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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102426/improved-anticoagulant-effect-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-orally-administered-as-gastro-resistant-tablets
#1
Roberto J C Fonseca, Isabela D Sucupira, Stephan Nicollas M C G Oliveira, Gustavo R Santos, Paulo A S Mourão
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a potent anticoagulant polysaccharide extracted from sea cucumber. Its anticoagulant activity is attributed to the presence of unique branches of sulfated fucose. Although this glycosaminoglycan exerts an antithrombotic effect following oral administration, high doses are necessary to achieve the maximum effect. The diminished activity of FucCS following oral administration is likely due to its degradation in the gastrointestinal tract and its limited ability to cross the intestinal cell membranes...
January 19, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059140/identification-and-functional-characterisation-of-5-ht4-receptor-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka
#2
Tianming Wang, Zhen Yang, Naiming Zhou, Lina Sun, Zhenming Lv, Changwen Wu
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that controls a variety of sensory and motor functions through 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs). The 5-HT4R subfamily is linked to Gs proteins, which activate adenylyl cyclases (ACs), and is involved in many responses in peripheral organs. In this study, the 5-HT4R from Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4R) was identified and characterised. The cloned full-length Aj5-HT4R cDNA is 1,544 bp long and contains an open reading frame 1,011 bp in length encoding 336 amino acid proteins...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053573/antibiotic-resistance-profiling-and-phenotyping-of-aeromonas-species-isolated-from-aquatic-sources
#3
Olumide A Odeyemi, Asmat Ahmad
This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13), bivalve (n = 10), sea cucumber (n = 16) and sea water (n = 14) and resistance to 12 antibiotics - Tetracycline (30 μg), Kanamycin (30 μg), Oxytetracycline (30 μg), Ampicillin (10 μg), Streptomycin (10 μg), Gentamicin (10 μg), Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg), Nalixidic acid (30 μg), Trimethoprim (1...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052125/biosynthesis-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-sea-urchins-molecular-and-functional-characterisation-of-three-fatty-acyl-desaturases-from-paracentrotus-lividus-lamark-1816
#4
Naoki Kabeya, Alicia Sanz-Jorquera, Stefano Carboni, Andrew Davie, Angela Oboh, Oscar Monroig
Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis) of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads), key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012135/eicosapentaenoic-acid-enriched-phosphatidylcholine-attenuated-hepatic-steatosis-through-regulation-of-cholesterol-metabolism-in-rats-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Yanjun Liu, Di Shi, Yingying Tian, Yuntao Liu, Qiping Zhan, Jie Xu, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Disturbed cholesterol metabolism plays a crucial role in the development of NAFLD. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of EPA-PC extracted from sea cucumber on liver steatosis and cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups (normal control group, model group, lovastatin group, low- and high-dose EPA groups, and low- and high-dose EPA-PC groups). Model rats were established by administering a diet containing 1% orotic acid...
December 24, 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007385/heavy-metals-in-surface-sediments-along-the-weihai-coast-china-distribution-sources-and-contamination-assessment
#6
Hongmei Li, Xuming Kang, Xiaomin Li, Qiang Li, Jinming Song, Nianzhi Jiao, Yongyu Zhang
The Weihai coast is a representative zone with fifty-year history of mariculture in China. Algae and shellfish are the main cultured species, other species including fish and sea cucumber are also cultivated. In this study, heavy metals in surface sediments, sampled along the Weihai coast during May yearly between 2009 and 2013 were investigated in terms of their contents and spatiotemporal variation. The contents of Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb and As showed different spatiotemporal variations and ranged between 11...
December 19, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004778/glycosides-from-edible-sea-cucumbers-stimulate-macrophages-via-purinergic-receptors
#7
Dmitry Aminin, Evgeny Pislyagin, Maxim Astashev, Andrey Es'kov, Valery Kozhemyako, Sergei Avilov, Elena Zelepuga, Ekaterina Yurchenko, Leonid Kaluzhskiy, Emma Kozlovskaya, Alexis Ivanov, Valentin Stonik
Since ancient times, edible sea cucumbers have been considered a jewel of the seabed and used in Asian folk medicine for stimulation of resistance against different diseases. However, the power of this sea food has not been established on a molecular level. A particular group of triterpene glycosides was found to be characteristic metabolites of the animals, responsible for this biological action. Using one of them, cucumarioside A2-2 (CA2-2) from the edible Cucumaria japonica species as an example as well as inhibitory analysis, patch-clamp on single macrophages, small interfering RNA technique, immunoblotting, SPR analysis, computer modeling and other methods, we demonstrate low doses of CA2-2 specifically to interact with P2X receptors (predominantly P2X4) on membranes of mature macrophages, enhancing the reversible ATP-dependent Ca(2+) intake and recovering Ca(2+) transport at inactivation of these receptors...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989867/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-novel-antistasin-wap-like-serine-protease-inhibitor-from-the-tropical-sea-cucumber-stichopus-monotuberculatus
#8
Aifen Yan, Chunhua Ren, Ting Chen, Xiao Jiang, Hongyan Sun, Chaoqun Hu
A novel antistasin/WAP-like serine protease inhibitor, named as StmAW-SPI, was identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) and functionally characterized in this study. The full-length cDNA of StmAW-SPI is 1917 bp in length with a 72 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 294 bp 3'-UTR and a 1551 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 516 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 54.56 kDa. The StmAW-SPI protein has 5-fold internal repeats (IRs) of antistasin domain and 6-fold IRs of WAP domain...
October 27, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988762/a-new-genus-and-a-new-species-in-the-sea-cucumber-subfamily-colochirinae-echinodermata-holothuroidea-dendrochirotida-cucumariidae-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#9
Sifiso Mjobo, Ahmed S Thandar
A new genus Hemiocnus is here erected to accommodate the Mediterranean dendrochirotid sea cucumber Cladodactyla syracusana Grube, currently classified, with some doubt, in the cucumariid genus Pseudocnella. At the same time a new cucumariid species, Hemiocnus rubrobrunneus, is described from some Tunisian material, misidentified as Pseudocnella syracusana (Grube), received from the United States National Museum. The new genus appears most closely related to Pseudocnella than to any other genus within the Colochirinae...
November 9, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988651/sublittoral-and-bathyal-sea-cucumbers-echinodermata-holothuroidea-from-the-northern-mozambique-channel-with-description-of-six-new-species
#10
Yves Samyn, Didier Vandenspiegel
The 2009 expedition with the research vessel Miriky sampled the sublittoral and bathyal waters of the northern Mozambique Channel. This exploration campaign resulted in a small, but very diverse collection of holothuroids comprising 174 specimens representing 31 species, 18 genera, 10 families and 5 orders. Of these species, many were hitherto unknown for Madagascar or even for the Indian Ocean, and six, Bathyplotes aymeric sp. nov., Holothuria (Cystipus) yann sp. nov., Holothuria (Stauropora) bo sp. nov., Holothuria (Metriatyla) alex sp...
November 24, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988308/a-novel-mkk-gene-ajmkk3-6-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-identification-characterization-and-its-response-to-pathogenic-challenge
#11
Yi Wang, Ge Chen, Kaiquan Li, Jingxian Sun, Jian Song, Yaoyao Zhan, Xiangxiang Zhang, Limeng Yang, Yaqing Chang
The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) are key components of MAP kinase (MAPK) cascades and function as redox-regulated signaling factors in pathological and physiological processes. In this study, we identified a novel MKK3/6 gene in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjMKK3/6) by transcriptome database mining and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. Sequence analysis and protein structure prediction showed that AjMKK3/6 is highly conserved as compared to those from other invertebrate and vertebrate species...
December 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951443/synthesis-and-nmr-analysis-of-model-compounds-related-to-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfates-galnac-and-fuc-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-6-galnac-derivatives
#12
Dmitry Z Vinnitskiy, Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Alexander S Shashkov, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Unsubstituted and 6-O-α-L-fucosylated propyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranosides and their selectively O-sulfated (both in GalNAc and Fuc units) derivatives were synthesized as model compounds representing the fragments of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers. Per-O-acetylated 2-deoxy-2-N-phthalimido-D-glucopyranose was used as a key precursor for the preparation of all 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranoside containing products. Attempts at 6-O-glycosylation of propyl 3-O-benzoyl-2-deoxy-2-N-phthalimido-D-galactoside by 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloracetyl-L-fucosyl trichloracetimidate in the presence of TMSOTf gave a 1:1 mixture of the corresponding α- and β-isomeric disaccharides, while the use of structurally related fucosyl bromide donor with promotion by Bu4NBr led to the formation of desired α-isomeric disaccharide exclusively...
January 13, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942028/recovery-of-coastal-fauna-after-the-2011-tsunami-in-japan-as-determined-by-bimonthly-underwater-visual-censuses-conducted-over-five-years
#13
Reiji Masuda, Makoto Hatakeyama, Katsuhide Yokoyama, Masaru Tanaka
Massive tsunamis induce catastrophic disturbance in marine ecosystems, yet they can provide unique opportunities to observe the process of regeneration. Here, we report the recovery of fauna after the 2011 tsunami in northeast Japan based on underwater visual censuses performed every two months over five years. Both total fish abundance and species richness increased from the first to the second year after the tsunami followed by stabilization in the following years. Short-lived fish, such as the banded goby Pterogobius elapoides, were relatively abundant in the first two years, whereas long-lived species, such as the black rockfish Sebastes cheni, increased in the latter half of the survey period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941918/profiling-bacterial-communities-associated-with-sediment-based-aquaculture-bioremediation-systems-under-contrasting-redox-regimes
#14
Georgina Robinson, Gary S Caldwell, Matthew J Wade, Andrew Free, Clifford L W Jones, Selina M Stead
Deposit-feeding invertebrates are proposed bioremediators in microbial-driven sediment-based aquaculture effluent treatment systems. We elucidate the role of the sediment reduction-oxidation (redox) regime in structuring benthic bacterial communities, having direct implications for bioremediation potential and deposit-feeder nutrition. The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra was cultured on sediments under contrasting redox regimes; fully oxygenated (oxic) and redox stratified (oxic-anoxic). Taxonomically, metabolically and functionally distinct bacterial communities developed between the redox treatments with the oxic treatment supporting the greater diversity; redox regime and dissolved oxygen levels were the main environmental drivers...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930649/multiple-factors-affect-socioeconomics-and-wellbeing-of-artisanal-sea-cucumber-fishers
#15
Steven W Purcell, Poasi Ngaluafe, Simon J Foale, Nicole Cocks, Brian R Cullis, Watisoni Lalavanua
Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917349/effect-of-acute-salinity-stress-on-ion-homeostasis-na-k-atpase-and-histological-structure-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#16
Chenfan Geng, Yi Tian, Yanpeng Shang, Liqiang Wang, Yanan Jiang, Yaqing Chang
BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. RESULTS: Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904927/effects-of-tin-on-enzyme-activity-in-holothuria-grisea-echinodermata-holothuroidea
#17
Tatiana Miura Pereira, Lívia Pôncio Mattar, Edgar Rocha Pereira, Julia Merçon, Ary Gomes da Silva, Zilma Maria Almeida Cruz
This study evaluated the effect of tin exposure on enzyme activity in the sea cucumber (Holothuria grisea Selenka, 1867). After exposure to 0 (control), 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12 mg L(-1) tin, we tested the activities of total cholinesterase in longitudinal muscles, acid phosphatase in gonads and the respiratory tree, as well as alkaline phosphatase in the intestines during a 96-h bioassay. Regression analyses showed that all enzyme activities declined with increasing tin concentrations, except for acid phosphatase in the respiratory tree, which were similarly, inhibited at all tin concentrations...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854344/unfolding-refolding-study-on-collagen-from-sea-cucumber-based-on-2d-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#18
Lei Qin, Jing-Ran Bi, Dong-Mei Li, Meng Dong, Zi-Yuan Zhao, Xiu-Ping Dong, Da-Yong Zhou, Bei-Wei Zhu
We aimed to explore the differences of thermal behaviors between insoluble collagen fibrils (ICFs) and pepsin-solubilized collagens (PSCs) from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. The unfolding/refolding sequences of secondary structures of ICFs and PSCs during the heating and cooling cycle (5 → 70 → 5 °C) were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry combined with curve-fitting and 2D correlation techniques. ICFs showed a higher proportion of α-helical structures and higher thermostability than PSCs, and thus had more-stable triple helical structures...
November 16, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852126/traditional-chinese-medicine-food-therapy-and-hypertension-control-a-narrative-review-of-chinese-literature
#19
Ping Zou
Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852121/preventive-intra-oral-treatment-of-sea-cucumber-ameliorate-ova-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation
#20
Da-In Lee, Mi-Kyung Park, Shin Ae Kang, Jun-Ho Choi, Seok-Jung Kang, Jeong-Yeol Lee, Hak Sun Yu
Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice...
2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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