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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655187/nutrient-availability-affects-floral-scent-much-less-than-other-floral-and-vegetative-traits-in-lithophragma-bolanderi
#1
Magne Friberg, Mia T Waters, John N Thompson
Background and Aims: Many plant-pollinator interactions are mediated by floral scents that can vary among species, among populations within species and even among individuals within populations. This variation could be innate and unaffected by the environment, but, because many floral volatiles have amino-acid precursors, scent variation also could be affected by differences in nutrient availability among environments. In plants that have coevolved with specific pollinators, natural selection is likely to favour low phenotypic plasticity in floral scent even under different conditions of nutrient availability if particular scents or scent combinations are important for attracting local pollinators...
June 26, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655165/investigation-of-natural-radioactivity-as-a-possible-driver-of-cancer-incidence-in-para%C3%A3-ba-northeastern-brazil
#2
Josineide Marques do Nascimento Santos, José Araújo Dos Santos Júnior, Ana Maria Mendoça de Albuquerque Melo, Romilton Dos Santos Amaral, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Zahily Herrero Fernández, Lino Angel Valcárcel Rojas, Jairo Dias Bezerra, Alberto Antônio da Silva, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues Damascena, Nilson Vicente da Silva Medeiros
An increase of health problems has been reported in the city of Triunfo, Paraíba, NE Brazil. This pattern has been attributed to environmental radiation since there are uranium deposits in the neighboring municipalities. The present study aimed to carry a radiometric survey in Triunfo to determine effective dose from external outdoor radiation exposure. The results were obtained through 'in situ' measurements using a gamma spectrometry system. The results ranged from 0.06 to 0.38 mSv/y, mean of 0.20 mSv/y...
June 24, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655162/the-role-of-older-persons-environment-in-aging-well-quality-of-life-illness-and-community-context-in-south-africa
#3
Margaret Ralston
Purpose of the Study: This article evaluates the influence of local district conditions on subjective quality of life of older South African adults. Policymakers increasingly recognize that "successful" aging policies must not only address physical health needs but also factors that influence subjective well-being. Design and Methods: To investigate the influence of area-level distribution of "public goods" on well-being in a low- and middle-income setting, nationally representative WHO-Study of Global AGEing and Adult Health (WHO-SAGE) survey data is combined with district-level data that captures built resources and health system distribution...
June 24, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655115/characteristics-and-fate-of-natural-organic-matter-during-uv-oxidation-processes
#4
Yongtae Ahn, Doorae Lee, Minhwan Kwon, Il-Hwan Choi, Seong-Nam Nam, Joon-Wun Kang
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are widely used in water treatments. During oxidation processes, natural organic matter (NOM) is modified and broken down into smaller compounds that affect the characteristics of the oxidized NOM by AOPs. In this study, NOM was characterized and monitored in the UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and UV/persulfate (PS) processes using a liquid chromatography-organic carbon detector (LC-OCD) technique, and a combination of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)...
June 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655113/application-of-enhanced-gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-for-monitoring-petroleum-weathering-and-forensic-source-fingerprinting-in-samples-impacted-by-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#5
Puspa L Adhikari, Roberto L Wong, Edward B Overton
Accurate characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons in complex and weathered oil residues is analytically challenging. This is primarily due to chemical compositional complexity of both the oil residues and environmental matrices, and the lack of instrumental selectivity due to co-elution of interferences with the target analytes. To overcome these analytical selectivity issues, we used an enhanced resolution gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode (GC/MS/MS-MRM) to eliminate interferences within the ion chromatograms of target analytes found in environmental samples...
June 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655111/capacitive-deionization-of-arsenic-contaminated-groundwater-in-a-single-pass-mode
#6
Chen-Shiuan Fan, Sofia Ya Hsuan Liou, Chia-Hung Hou
A single-pass-mode capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor was used to remove arsenic from groundwater in the presence of multiple ions. The CDI reactor involved an applied voltage of 1.2 V and six cell pairs of activated carbon electrodes, each of which was 20 × 30 cm(2). The results indicate that this method achieved an effluent arsenic concentration of 0.03 mg L(-1), which is lower than the arsenic concentration standard for drinking water and irrigation sources in Taiwan, during the charging stage...
June 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654885/fabrication-of-pla-caco3-hybrid-micro-particles-as-carriers-for-water-soluble-bioactive-molecules
#7
Valeriya L Kudryavtseva, Li Zhao, Sergei I Tverdokhlebov, Gleb B Sukhorukov
We propose the use of polylactic acid/calcium carbonate (PLA/CaCO3) hybrid micro-particles for achieving improved encapsulation of water-soluble substances. Biodegradable porous CaCO3 microparticles can be loaded with wide range of bioactive substance. Thus, the formation of hydrophobic polymeric shell on surface of these loaded microparticles results on encapsulation and, hence, sealing internal cargo and preventing their release in aqueous media. In this study, to encapsulate proteins, we explore the solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion method for fabricating core/shell PLA/CaCO3 systems...
June 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654878/development-of-a-semi-quantitative-risk-assessment-model-for-evaluating-environmental-threat-posed-by-the-three-first-eu-watch-list-pharmaceuticals-to-urban-wastewater-treatment-plants-an-irish-case-study
#8
Alexandre Tahar, Erin Jo Tiedeken, Eoghan Clifford, Enda Cummins, Neil Rowan
Contamination of receiving waters with pharmaceutical compounds is of pressing concern. This constitutes the first study to report on the development of a semi-quantitative risk assessment (RA) model for evaluating the environmental threat posed by three EU watch list pharmaceutical compounds namely, diclofenac, 17-beta-estradiol and 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol, to aquatic ecosystems using Irish data as a case study. This RA model adopts the Irish Environmental Protection Agency Source-Pathway-Receptor concept to define relevant parameters for calculating low, medium or high risk score for each agglomeration of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which include catchment, treatments, operational and management factors...
June 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654874/aquatic-toxicity-of-ivermectin-in-cattle-dung-assessed-using-microcosms
#9
Leticia M Mesa, I Lindt, L Negro, M F Gutierrez, G Mayora, L Montalto, M Ballent, A Lifschitz
Ivermectin (IVM) is a parasiticide widely used for livestock. It is a semisynthetic derivative of avermectin, a macrocyclic lactone produced by Streptomyces avermitilis. This drug is only partly metabolized by livestock; considerable amounts of parent drug are excreted mostly via feces. To simulate exposure of aquatic invertebrates and macrophytes to direct excretion of cattle dung into surface waters, a microcosm experiment with IVM spiked in cattle dung was conducted. The objectives of this study were to characterize accumulation of IVM in water, sediment+dung, roots of the floating fern Salvinia and the zooplankton Ceriodaphnia dubia, the amphipod Hyalella and the apple snail Pomacea; to determine the effect of this drug spiked in cattle dung on life-history traits of these invertebrates; and to evaluate the influence of IVM on aquatic nutrient cycling...
June 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654836/addition-of-seaweed-and-bentonite-accelerates-the-two-stage-composting-of-green-waste
#10
Lu Zhang, Xiangyang Sun
Green waste (GW) is an important recyclable resource, and composting is an effective technology for the recycling of organic solid waste, including GW. This study investigated the changes in physical and chemical characteristics during the two-stage composting of GW with or without addition of seaweed (SW, Ulva ohnoi) (at 0, 35, and 55%) and bentonite (BT) (at 0.0, 2.5%, and 4.5%). During the bio-oxidative phase, the combined addition of SW and BT improved the physicochemical conditions, increased the respiration rate and enzyme activities, and decreased ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions...
June 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654829/fructose-intake-exacerbates-the-contractile-response-elicited-by-norepinephrine-in-mesenteric-vascular-bed-of-rats-via-increased-endothelial-prostanoids
#11
Glauciene J Sousa, Phablo Wendell C Oliveira, Breno V Nogueira, Antônio F Melo, Thaís de Oliveira Faria, Eduardo Frizera Meira, José G Mill, Nazaré S Bissoli, Marcelo P Baldo
Chronic fructose intake induces major cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances and is associated with the development of hypertension due to changes in vascular function. We hypothesized that high fructose intake for 6 weeks would cause metabolic syndrome and lead to initial vascular dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were assigned to receive fructose (FRU, 10%) or drinking water (CON) for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was evaluated by tail plethysmography. Fasting glucose, insulin and glucose tolerance were measured at the end of the follow-up...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654810/metal-and-metalloid-distribution-in-different-environmental-compartments-of-the-middle-xingu-river-in-the-amazon-brazil
#12
Danielle Regina Gomes Ribeiro, Henrique Faccin, Thaís Ramos Dal Molin, Leandro Machado de Carvalho, Lílian Lund Amado
Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni were analyzed during rainy and dry seasons in water, sediment, soil, and two fish species. The analysis took place at four points in the Xingu River, one point in the Fresco River, and two mining pits in the southeastern area of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. In the water, the total concentration of As (>0.14μg/L) was higher than the local reference values at all sampling points and in both seasons. Ordination analysis (PCA) highlighted As and Cu elements in the water...
June 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654800/long-term-investigation-of-constructed-wetland-wastewater-treatment-and-reuse-selection-of-adapted-plant-species-for-metaremediation
#13
Mohamed Mounir Saggaï, Abdelkader Ainouche, Mark Nelson, Florence Cattin, Abdelhak El Amrani
A highly diverse plant community in a constructed wetland was used to investigate an ecological treatment system for human wastewater in an arid climate. The eight-year operation of the system has allowed the identification of a highly adapted and effective plant consortium that is convenient for plant-assisted metaremediation of wastewater. This constructed wetland pilot station demonstrated effective performance over this extended period. Originally, there were twenty-five plant species. However, because of environmental constraints and pressure from interspecific competition, only seven species persisted...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654782/revisiting-blood-brain-barrier-a-chromatographic-approach
#14
Xavier Subirats, Laura Muñoz-Pascual, Michael H Abraham, Martí Rosés
Drugs designed to reach a pharmacological CNS target must be effectively transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a thin monolayer of endothelial cells tightly attached together between the blood and the brain parenchyma. Because of the lipidic nature of the BBB, several physicochemical partition models have been studied as surrogates for the passive permeation of potential drug candidates across the BBB (octanol-water, alkane-water, PAMPA...). In the last years, biopartition chromatography is gaining importance as a noncellular system for the estimation of biological properties in early stages of drug development...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654759/taurine-reverses-sodium-fluoride-mediated-increase-in-inflammation-caspase-3-activity-and-oxidative-damage-along-the-brain-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-male-rats
#15
Isaac A Adedara, Bolanle F Olabiyi, TeminiJesu D Ojuade, Umar F Idris, Esther M Onibiyo, Ebenezer O Farombi
Excessive exposure to fluoride is associated with male reproductive dysfunction in humans and animals. Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of taurine on fluoride-induced reproductive toxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated the influence of taurine on sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced functional changes along the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats. NaF was administered singly in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days...
June 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654756/hydrogels-with-a-memory-dual-responsive-organometallic-poly-ionic-liquid-s-with-hysteretic-volume-phase-transition
#16
Kaihuan Zhang, Xueling Feng, Chongnan Ye, Mark A Hempenius, G Julius Vancso
We report on the synthesis and structure property relations of a novel, dual-responsive organometallic poly(ionic liquid) (PIL), consisting of a poly(ferrocenylsilane) backbone of alternating redox-active, silane bridged ferrocene units, and tetraalkylphosphonium sulfonate moieties in the side groups. This PIL is redox responsive due to the presence of ferrocene in the backbone, and also exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type thermal responsive behaviour. The LCST phase transition originates from the interaction between water molecules and the ionic substituents and shows a concentration-dependent, tunable transition temperature in aqueous solution...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654749/a-general-route-for-nanoemulsion-synthesis-using-low-energy-methods-at-constant-temperature
#17
Ankur Gupta, Abu Zayed Md Badruddoza, Patrick S Doyle
The central dogma of nanoemulsion formation using low energy methods at constant temperature popularly known as the emulsion inversion point (EIP) method - is that to create O/W nanoemulsions, water should be added to a mixture of oil and surfactant. Here, we demonstrate that the above order of mixing is not universal and a reverse order of mixing could be superior depending on the choice of surfactant and liquid phases. We propose a more general methodology to make O/W as well as W/O nanoemulsions by studying the variation of droplet size with surfactant HLB for several model systems...
June 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654748/preparation-of-poly-styrene-b-poly-acrylic-acid-coupled-carbon-dots-and-their-applications
#18
Moon-Jin Cho, Soo-Young Park
Carbon dots (CDs) are covalently coupled to the polyacrylic acid (PAA) block of polystyrene-b-polyacrylic acid (PS-b-PAA). The produced amphiphilic PS-b-PAA-CD shows excellent solubility and micellar formation in selective solvents. Transmission electron microscopy study shows that the micelle of PS-b-PAA-CD in water (a PAA-selective solvent) has a strawberry-like shape with the CDs as patches on the PAA corona surface although that in toluene (a PS-selective solvent) has a reversed shape with the CDs in the core...
June 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654717/similar-reliability-and-equivalent-performance-of-female-and-male-mice-in-the-open-field-and-water-maze-place-navigation-task
#19
Ann-Kristina Fritz, Irmgard Amrein, David P Wolfer
Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water-maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for Cohen's d as measure of effect size were computed and tested for equivalence with 0...
June 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654705/effective-new-membrane-for-preventing-postthoracotomy-pleural-adhesion-by-surface-water-induction-technology
#20
Akiko Uemura, Mary Nakata, Seijirow Goya, Toshiharu Fukayama, Ryou Tanaka
BACKGROUND: After thoracic surgery, adhesions between the pleura can cause substantial complications. This study investigated the effectiveness of a novel membrane utilizing surface water induction technology to prevent adhesions. METHODS: Eight beagles were divided into an experimental group (five males) and a control group (three females). The experimental group underwent thoracotomy on both the left and right sides of the chest. Both sides received the membrane, and the membrane on one side was glued to the pleura using tissue adhesive...
2017: PloS One
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