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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917349/effect-of-acute-salinity-stress-on-ion-homeostasis-na-k-atpase-and-histological-structure-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#1
Chenfan Geng, Yi Tian, Yanpeng Shang, Liqiang Wang, Yanan Jiang, Yaqing Chang
BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental condition such as salinity and studies are urgently needed to assess their effects to guide aquaculture efforts. The effects of acute salinity stress on coelomic fluid osmotic pressure, ion concentrations, the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in respiratory trees and the histological variations were measured to evaluate the salinity tolerance of sea cucumbers. RESULTS: Significant correlations in osmotic pressure were observed between coelomic fluid and ambient environmental salinity...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904927/effects-of-tin-on-enzyme-activity-in-holothuria-grisea-echinodermata-holothuroidea
#2
Tatiana Miura Pereira, Lívia Pôncio Mattar, Edgar Rocha Pereira, Julia Merçon, Ary Gomes da Silva, Zilma Maria Almeida Cruz
This study evaluated the effect of tin exposure on enzyme activity in the sea cucumber (Holothuria grisea Selenka, 1867). After exposure to 0 (control), 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12 mg L(-1) tin, we tested the activities of total cholinesterase in longitudinal muscles, acid phosphatase in gonads and the respiratory tree, as well as alkaline phosphatase in the intestines during a 96-h bioassay. Regression analyses showed that all enzyme activities declined with increasing tin concentrations, except for acid phosphatase in the respiratory tree, which were similarly, inhibited at all tin concentrations...
November 30, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854344/unfolding-refolding-study-on-collagen-from-sea-cucumber-based-on-2d-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#3
Lei Qin, Jing-Ran Bi, Dong-Mei Li, Meng Dong, Zi-Yuan Zhao, Xiu-Ping Dong, Da-Yong Zhou, Bei-Wei Zhu
We aimed to explore the differences of thermal behaviors between insoluble collagen fibrils (ICFs) and pepsin-solubilized collagens (PSCs) from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. The unfolding/refolding sequences of secondary structures of ICFs and PSCs during the heating and cooling cycle (5 → 70 → 5 °C) were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry combined with curve-fitting and 2D correlation techniques. ICFs showed a higher proportion of α-helical structures and higher thermostability than PSCs, and thus had more-stable triple helical structures...
November 16, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852126/traditional-chinese-medicine-food-therapy-and-hypertension-control-a-narrative-review-of-chinese-literature
#4
Ping Zou
Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852121/preventive-intra-oral-treatment-of-sea-cucumber-ameliorate-ova-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation
#5
Da-In Lee, Mi-Kyung Park, Shin Ae Kang, Jun-Ho Choi, Seok-Jung Kang, Jeong-Yeol Lee, Hak Sun Yu
Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847342/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-cathepsin-b-from-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#6
Huahui Chen, Miao Lv, Zhimeng Lv, Chenghua Li, Wei Xu, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Xuemei Duan, Chunhua Jin
Cathepsin B (CTSB), a member of lysosomal cysteine protease, is involved in multiple levels of physiological and biological processes, and also plays crucial roles in host immune defense against pathogen infection in vertebrates. However, the function of CTSB within the innate immune system of invertebrates, particularly in marine echinoderms, has been poorly documented. In this study, the immune function of CTSB in Apostichopus japonicus (designated as AjCTSB), a commercially important and disease vulnerable aquaculture specie, was investigated by integrated molecular and protein approaches...
November 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832949/mir-137-modulates-coelomocyte-apoptosis-by-targeting-14-3-3%C3%AE-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#7
Miao Lv, Huahui Chen, Yina Shao, Chenghua Li, Wei Xu, Weiwei Zhang, Xuelin Zhao, Xuemei Duan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in the host immune response and play a pivotal role in host-pathogen interactions by suppressing the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of target genes. miR-137, a well-documented tumor repressor, was previously found by high-throughput sequencing to be differentially expressed in diseased specimens of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. In this study, we identified 14-3-3ζ protein (Aj14-3-3ζ) as a novel target of miR-137 using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and transcriptome screening...
February 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827870/ceramide-as-a-target-of-marine-triterpene-glycosides-for-treatment-of-human-myeloid-leukemia
#8
REVIEW
Seong-Hoon Yun, Sung-Won Shin, Valentin A Stonik, Joo-In Park
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous myeloid clonal disorder exhibiting the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Standard AML therapy requires intensive combination chemotherapy, which leads to significant treatment-related toxicity. The search for new, low toxic marine agents, inducing the generation of ceramide in leukemic cells is a new approach to improve the therapy of leukemia. This review focuses on the metabolism of sphingolipids, the role of ceramide in treating leukemia, and the antitumor activity, related to ceramide metabolism, of some marine metabolites, particularly stichoposides, triterpene glycosides extracted from sea cucumbers of the family Stichopodiidae...
November 3, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815203/toxic-effects-in-juvenile-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicas-selenka-exposure-to-benzo-a-pyrene
#9
Chao Li, Shun Zhou, Yichao Ren, Senhao Jiang, Bin Xia, Xiaoyu Dong
To understand the physiological response of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas, were exposed to different concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the growth, survival, antioxidant enzyme (SOD and T-AOC) activities were tested. Meanwhile, the quantitative real-time PCR technology was utilized to quantize the expression of immune related genes (i.e. innate immune genes, HSP genes and anti-oxidative genes). In our result, the SOD activity and T-AOC activity were induced at lower level of B[a]P (0.03 μg/L), however, a reduction of SOD activity and T-AOC activity were observed at relatively high B[a]P concentration (3 and 9 μg/L) for A...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810340/anti-diabetic-activity-of-holothuria-thomasi-saponin
#10
Amira R El Barky, Samy A Hussein, Abeer A Alm-Eldeen, Yehia A Hafez, Tarek M Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus represents a global health problem. It characterized by hyperglycemia that induces oxidative stress leading to a generation of free radicals. A wide variety of natural products in plants and other marine animals represent antioxidant activity and other health benefits like those of sea cucumber. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of glycosidic compound - saponin - derived from the Egyptian sea cucumber, Holothuria thomasi...
October 31, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797117/a-modular-approach-to-a-library-of-semi-synthetic-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-polysaccharides-with-different-sulfation-and-fucosylation-patterns
#11
Antonio Laezza, Alfonso Iadonisi, Anna V A Pirozzi, Paola Diana, Mario De Rosa, Chiara Schiraldi, Michelangelo Parrilli, Emiliano Bedini
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS)-a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in sea cucumbers-has recently attracted much attention owing to its biological properties. In particular, a low molecular mass fCS polysaccharide has very recently been suggested as a strong candidate for the development of an antithrombotic drug that would be safer and more effective than heparin. To avoid the use of animal sourced drugs, here we present the chemical transformation of a microbial sourced unsulfated chondroitin polysaccharide into a small library of fucosylated (and sulfated) derivatives thereof...
October 31, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794379/skin-whitening-and-anti-corrugation-activities-of-glycoprotein-fractions-from-liquid-extracts-of-boiled-sea-cucumber
#12
So Jung Kim, So Yun Park, Sun-Mee Hong, Eun-Hye Kwon, Taek-Kyun Lee
OBJECTIVE: To determine skin whitening and wrinkle improvement efficacy, glycoprotein fractions were extracted from liquid extracts of boiled sea cucumber and their effects on tyrosine and elastase inhibitory activities were assayed. METHODS: Fractions above and below 50 kDa (>50 kDa and <50 kDa) were extracted via a series of steps involving: boiling, filtering, desalting and freeze drying. Cytotoxicity, skin whitening and wrinkle-removing effects of boiled liquid were determined...
October 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748168/occurrence-and-levels-of-nitrofuran-metabolites-in-sea-cucumber-from-dalian-china
#13
Hongxia Zhao, Wuxia Guo, Wenna Quan, Jingqiu Jiang, Baocheng Qu
The occurrence and levels of nitrofuran metabolites (NFMs) in sea cucumber (SC) from Dalian, China, are reported. Four metabolites including 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM) and 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) in different SC products (fresh, instant and dry salted SCs) were measured. The frequency of occurrence for NFMs in all SC samples was 42.7%. The total NFM concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 64.6 ng g(-)(1), with a mean of 3.59 ng g(-1)...
October 17, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719909/identification-of-the-geographical-origins-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-in-northern-china-by-using-stable-isotope-ratios-and-fatty-acid-profiles
#14
Xufeng Zhang, Yu Liu, Ying Li, Xinda Zhao
Geographic traceability is an important issue for food quality and safety control of seafood. In this study,δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, as well as fatty acid (FA) content of 133 samples of A. japonicus from seven sampling points in northern China Sea were determined to evaluate their applicability in the origin traceability of A. japonicus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to different data sets in order to evaluate their performance in terms of classification or predictive ability...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708167/interfibrillar-stiffening-of-echinoderm-mutable-collagenous-tissue-demonstrated-at-the-nanoscale
#15
Jingyi Mo, Sylvain F Prévost, Liisa M Blowes, Michaela Egertová, Nicholas J Terrill, Wen Wang, Maurice R Elphick, Himadri S Gupta
The mutable collagenous tissue (MCT) of echinoderms (e.g., sea cucumbers and starfish) is a remarkable example of a biological material that has the unique attribute, among collagenous tissues, of being able to rapidly change its stiffness and extensibility under neural control. However, the mechanisms of MCT have not been characterized at the nanoscale. Using synchrotron small-angle X-ray diffraction to probe time-dependent changes in fibrillar structure during in situ tensile testing of sea cucumber dermis, we investigate the ultrastructural mechanics of MCT by measuring fibril strain at different chemically induced mechanical states...
October 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706040/angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-ace-inhibitory-and-anti-hypertensive-effect-of-protein-hydrolysate-from-actinopyga-lecanora-sea-cucumber-in-rats
#16
Mahdokht Sadegh Vishkaei, Afshin Ebrahimpour, Azizah Abdul-Hamid, Amin Ismail, Nazamid Saari
Food protein hydrolysates are known to exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and can be used as a novel functional food for prevention of hypertension. This study evaluated the ACE inhibitory potentials of Actinopyga lecanora proteolysate (ALP) in vivo. The pre-fed rats with ALP at various doses (200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight) exhibited a significant (p ≤ 0.05) suppression effect after inducing hypertension. To determine the optimum effective dose that will produce maximal reduction in blood pressure, ALP at three doses was fed to the rats after inducing hypertension...
September 30, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703841/extremely-low-genetic-variability-within-and-among-locations-of-the-greenfish-holothurian-stichopus-chloronotus-brandt-1835-in-okinawa-japan
#17
Taha Soliman, Okuto Takama, Iria Fernandez-Silva, James D Reimer
The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and nuclear histone H3 (H3) gene...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667939/borniopsis-mortoni-sp-n-heterodonta-galeommatoidea-galeommatidaesensu-lato-a-new-bivalve-commensal-with-a-synaptid-sea-cucumber-from-japan
#18
Ryutaro Goto, Hiroshi Ishikawa
The Galeommatoidea is a bivalve superfamily that exhibits high species diversity in shallow waters. Many members of this superfamily are associated commensally with burrowing marine invertebrates in benthic sediments. The genus Borniopsis is known only from eastern Asia and exhibits high host diversity (e.g., mantis shrimps, crabs, holothurians, sipunculans and echiurans). A new species, Borniopsis mortoni sp. n., is described from mud flats at the mouth of the Souzu River, southwestern Shikoku Island, Japan...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641487/holothurians-antifungal-and-antibacterial-activity-to-human-pathogens-in-the-persian-gulf
#19
S Mashjoor, M Yousefzadi
Pharmaceutical industries now accept that oceans contain a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties. As investigation of antimicrobial activity, three species of Holothuria sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra, Holothuria parva and Holothuria leucospilota) from the Persian Gulf, Iran, were obtained, their different organs: gonads (G), body wall (BW), intestine tract (IT), respiratory tree (RT) were isolated and extracted with organic solvents: ethyl acetate and methanol. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of each fraction was estimated with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk-diffusion method against the number (i...
September 15, 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640155/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-a-thioredoxin-like-protein-gene-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#20
Shixiong Cheng, Chenghua Li, Yi Wang, Limeng Yang, Yaqing Chang
As the most important disulfide bond reducates of intracellular oxidordeuctase, thioredoxin (TRX) plays a crucial role in maintaining reducing state of intracellular proteins to normally perform their function. In this study, a cDNA of TRX-like protein gene from Apostichopus japonicus (denoted as AjTRX) was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of AjTRXwas of 1870 bp, consisting of a 5'-UTR of 101 bp, a long 3'-UTR of 887 bp and a 882 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 293 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass and the theoretical PI of the deduced amino acids of AjTRX were 32...
September 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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