectin level (adiponectin concentration) caused by HFD...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160609/understanding-regulation-of-micrornas-on-intestine-regeneration-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#16
Lina Sun, Jingchun Sun, Xiaoni Li, Libin Zhang, Hongsheng Yang, Qing Wang
The sea cucumber, as a member of the Echinodermata, has the capacity to restore damaged organs and body parts, which has always been a key scientific issue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short noncoding RNAs, play important roles in regulating gene expression. In the present study, we applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate alterations of miRNA expression in regenerative intestine compared to normal intestine. A total of 73 differentially expressed miRNAs were obtained, including 59 up-regulated miRNAs and 14 down-regulated miRNAs...
January 25, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153461/purification-structural-characterization-and-anticoagulant-properties-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-isolated-from-holothuria-mexicana
#17
Jiaojiao Mou, Cong Wang, Wenjing Li, Jie Yang
A novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (HmG) was isolated from sea cucumber Holothuria mexicana, the structure of which was characterized by monosaccharide composition, disaccharide composition, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectrum, additionally with two dimensional NMR spectrum of degraded HmG (DHmG). The backbone of HmG was identified as chondroitin 6-O sulfate, while the major O-4 sulfated fucose branches linked to O-3 position of glucuronic acid in almost every disaccharide unit. The anticoagulant activities of HmG and DHmG were assessed and compared with heparin and low molecular weight heparin...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120194/cyclobacterium-sediminis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-sea-cucumber-aquaculture-farm-and-emended-description-of-the-genus-cyclobacterium
#18
Seyeon Shin, Hyung-Yeel Kahng
An aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain SD70(T), was isolated from sea cucumber aquaculture farm sediment in Taean, Korea, and its taxonomic status was established by undertaking a polyphasic study. Cells of strain SD70(T) were non-motile, catalase-, and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, and horseshoe-shaped. Optimal growth was observed under 25-30°C, pH 7.0-8.0, and 3.0-5.0% (w/v) NaCl conditions. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SD70(T) fell within an evolutionary group comprising species of the genus Cyclobacterium...
February 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102426/improved-anticoagulant-effect-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-orally-administered-as-gastro-resistant-tablets
#19
Roberto J C Fonseca, Isabela D Sucupira, Stephan Nicollas M C G Oliveira, Gustavo R Santos, Paulo A S Mourão
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a potent anticoagulant polysaccharide extracted from sea cucumber. Its anticoagulant activity is attributed to the presence of unique branches of sulfated fucose. Although this glycosaminoglycan exerts an antithrombotic effect following oral administration, high doses are necessary to achieve the maximum effect. The diminished activity of FucCS following oral administration is likely due to its degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and its limited ability to cross the intestinal cell membranes...
January 19, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059140/identification-and-functional-characterisation-of-5-ht4-receptor-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka
#20
Tianming Wang, Zhen Yang, Naiming Zhou, Lina Sun, Zhenming Lv, Changwen Wu
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that controls a variety of sensory and motor functions through 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs). The 5-HT4R subfamily is linked to Gs proteins, which activate adenylyl cyclases (ACs), and is involved in many responses in peripheral organs. In this study, the 5-HT4R from Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4R) was identified and characterised. The cloned full-length Aj5-HT4R cDNA is 1,544 bp long and contains an open reading frame 1,011 bp in length encoding 336 amino acid proteins...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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