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Sea cucumber

Endong Zhang, Shuanglin Dong, Fang Wang, Xiangli Tian, Qinfeng Gao
In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P < ...
January 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Natalia Brodaczewska, Zuzana Košťálová, Dušan Uhrín
Overlap of NMR signals is the major cause of difficulties associated with NMR structure elucidation of molecules contained in complex mixtures. A 2D homonuclear correlation spectroscopy in particular suffers from low dispersion of 1H chemical shifts; larger dispersion of 13C chemical shifts is often used to reduce this overlap, while still providing the proton-proton correlation information e.g. in the form of a 2D 1H, 13C HSQC-TOCSY experiment. For this methodology to work, 13C chemical shift must be resolved...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Zelong Zhao, Jingwei Jiang, Yongjia Pan, Hongjuan Sun, Xiaoyan Guan, Shan Gao, Zhong Chen, Ying Dong, Zunchun Zhou
Apostichopus japonicus is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) of sea cucumber is a common and serious disease affected the development of A. japonicus culture industry. To better understand the response mechanisms of A. japonicus during SUS progression, the protein variations in the body wall of A. japonicus at different stages of SUS were investigated by a comparative proteomic approach based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification. A total of 1449 proteins were identified from the samples at different SUS stages...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Nathalie Marquet, Peter C Hubbard, José P da Silva, João Afonso, Adelino V M Canário
The importance of chemical communication in reproduction has been demonstrated in many marine broadcast spawners. However, little is known about the use of chemical communication by echinoderms, the nature of the compounds involved and their mechanism(s) of action. Here, the hypothesis that the sea cucumber Holothuria arguinensis uses chemical communication for aggregation and spawning was tested. Water conditioned by males, but not females, attracted both males and females; gonad homogenates and coelomic fluid had no effect on attraction...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rui Mi, Yongxin Sun, Jianguang Li, Shuhui Ma, Zhixin Wen, Xuejun Li, Nan Meng, Yajie Li, Xingfan Du, Shuying Li
Apostichopus japonicus is a species of sea cucumber that is extensively bred as a marine delicacy because of its high nutritive and medicinal value. Immunostimulants are usually used to enhance the immunity of sea cucumber against diseases, but the physiological function of immunostimulants is poorly understood. In this study, we fed A. japonicus individuals with a diet supplemented with different concentrations of tussah immunoreactive substances (TIS), and then subjected their intestines to iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis...
January 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Di Li, Lin Li, Teng Xu, Tianxing Wang, Jinwei Ren, Xinran Liu, Yong Li
Impaired wound healing is a major clinical problem in patients with diabetes and is the leading cause of lower limb amputation. This study is aimed to observe the effects of small molecule oligopeptides isolated from sea cucumber (SCCOPs) on the wound healing process in diabetic mice. Ninety db/db male mice were divided into five groups, including the model control group, whey protein group (0.50 g/kg) and three SCCOPs dose groups (0.25 g/kg, 0.50 g/kg and 1.00 g/kg). Additionally, 18 db/m male mice were used as normal control group...
January 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Alvaro Hernández-Flores, Alfonso Cuevas-Jiménez, Alicia Poot-Salazar, Alfonso Condal, Juan Carlos Espinoza-Méndez
Due to the heavy exploitation of holothurians over the last few decades, it is necessary to implement fishing regulations aimed at reversing this situation. Holothurians require specific regulations that take into account their biology and ecology. Their behavior to group and form patches as a strategy for feeding, defense and reproduction, makes them vulnerable to overfishing. The higher the population density, the higher the catchability coefficient, and because they are sedentary organisms, the catchability does not change significantly until the density is very low...
2018: PloS One
Chao Li, Yichao Ren, Senhao Jiang, Shun Zhou, Jinshan Zhao, Renjie Wang, Yongmei Li
A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of four strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) [i.e. Lactobacillus plantarum LL11 (LP), Weissella confuse LS13 (WC), Lactococcus lactis LH8 (LL) and Enterococcus faecalis LC3 (ES)] isolated from marine fish on growth, immune response and expression levels of immune-related gens in body wall of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. As a result, sea cucumber had better growth performance fed supplementation of LP and ES than the control group (P < ...
December 25, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qian Su, Tianyi Jin, Yuan Yu, Min Yang, Haijin Mou, Li Li
A novel endo-type β-agarase was cloned from an agar-degrading bacterium, Microbulbifer sp. Q7 (CGMCC No. 14061), that was isolated from sea cucumber gut. The agarase-encoding gene, ID2563, consisted of 1800 bp that encoded a 599-residue protein with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggested that the agarase belongs to the GH16 family. The agarase was expressed in Escherichia coli with a total activity of 4.99 U/mL in fermentation medium. The extracellular enzyme activity accounted for 65...
December 19, 2017: AMB Express
Alexey V Smirnov, Elena G Panina, Nadezhda P Sanamyan, Karen E Sanamyan
New species Scoliorhapis stepanovi has been collected from depths of 10-23 m on the sandy bottom of Avacha Bay (east coast of Kamchatka), Paramushir Island (North Kuril Islands), and Matua Island (Middle Kuril Islands). It is unique in having sigmoid ossicles in the body wall with points at both ends (without an open-eye, and with the two points lying in a perpendicular plane). Such sigmoids do not occur in any other taeniogyrinid species. The two-pointed sigmoids are 80-115 µm in length, and are scattered in the body wall and not clustered...
October 20, 2017: Zootaxa
Yusuke Yamana, Hayato Tanaka
A new apodid sea cucumber, Chiridota impatiens sp. nov., is described from the intertidal zone of Okinawa, Japan, and C. rigida Semper, 1867 is also described from the intertidal zone of Wakayama, as new to Japan. C. impatiens sp. nov. is approximately 60-70 mm, with 12 tentacles and 4-7 pairs of digits per tentacle, red or reddish brown in living specimens. The tentacles contain curved rod ossicles, with spinous processes and many branches in C. rigida, however, in C. impatiens sp. nov., the curved rod ossicles are crescent-shaped, sometimes distally, with spinous processes and rarely a few branches on the circumference...
October 31, 2017: Zootaxa
Sau Pinn Woo, Akito Ogawa, Shau Hwai Tan, Zulfigar Yasin, Hiroshi Kajihara, Toshihiko Fujita
Complete redescriptions of sea cucumbers in the genus Apostichopus Liao, 1980 are provided using the type specimens and specimens deposited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan. The genus consists of A. armatus (Selenka, 1867) and A. japonicus (Selenka, 1867), which can be distinguished by some spicules in the dorsal body wall; the rim of reduced table spicules in A. armatus is spinous, while that in A. japonicus is smooth. Spicules from the tentacles, papillae, tube feet, and cloaca are similar for both species...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Ahmed S Thandar, Lazaro W V Vinola
This short communication addresses the problem associated with the current taxonomic status of the prehistoric edentate genus Neocnus Arredondo, 1961 (with type species Micronocnus gliriformis Matthew, 1931) which has long been considered a senior homonym of the dendrochirotid sea cucumber genus Neocnus Cherbonnier, 1972 (type species Neocnus incubans Cherbonnier, 1972) and replaces the latter (junior homonym) with Incubocnus n.g. The diagnosis of the new genus is the same as the cucumariid Neocnus as amended by O'Loughlin & O'Hara (1992)...
October 17, 2017: Zootaxa
Yalda Arast, Nina Seyed Razi, Melika Nazemi, Enayatollah Seydi, Jalal Pourahmad
PURPOSE: Melanoma is a highly aggressive and deadly cancer with a poor prognosis given its drug resistance. A defect in apoptosis is one of the key mechanisms that contribute to drug resistance in Melonama. An important sea marine animal is the Holothuria parva, also known as the sea cucumber, which has various pharmacological activities. Compounds obtained from sea cucumbers have shown to have anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis singling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, selective toxicity and apoptotic effect of three extracts of Holothuria parva (H...
December 12, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Isaac Agyekum, Lauren Pepi, Yanlei Yu, Junhui Li, Lufeng Yan, Robert J Linhardt, Shiguo Chen, I Jonathan Amster
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates are complex polysaccharides extracted from sea cucumber. They have been extensively studied for their anticoagulant properties and have been implicated in other biological activities. While nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to extensively characterize fucosylated chondroitin sulfate oligomers, we herein report the first detailed mass characterization of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate using high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Li Su, Jing-Feng Yang, Xi Fu, Liang Dong, Da-Yong Zhou, Li-Ming Sun, Zhenwei Gong
Sea cucumber body wall melting occurs under certain circumstances. We have shown that apoptosis, but not autolysis, plays a critical role in the initial stage. However, it is still unclear how apoptosis is triggered in this process. In this study, we examined the reactive oxygen species (ROS), levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax) and the depolarization of mitochondria transmembrane potential and Cytochrome c (Cyt c) release during the sea cucumber melting induced by ultraviolet (UV) exposure...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Maria I Bilan, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Elizaveta Yu Borodina, Nikolay E Nifantiev, Anatolii I Usov
A highly regular fucan sulfate SHFS was isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus horrens by extraction of the body walls in the presence of papain followed by ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. SHFS had MW of about 140 kDa and contained fucose and sulfate in the molar ratio of about 1:1. Chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods were applied for the structural characterization of the polysaccharide. SHFS was shown to have linear molecules built up of 3-linked α-l-fucopyranose 2-sulfate residues...
December 7, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Jing Zhang, Ji-Ru Han, Guan-Jun Chen, Zong-Jun Du
A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, orange and rod/coccoid-shaped bacterium, designated O458T, was isolated from sediment collected from a sea cucumber culture pond located in Rongcheng, Shandong province, China (122°14'E, 36°54'N). Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain O458T is a member of the genus Robiginitalea and is closely related to Robiginitalea biformata (95.7% sequence similarity) and Robiginitalea myxolifaciens (94.9%). Its DNA G+C content was 55.2 mol%. The strain grew at temperatures between 15 and 45 °C (optimum 33 °C), from pH 6...
November 27, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Yongxin Li, Mani Kikuchi, Xueyan Li, Qionghua Gao, Zijun Xiong, Yandong Ren, Ruoping Zhao, Bingyu Mao, Mariko Kondo, Naoki Irie, Wen Wang
Sea cucumbers, one main class of Echinoderms, have a very fast and drastic metamorphosis process during their development. However, the molecular basis under this process remains largely unknown. Here we systematically examined the gene expression profiles of Japanese common sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for the first time by RNA sequencing across 16 developmental time points from fertilized egg to juvenile stage. Based on the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 21 modules...
November 24, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Liu Yang, Yuanhong Wang, Shuang Yang, Zhihua Lv
In this study, a new fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (HsG) with an average molecular weight of 69.1kDa was isolated from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. We investigated the structure of the HsG by adopting monosaccharide composition analysis, disaccharide composition analysis, IR,1H and13C NMR spectra and methylation analysis. According to methylation results of desulfated/carboxyl-reduced polysaccharides and the analysis of unsaturated disaccharides generated through the enzymolysis of the defucosed polysaccharides, it is shown that each branch is formed by one fucopyranosyl residue, wherein 55...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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