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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458189/impact-of-time-of-day-on-diffusivity-measures-of-brain-tissue-derived-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Cibu Thomas, Neda Sadeghi, Amrita Nayak, Aaron Trefler, Joelle Sarlls, Chris Baker, Carlo Pierpaoli
Diurnal fluctuations in MRI measures of structural and functional properties of the brain have been reported recently. These fluctuations may have a physiological origin, since they have been detected using different MRI modalities, and cannot be explained by factors that are typically known to confound MRI measures. While preliminary evidence suggests that measures of structural properties of the brain based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fluctuate as a function of time-of-day (TOD), the underlying mechanism has not been investigated...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458126/structural-and-mechanistic-analysis-of-the-choline-sulfatase-from-sinorhizobium-melliloti-a-class-i-sulfatase-specific-for-an-alkyl-sulfate-ester
#2
Bert van Loo, Markus Schober, Eugene Valkov, Magdalena Heberlein, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Kurt Faber, Marko Hyvönen, Florian Hollfelder
Hydrolysis of organic sulfate esters proceeds by two distinct mechanisms, water attacking at either sulfur (S-O bond cleavage) or carbon (C-O bond cleavage). In primary and secondary alkyl sulfates attack at carbon is favored, whereas in aromatic sulfates and sulfated sugars attack at sulfur is preferred. This mechanistic distinction is mirrored in the classification of enzymes that catalyze sulfate ester hydrolysis: arylsulfatases catalyze S-O cleavage in sulfate sugars and arylsulfates and alkyl sulfatases break the C-O bond of alkyl sulfates...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458115/effect-of-acek-acesulfame-potassium-on-brain-function-under-dietary-restriction-in-mice
#3
Daisuke Ibi, Fumika Suzuki, Masayuki Hiramatsu
People preferably take zero or low-calorie beverages and foods with artificial sweeteners even though it has been recently suggested that long-term artificial sweetener use affects physiological functions. In addition, a lower body weight was considered to be more healthful, but an abnormally low body weight caused by an excessive diet has been reported to cause health problems. Acesulfame potassium (AceK) is one of the most commonly used for foods and beverages because of its resistance to thermal degradation and marked sweetness...
February 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458105/preparation-and-characterization-of-antibacterial-eco-friendly-edible-nanocomposite-films-containing-salvia-macrosiphon-and-nanoclay
#4
Seyed Mohammad Davachi, Azadeh Sadat Shekarabi
Nowadays, food security is a vital issue and antimicrobial packaging could play an important role in this matter. In this regard, Salvia macrosiphon seed mucilage (SSM) and nanoclay, as new sources for the production of food-grade edible films were investigated. These edible films were prepared by incorporation of SSM with glycerol and different percentage of nanoclay. Upon addition of nanoclay up to 2% physical, mechanical and thermal properties were considerably improved and the composite films showed the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP), as well as highest elongation at break and tensile strength...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458103/zinc-oxide-nanorod-clusters-deposited-seaweed-cellulose-sheet-for-antimicrobial-activity
#5
Priyank L Bhutiya, Mayur S Mahajan, M Abdul Rasheed, Manoj Pandey, S Zaheer Hasan, Nirendra Misra
Seaweed cellulose was isolated from green seaweed Ulva fasciata using a common bleaching agent. Sheet containing porous mesh was prepared from the extracted seaweed crystalline cellulose along with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod clusters grown over the sheet by single step hydrothermal method. Seaweed cellulose and zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and SEM-EDX. Morphology showed that the diameter of zinc oxide nanorods were around 70 nm. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited on seaweed cellulose sheet gave remarkable antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ceresus, Streptococcus thermophilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginous) microbes...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458102/%C3%AE-irradiated-chitosan-based-injectable-hydrogels-for-controlled-release-of-drug-montelukast-sodium
#6
Sadaf Hafeez, Atif Islam, Nafisa Gull, Abbas Ali, Shahzad Maqsood Khan, Saba Zia, Kalsoom Anwar, Saba Urooge Khan, Tahir Jamil
Novel pH-sensitive γ-irradiated low molecular weight chitosan (CS) (pre-irradiated) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blended injectable hydrogels, crosslinked with varying concentrations of glycerol, were fabricated for drug delivery application. The effect of low molecular weight irradiated CS on controlled drug release was evaluated to address the problem of higher viscosity and lower solubility of high molecular weight CS. The FTIR spectra of hydrogels depicted the presence of all the incorporated functional groups and the developed interactions (physical and chemical)...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458100/characterization-and-antioxidant-activities-of-polysaccharides-from-thirteen-boletus-mushrooms
#7
Lan Zhang, Yu Hu, Xiaoyu Duan, Tingting Tang, Yingbin Shen, Bin Hu, Aiping Liu, Hong Chen, Cheng Li, Yuntao Liu
Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458097/topographical-memory-analyzed-in-mice-using-the-hamlet-test-a-novel-complex-maze
#8
Lucie Crouzier, Damien Gilabert, Mireille Rossel, Françoise Trousse, Tangui Maurice
The Hamlet test is an innovative device providing a complex environment for testing topographic memory in mice. Animals were trained in groups for weeks in a small village with a central agora, streets expanding from it towards five functionalized houses, where they can drink, eat, hide, run, interact with a stranger mouse. Memory was tested by depriving mice from water or food and analyzing their ability to locate the Drink/Eat house. Exploration and memory were analysed in different strains, gender, and after different training periods and delays...
February 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458080/transcriptomic-and-phenotypic-profiling-in-developing-zebrafish-exposed-to-thyroid-hormone-receptor-agonists
#9
Derik E Haggard, Pamela D Noyes, Katrina M Waters, Robert L Tanguay
There continues to be a need to develop in vivo high-throughput screening (HTS) and computational methods to screen chemicals for interaction with the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid pathways and as complements to in vitro HTS assays. This study explored the utility of an embryonic zebrafish HTS approach to identify and classify endocrine bioactivity using phenotypically-anchored transcriptome profiling. Transcriptome analysis was conducted on zebrafish embryos exposed to 25 estrogen-, androgen-, or thyroid-active chemicals at concentrations that elicited adverse malformations or mortality at 120 hours post-fertilization in 80% of animals exposed...
February 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458034/fluorescence-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-detection-of-phenanthrene-and-its-homolog
#10
Yu Sun, Yansong Li, Xingyu Meng, Bin Qiao, Pan Hu, Xianmei Meng, Shiying Lu, Honglin Ren, Zengshan Liu, Yu Zhou
A competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) was developed using rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) as the model fluorescent dye conjugate monoclonal antibody (McAb) for detection of Phe and its homolog (acenaphthene, fluorene, fluoranthene, pyrene and indeno [1,2,3-cd] pyrene) in water samples. The detection range of the assay for Phe was from 2.10 to 91.95 ng/mL. The limit of detection was 1.05 ng/mL, which was approximately 2-fold lower than that of traditional ic-ELISA. Compared with traditional ic-ELISA, more than 70 min was saved because of only one immunoreaction step was needed to accomplish the assay...
February 16, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458010/galectin-9-is-critical-for-mucosal-adaptive-immunity-through-the-t-h-17-iga-axis
#11
Chih-Chia Liang, Chi-Shan Li, I-Chun Weng, Huan-Yuan Chen, Hsueh-Han Lu, Chiu-Ching Huang, Fu-Tong Liu
Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protection against pathogens and toxins in the gut. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-9, a tandem repeat-type β-galactoside-binding protein, in intestinal mucosal immunity. By mucosal immunization of Lgals9-/- and littermate control mice, it was found that lack of galectin-9 impaired mucosal antigen-specific IgA response in the gut...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457993/leptospira-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-the-caribbean-region-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Nicola Pratt, Sreekumari Rajeev
This systematic review summarises the data published on the Leptospira seroprevalence, serovar diversity and distribution among animal species in the Caribbean region. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and checklist, relevant articles were identified and data were extracted and recorded. The review provided Leptospira seroprevalence data from 16 Caribbean islands (Barbados, Trinidad, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, St. Kitts and Nevis, Jamaica, Antigua, Carriacou, Dominica, Guadalupe, Martinique, Monserrat, St...
February 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457936/prevalence-structure-and-distribution-of-novel-parasite-cysts-containing-dracunculus-species-in-river-otters-lontra-canadensis-from-arkansas
#13
Renn Tumlison, Allison Surf
Adult female Guinea worms (Dracunculus spp.) usually are reported to occur singly in the extremities of their hosts, from which they deliver their larvae through fistulae in the host's skin into the water. We visually examined for presence of worms in the fascia of the limbs of skinned carcasses of 184 river otters (Lontra canadensis) harvested in Arkansas, and report observations of cysts on wrists and ankles found on 12 otters. Cysts averaged 15.6 X 24.6 mm in size, were round to oval, and contained masses of up to 19 adult female Dracunculus sp...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457910/mechanistic-analysis-of-ion-association-between-dendrigraft-poly-l-lysine-and-8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate-at-liquid-liquid-interfaces
#14
Hirohisa Nagatani, Masataka Fujisawa, Hisanori Imura
Molecular association between biocompatible dendritic polymers, dendrigraft poly-L-lysines (DGLs), and an anionic fluorescent probe, 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS- ), was studied at the polarized water|1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface. The fluorescence intensity of ANS measured in aqueous solution was enhanced by the coexistence of DGL over a wide pH range (2 < pH < 10), where ANS and DGL exist as a monoanionic form and polycation, respectively. The voltammetric responses indicated that the positively charged DGL was adsorbed at the water|DCE interface, while ANS- was transferred across the interface accompanied by the adsorption process...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457903/the-excited-state-proton-transfer-in-3-cyano-7-azaindole-from-aqueous-solution-to-ice
#15
Ting-Husn Tu, Yi-Ting Chen, Jiun-Yi Shen, Ta-Chun Lin, Pi-Tai Chou
In this study, we investigated the excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) reaction for 3-cyano-7-azaindole (3CAI) in aqueous solution and in ice. 3CAI undergoes water catalyzed ESPT in the aqueous solution, giving normal (355 nm) and proton transfer tautomer (~472 nm) emission bands. Detailed temperature dependent studies showed that the values of activation free energy (△G≠) were similar between N-H and N-D isotope. Therefore, water catalyzed ESPT involves a stepwise mechanism incorporating solvation equilibrium (Keq) to form a 1:1 (molar ratio) water: 3CAI cyclic hydrogen bonded complex as an intermediate, followed by perhaps proton tunneling reaction...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457892/boronic-acid-catalyzed-regio-and-1-2-cis-stereoselective-glycosylation-of-unprotected-sugar-acceptors-via-s-n-i-type-mechanism
#16
Masamichi Tanaka, Akira Nakagawa, Nobuya Nishi, Kiyoko Iijima, Ryuichi Sawa, Daisuke Takahashi, Kazunobu Toshima
Regio- and 1,2-cis-stereoselective chemical glycosylation of unprotected glycosyl acceptors has been in great demand for the efficient synthesis of natural glycosides. However, simultaneously regulating these selectivities has been a long-standing problem in synthetic organic chemistry. In nature, glycosyl transferases catalyze regioselective 1,2-cis-glycosylations via the SN i mechanism, yet no useful chemical glycosylations based on this mechanism have been developed. In this paper, we report a highly regio- and 1,2-cis-stereoselective SN i-type glycosylation of 1,2-anhydro donors and unprotected sugar acceptors using p-nitrophenylboronic acid (10e) as a catalyst in the presence of water under mild conditions...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457890/headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-coupled-to-miniaturized-microplasma-optical-emission-spectrometry-for-detection-of-mercury-and-lead
#17
Chengbin Zheng, Ligang Hu, Xiandeng Hou, Bin He, Guibin Jiang
Despite increased interest in microplasma atomic spectrometry over the past several years, its applications to field analysis of real samples still remain limited due to its low sensitivity. In this work, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using PDMS/DVB fiber was used as a sample introduction method to improve the sensitivity of a miniature (6.0 cm length × 5.0 cm width × 2.8 cm height) low power (<10 W) microplasma point discharge optical emission spectrometer (PD-OES) for the determination of Hg and Pb after their derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt4)...
February 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457886/janus-gradient-meshes-for-continuous-separation-and-collection-of-flowing-oils-under-water
#18
Ning Li, Cunlong Yu, Yifan Si, Meirong Song, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang
Gradient meshes with Janus wettabilities are fabricated to stably separate and collect spilled oils from a range of flowing oily wastewater. Here, we demonstrate an overflow with separation methodology, which combines selective oil overflow and membrane separation, to separate low content oils from dynamic flowing oil-water mixtures by a curved gradient mesh that covered on a solid edge. The microscaled air-oil-water-solid four-phase wetting state during the oil-water separation process is visualized and demonstrated...
February 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457882/unregulated-drinking-water-systems
#19
Doug Farquhar
(1)One in 9 Americans gets his or her drinking water from a private well. (2) An estimated 20 percent of private wells have contaminants above Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards.(3) Disease outbreaks from private wells are increasing, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
February 2018: NCSL Legisbrief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457872/simple-method-for-the-determination-of-personal-care-product-ingredients-in-lettuce-by-ultrasound-assisted-extraction-combined-with-solid-phase-microextraction-followed-by-gc-ms
#20
Jerónimo Cabrera-Peralta, Araceli Peña-Alvarez
A simple method for the simultaneous determination of personal care product ingredients: galaxolide, tonalide, oxybenzone, 4-methylbenzyliden camphor, padimate-o, 2-ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene, triclosan and methyl triclosan in lettuce by ultrasound-assisted extraction combined with solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was developed. Lettuce was directly extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with methanol, this extract was combined with water, extracted by solid-phase microextraction in immersion mode and analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
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