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Sea cucumber

Zequn Li, Tongjun Ren, Yuzhe Han, Zhiqiang Jiang, Yanan Hu, Zhuoan Bai, Lianshun Wang, Jingyun Ding
Triplicate groups of sea cucumbers (4.83 ± 0.15 g) were exposed to one of the four nominal concentrations of dietary mercury [0 (control), 67.6, 338, and 676 mg/kg dry weight, and actually total mercury were 17.55, 87.00, 275.50, 468.50 mg/kg, respectively; Table 3] for 21 days. Mercury accumulation in the intestine showed the greatest mercury burden (77.96 ± 1.20 mg Hg/kg tissue wet weight basis). However, survival rate (SR) was not affected. Body weight gain after the 676 mg Hg/kg treatment was significantly lower than the control group...
March 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Eric Parmentier, Michael L Fine, Cécile Berthe, David Lecchini
Encheliophis chardewalli was described from a single cleared and stained specimen. Twelve years later, additional specimens were found in the lagoon of Moorea (French Polynesia) in association with their host, the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana. These fish were used to consolidate the species diagnosis, to validate species status and to record sound production. This species is remarkable because of its ability to penetrate inside the cloaca of sea cucumbers having anal teeth and the fact this species is largely unknown despite it lives in lagoons in 1m depth...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Matthew Osse, Jean-François Hamel, Annie Mercier
In spite of increasing naval activities and petroleum exploration in cold environments, there is currently a paucity of tools available to monitor oil contamination in boreal marine life, especially in sedentary (non-fish) species that dominate benthic communities. This research aimed to identify biotic sources of variation in biomarkers using subarctic echinoderms, and to identify suitable biomarkers of their exposure to hydrocarbons. The focal species included the sea star Asterias rubens, the brittle star Ophiopholis aculeata, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, which are among the most abundant echinoderms in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Qiang Li, Yuan Ren, Chunlei Liang, Guo Qiao, Yinan Wang, Shigen Ye, Ruijun Li
Sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is one of the most important holothurian species cultured in China. Severe evisceration induced by various natural and artificial factors commonly occurs during transport and culture of A. japonicus. Evisceration causes higher mortality and lower yield. Along with the visceral regeneration process, sea cucumbers also regenerate coelomocytes in order to recover immune function. In this study, evisceration of A. japonicus was induced by intracoelomic injection of 0.35 M KCl...
March 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhenhui Wang, Zhimeng Lv, Chenghua Li, Yina Shao, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao
We have previously confirmed that β-integrin from Apostichopus japonicus (designated AjITGB) binds LPS and mediates the immune response. In this study, we found that AjITGB positively promoted the echinoderm immune cells located in the coelomic cavity (designated as coelomocyte) phagocytic activities. Flow cytometry assay indicated that the phagocytic rate was significantly decreased, by a 37.3% and 41.36%, after AjITGB siRNA inference in vitro and in vivo, respectively, a result consistent with the decrease observed with an anti-AjITGB antibody blocking treatment...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yujing Qin, Qingxia Yuan, Yuexing Zhang, Jialu Li, Xinjiao Zhu, Lingling Zhao, Jing Wen, Jikai Liu, Longyan Zhao, Jinhua Zhao
Enzyme-assisted extraction optimization, characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from sea cucumber Phyllophorus proteus (PPP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with a yield of 6.44 ± 0.06% for PPP were determined as follows: Extraction time of 2.89 h, ratio of extraction solvent to raw material of 16.26 mL/g, extraction pH of 6.83, exraction temperature of 50 °C and papain concentration of 0.15%. Three purified fractions, PPP-1a, PPP-1b and PPP-2 with molecular weights of 369...
March 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhicheng Wang, Jun Cui, Jian Song, Haoze Wang, Kailun Gao, Xuemei Qiu, Meng Gou, Xin Li, Ziwen Hu, Xiuli Wang, Yaqing Chang
Heterosis is important for sea cucumber breeding, but its molecular mechanism remains largely unexplored. In this study, parental lines of Apostichopus japonicus from Russia (R) and China (C) were used to construct hybrids (CR and RC) by reciprocal crossing. We examined the transcriptional profiles of the hybrids (CR and RC) and the purebreds (CC and RR) at different developmental times. A total of 60.27 Gb of clean data was obtained, and 176,649 unigenes were identified, of which 50,312 unigenes were annotated...
February 28, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Thomas E Adrian, Peter Collin
Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside from the Atlantic Sea Cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa . Frondoside A has a broad spectrum of anti-cancer effects, including induction of cellular apoptosis, inhibition of cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, formation of metastases, and angiogenesis. In cell lines and animal models studied to date, the anti-cancer effects of the compound are seen in all solid cancers, lymphomas, and leukemias studied to date. These effects appear to be due to potent inhibition of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), which is up-regulated in many cancers...
February 19, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jun Wang, Yaoguang Chang, Fanxiu Wu, Xiaoqi Xu, Changhu Xue
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) is the major carbohydrate constituent of sea cucumber. However, the distribution of fCS in the sea cucumber body wall has not been fully described. We addressed this in the present study employing Apostichopus japonicus as the material, a sea cucumber species with significant commercial importance. It was found that fCS was covalently attached to collagen fibrils via O-glycosidic linkages. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that fCS precipitate was present in gap regions of collagen fibrils as roughly globular or ellipsoidal dots...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Longyan Zhao, Yujing Qin, Ruowei Guan, Wenqi Zheng, Jikai Liu, Jinhua Zhao
The digestibility of fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) and its effects on digestive enzymes were investigated using an in vitro digestion model. Results showed that the molecular weight and the reducing sugar content of FG were not significantly changed, and no free monosaccharides released from FG were detected after the salivary, gastric and intestinal digestion, indicating that both the backbone and the sulfated fucose branches of FG are resistant to be cleaved in the saliva and gastrointestinal tract environments...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rafat Afifi Khattab, Mohamed Elbandy, Andrew Lawrence, Tim Paget, Jung Rae-Rho, Yaser S Binnaser, Imran Ali
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produced a diversity of biological important natural compounds which are unpresented in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (anti-bacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt...
February 12, 2018: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Jorge Viera-Vera, José E García-Arrarás
Retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors that synchronize intricate signaling networks in metazoans. Dimer formation between these two nuclear receptors mediates the recruitment of co-regulatory complexes coordinating the progression of signaling cascades during developmental and regenerative events. In the present study we identified and characterized the receptors for retinoic acid in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima; a model system capable of regenerative organogenesis during adulthood...
February 6, 2018: Gene
Seyed Mohammad Sadeghi-Nassaj, Teresa S Catalá, Pedro A Álvarez, Isabel Reche
Background: Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named "extractive" species that uptake the waste byproducts...
2018: PeerJ
Jiaojiao Mou, Qiang Li, Xiaohui Qi, Jie Yang
Three fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) were obtained from edible sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus, Stichopus chloronotus and Acaudina molpadioidea collected from China. fCS from Stichopus chloronotus was firstly reported. The detailed structures of fCSs, particularly the fucose branches, were investigated and compared. 1H and 13C NMR of the polysaccharide identified three sulfation patterns of fucose branches: 4-O-, 2,4-di-O, and 3,4-di-O-sulfation variously existed in different fCSs. The backbone structure was confirmed by the monosaccharide composition and two-dimensional NMR...
April 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiuhan Guo, Rui Cai, Shisheng Wang, Bo Tang, Yueqing Li, Weijie Zhao
Sea cucumber is the major tonic seafood worldwide, and geographical origin traceability is an important part of its quality and safety control. In this work, a non-destructive method for origin traceability of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from northern China Sea and East China Sea using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis methods was proposed. Total fat contents of 189 fresh sea cucumber samples were determined and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used to establish the quantitative NIRS model...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yinan Wang, Shaodong Meng, Jialin Zhang, Jun Ding, Qiang Li
Sea urchin is one of marine animals with high economic and great scientific research values. Axial organ is a glandular organ that has been presumed as coelomocytes origin site. In this paper, two monoclonal antibodies (3G10 and 6B3) against coelomocytes of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius were developed by hybridoma technique. The mAbs were characterized by indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IIFAT), flow cytometry (FCM) and western blot assay. Results showed that mAb 3G10 recognized a protein of a molecular weight of 17 kDa in the spherule cells, while mAb 6B3 reacted with a protein of a molecular weight of 35 kDa in the phagocytes...
January 30, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Minghua Cong, Jiejun Wang, Yu Fang, Yinghua Liu, Mingxiao Sun, Qiong Wu, Kan Wang, Yan Huang, Yiqun Ling, Yong Liu, Quanfu Li, Yibing Liu, Jiang Zhu, Lingjun Zhu, Zhendong Zheng, Ling Li, Dongying Liu, Zimin Liu, Hanping Shi, Peng Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current associated factors of dietary knowledge and behavior, the intake and nutritional status in malignancy Chinese inpatients, and the malnutrition causes involved in dietary nutrition knowledge level and behavior, providing recommendations to patients for nutrition education and intervention. METHOD: Five hundred and thirty-five participants from 18 hospitals were investigated by a questionnaire related to dietary knowledge and behavior...
February 5, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Arada Chaiyamoon, Ruchanok Tinikul, Supakant Chaichotranunt, Tanes Poomthong, Worawit Suphamungmee, Prasert Sobhon, Yotsawan Tinikul
In the present study, the distribution and dynamic expression of serotonin and dopamine in the nervous system and ovary of the sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, during different ovarian stages were investigated. We found that serotonin-immunoreactivity was more intense in the neurons and neuropils of the outer ectoneural part, the inner hyponeural part, and the wall of hyponeural canal of radial nerve cord during the mature stages of ovarian cycle, whereas dopamine-immunoreactivity was detected at a higher intensity in these tissues during the early stages...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Endong Zhang, Shuanglin Dong, Fang Wang, Xiangli Tian, Qinfeng Gao
In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P < ...
January 10, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Natalia Brodaczewska, Zuzana Košťálová, Dušan Uhrín
Overlap of NMR signals is the major cause of difficulties associated with NMR structure elucidation of molecules contained in complex mixtures. A 2D homonuclear correlation spectroscopy in particular suffers from low dispersion of 1H chemical shifts; larger dispersion of 13C chemical shifts is often used to reduce this overlap, while still providing the proton-proton correlation information e.g. in the form of a 2D 1H, 13C HSQC-TOCSY experiment. For this methodology to work, 13C chemical shift must be resolved...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
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