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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936472/relaxant-effect-of-sodium-tanshinone-iia-sulphonate-on-mouse-tracheal-smooth-muscle
#1
Yi-Lin Zhang, Jia-Wen Xu, Xiong-Hao Wu, Peng-Xiao Chen, Fang Wei, Dong-Dong Gao, Xiao-Wen Chen, Yu-Li Luo, Yun-Xin Zhu, Jiehong Huang, Ya-Xia Tan, Lei Zhao, Wen-Liang Zhou
Sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate, a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, has been proven to possess versatile biological properties, but its pharmacological effect on tracheal smooth muscle remains elusive. This paper presents a study on the relaxant effect and underlying mechanisms of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate on mouse tracheal smooth muscle. The relaxant effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate was evaluated in mouse tracheal rings using a mechanical recording system. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured in primary cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells using confocal imaging system...
December 9, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936470/ocular-delivery-of-pacap1-27-protects-the-retina-from-ischemic-damage-in-rodents
#2
Dora Werling, Dora Reglodi, William A Banks, Therese S Salameh, Krisztina Kovacs, Timea Kvarik, Alexandra Vaczy, Laszlo Kovacs, Flora Mayer, Bese Danyadi, Emese Lokos, Andrea Tamas, Gabor Toth, Zsolt Biro, Tamas Atlasz
Purpose: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is neuroprotective in neuronal injuries. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) causes chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the rat retina, where we proved the retinoprotective effect of intravitreal PACAP. Although this route of administration is a common clinical practice in several diseases, easier routes are clinically important. Our aim was to investigate the potential retinoprotective effects of PACAP eye drops in BCCAO-induced ischemic retinopathy...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936432/the-role-of-the-water-tankers-market-in-water-stressed-semi-arid-urban-areas-implications-on-water-quality-and-economic-burden
#3
Kinda Constantine, May Massoud, Ibrahim Alameddine, Mutasem El-Fadel
Population growth and development are associated with increased water demand that often exceeds the capacity of existing resources, resulting in water shortages, particularly in urban areas, where more than 60% of the world's population resides. In many developing communities, shortages often force households to depend on water tankers amongst other potential sources for the delivery of water for domestic and/or potable use. While water tankers have become an integral part of the water supply system in many countries, the sector is often unregulated and operates with little governmental supervision...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936430/collagen-tissue-treated-with-chitosan-solution-in-h2o-co2-mixtures-influence-of-clathrates-hydrates-on-the-structure-and-mechanical-properties
#4
Ivan S Chaschin, Natalia P Bakuleva, Timofei E Grigoriev, Sergey V Krasheninnikov, Lev N Nikitin
A mixture of water/carbon dioxide is a "green" perspective solvent from the viewpoint of biomedical applications. Clathrate hydrates are formed this solvent under certain conditions and a very interesting question is the impact of clathrates hydrates on the structure and properties of bovine pericardium, which is used in biomedicine, in particular as a main part of biological heart valve prostheses. The aim of the present work is to investigate the influence of clathrates on the structure and mechanical properties of the collagen tissue treated with chitosan in H2O/CO2 mixtures under pressure 3...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936415/hydraulic-fracturing-in-cells-and-tissues-fracking-meets-cell-biology
#5
REVIEW
Marino Arroyo, Xavier Trepat
The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936400/wicking-of-light-hydrophobic-liquid-phase-from-water-by-pulverized-rubber-theoretical-and-experimental-analyses
#6
Daria Boglaienko, Berrin Tansel
Pulverized rubber (PR) can be utilized for capturing floating oils to prevent spreading and volatilization of hydrocarbons. Experiments were conducted using PR with four different particle sizes (ranging from 0.075 to 0.600mm) and South Louisiana crude oil. The oil capture performance of the PR particles was compared with that of powdered activated carbon (AC). Oil-particle interactions were analyzed using capillary theories for lateral aggregation and wicking processes, as well as sorption capacity in relation to particle size...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936327/preparation-of-the-tio2-graphic-carbon-nitride-core-shell-array-as-a-photoanode-for-efficient-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#7
Xiaoli Fan, Tao Wang, Bin Gao, Hao Gong, Hairong Xue, Hu Guo, Li Song, Wei Xia, Xianli Huang, Jianping He
The photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxygen evolution reaction over a photoanode is a promising process for renewable energy. The fascinating properties of graphic carbon nitride (g-CN) in water splitting make the photoelectrode engineering of it for PEC use quite meaningful. In this work, we report the fabrication of the core-shell-structured TiO2/g-CN composite film by hydrothermal growth for TiO2 nanorod arrays and solvothermal growth for the g-CN layer. Herein, TiO2 is used as an effective electron-transfer layer, and g-CN is used as a visible light absorption layer...
December 9, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936323/decyltrimethylammonium-bromide-micelles-in-acidic-solutions-counterion-binding-water-structuring-and-micelle-shape
#8
Daniel Timothy Bowron, Karen J Edler
Wide-angle neutron scattering experiments combined with Empirical Potential Structural Refinement modelling have been used to study the detailed structure of decyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles in the presence of acid solutions of HCl or HBr. These experiments demonstrate considerable variation in micelle structure and water structuring between micelles in the two acid solutions and in comparison with the same micelles in pure water. In the presence of the acids, the micelles are smaller, however in the presence of HCl the micelles are more loosely structured and disordered while in the presence of HBr the micelles are more compact and closer to spherical...
December 9, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936318/copper-ii-thymine-coordination-polymer-nanoribbons-as-potential-oligonucleotide-nanocarriers
#9
Verónica G Vegas, Romina Lorca, Ana Latorre, Khaled Hassanein, Carlos J Gómez-García, Oscar Castillo, Álvaro Somoza, Félix Zamora, Pilar Amo-Ochoa
The direct reaction between copper nitrate, thymine-1-acetic acid, and 4,4'-bipyridine in water leads to the formation of a blue colloid comprising uniform crystalline nanoribbons (length >1 μm; width ca. 150-185 nm; diameter ca. 15-60 nm) of a coordination polymer. The polymer displays a thymine-based structure freely available for supramolecular interactions. These nanostructures show significant selective interaction with single-stranded oligonucleotides based on adenine. Remarkably, they present low cell toxicity in three cell lines-despite the copper(II) content-and can be used as nanocarriers of oligonucleotides...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936316/bioprospecting-of-turbinaria-macroalgae-as-a-potential-source-of-health-protective-compounds
#10
Milena Stranska-Zachariasova, Isma Kurniatanty, Helena Gbelcova, Monika Jiru, Josep Rubert, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia, Cosimo Walter D'Acunto, Sony Heru Sumarsono, Marselina Irasonia Tan, Jana Hajslova, Tomas Ruml
The present study aims to focus on the bioprospecting of marine macroalgae of Turbinaria species, plenteous biomass of the world ocean. Three types of solvents, i.e. water, methanol:water (80:20, v/v) and hexane:isopropanol (50:50, v/v), were used for extraction. Both the biological activity, as well as the pattern of present chemicals were characterized. For the cell proliferation assay, the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, cervix / breast / pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma cells were used. For the antioxidant activity determination, both intracellular assay with human embryonic kidney and cervix adenocarcinoma cells, as well as the biochemical DPPH test, were employed...
December 9, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936313/knight-shift-in-13-c%C3%A2-nmr-resonances-confirms-the-coordination-of-n-heterocyclic-carbene-ligands-to-water-soluble-palladium-nanoparticles
#11
Juan M Asensio, Simon Tricard, Yannick Coppel, Román Andrés, Bruno Chaudret, Ernesto de Jesús
The coordination of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to the surface of 3.7 nm palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) can be unambiguously established by observation of Knight shift (KS) in the (13) C resonance of the carbenic carbon. In order to validate this coordination, PdNPs with sizes ranging from 1.3 to 4.8 nm were prepared by thermal decomposition or reduction with CO of a dimethyl NHC Pd(II) complex. NMR studies after (13) CO adsorption established that the KS shifts the (13) C resonances of the chemisorbed molecules several hundreds of ppm to high frequencies only when the particle exceeds a critical size of around 2 nm...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936307/synthesis-of-functionalized-3-4-5-and-6-dendralenes-through-palladium-catalyzed-cross-couplings-of-substituted-allenoates
#12
Daniel J Lippincott, Roscoe T H Linstadt, Michael R Maser, Bruce H Lipshutz
A mild method for the synthesis of highly functionalized [3]-[6]dendralenes is reported, representing a general strategy to diversely substituted higher homologues of the dendralenes. The methodology utilizes allenoates bearing various substitution patterns, along with a wide range of boron and alkenyl nucleophiles that couple under palladium catalysis leading to sp-, sp(2) -, and sp(3) -substituted arrays. Regioselective transformations of the newly formed unsymmetrical dendralene derivatives are demonstrated...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936306/hybrid-polymer-garnet-electrolyte-with-a-small-interfacial-resistance-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#13
Yutao Li, Biyi Xu, Henghui Xu, Huanan Duan, Xujie Lü, Sen Xin, Weidong Zhou, Leigang Xue, Gengtao Fu, Arumugam Manthiram, John B Goodenough
Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 -based Li-rich garnets react with water and carbon dioxide in air to form a Li-ion insulating Li2 CO3 layer on the surface of the garnet particles, which results in a large interfacial resistance for Li-ion transfer. Here, we introduce LiF to garnet Li6.5 La3 Zr1.5 Ta0.5 O12 (LLZT) to increase the stability of the garnet electrolyte against moist air; the garnet LLZT-2 wt % LiF (LLZT-2LiF) has less Li2 CO3 on the surface and shows a small interfacial resistance with Li metal, a solid polymer electrolyte, and organic-liquid electrolytes...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936305/confinement-alters-the-structure-and-function-of-calmodulin
#14
Guohua Xu, Kai Cheng, Qiong Wu, Maili Liu, Conggang Li
Many cellular reactions involving proteins, including their biosynthesis, misfolding, and transport, occur in confined compartments. Despite its importance, a structural basis of understanding of how confined environments alter protein function is still lacking. Herein, we explore structure-function correlations of calmodulin (CaM), a multidomain protein involved in many calcium-mediated signaling pathways, in reverse micelles. Confinement dramatically alters CaM structure and function. The protein forms an extended structure in bulk water, but becomes compacted in reverse micelles...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936242/performance-in-object-choice-aesop-s-fable-tasks-are-influenced-by-object-biases-in-new-caledonian-crows-but-not-in-human-children
#15
Rachael Miller, Sarah A Jelbert, Alex H Taylor, Lucy G Cheke, Russell D Gray, Elsa Loissel, Nicola S Clayton
The ability to reason about causality underlies key aspects of human cognition, but the extent to which non-humans understand causality is still largely unknown. The Aesop's Fable paradigm, where objects are inserted into water-filled tubes to obtain out-of-reach rewards, has been used to test casual reasoning in birds and children. However, success on these tasks may be influenced by other factors, specifically, object preferences present prior to testing or arising during pre-test stone-dropping training...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936184/freshwater-detention-by-oyster-reefs-quantifying-a-keystone-ecosystem-service
#16
David A Kaplan, Maitane Olabarrieta, Peter Frederick, Arnoldo Valle-Levinson
Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water "dams". We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a "keystone" ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936160/a-cbl-interacting-protein-kinase-tacipk2-confers-drought-tolerance-in-transgenic-tobacco-plants-through-regulating-the-stomatal-movement
#17
Yan Wang, Tao Sun, Tingting Li, Meng Wang, Guangxiao Yang, Guangyuan He
In plants, the CBL-CIPK signaling pathways play key roles in the response to abiotic stresses. However, functional studies of CIPKs in the important staple crop wheat are very rare. In this study, we identified a CIPK gene from wheat, designated TaCIPK2. Expression analysis results showed that TaCIPK2 could be up-regulated in wheat leaves by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid and H2O2 treatments. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that TaCIPK2 was present in whole wheat epidermal cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that TaCIPK2 interacted with TaCBL1, 2, 3 and 4 in vitro...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936159/the-effect-of-altered-soil-moisture-on-hybridization-rate-in-a-crop-wild-system-raphanus-spp
#18
Lesley G Campbell, Kruti Shukla, Michelle E Sneck, Colleen Chaplin, Kristin L Mercer
Since plant mating choices are flexible and responsive to the environment, rates of spontaneous hybridization may vary across ecological clines. Developing a robust and predictive framework for rates of plant gene flow requires assessing the role of environmental sensitivity on plant reproductive traits, relative abundance, and pollen vectors. Therefore, across a soil moisture gradient, we quantified pollinator movement, life-history trait variation, and unidirectional hybridization rates from crop (Raphanus sativus) to wild (Raphanus raphanistrum) radish populations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936145/diurnal-patterns-of-physical-activity-in-relation-to-activity-induced-energy-expenditure-in-52-to-83-years-old-adults
#19
Giulio Valenti, Alberto G Bonomi, Klaas R Westerterp
BACKGROUND: Ageing is associated with a declining physical activity level (PAL) and changes in the diurnal activity pattern. Changes in the activity pattern might help explaining the age-associated reduction of physical activity. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to investigate diurnal activity patterns within groups of older adults classified by PAL, to investigate diurnal activity patterns within age-groups and to investigate the association between the drop in activity and aerobic fitness...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936120/sweat-facilitated-amino-acid-losses-in-male-athletes-during-exercise-at-32-34%C3%A2-c
#20
R Hugh Dunstan, Diane L Sparkes, Benjamin J Dascombe, Margaret M Macdonald, Craig A Evans, Christopher J Stevens, Marcus J Crompton, Johan Gottfries, Jesse Franks, Grace Murphy, Ryan Wood, Timothy K Roberts
Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise...
2016: PloS One
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