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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107778/parabolic-variation-in-sexual-selection-intensity-across-the-range-of-a%C3%A2-cold-water-pipefish-implications-for-susceptibility-to-climate-change
#1
Nuno Monteiro, Mário Cunha, Lídia Ferreira, Natividade Vieira, Agostinho Antunes, David Lyons, Adam G Jones
While an understanding of evolutionary processes in shifting environments is vital in the context of rapid ecological change, one of the most potent selective forces, sexual selection, remains curiously unexplored. Variation in sexual selection across a species range, especially across a gradient of temperature regimes, has the potential to provide a window into the possible impacts of climate change on the evolution of mating patterns. Here, we investigated some of the links between temperature and indicators of sexual selection, using a cold-water pipefish as model...
January 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107756/photocatalytic-reduction-of-cs-i-ions-removed-by-combined-maghemite-titania-pva-alginate-beads-from-aqueous-solution
#2
Zohreh Majidnia, Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky
The presence of Cs(I) ions in nuclear wastewater becomes an important issue for the reason of its high toxicity. The development of adsorbent embedded metal-based catalysts that has sufficient adsorption capacity is expected for the removal of Cs(I) ions from contaminated water. This study tested the use of maghemite, titania and combined maghemite-titania polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate beads as an adsorbent to remove Cs(I) ions from aqueous solution with the variables of pH and initial concentration using batch experiments under sunlight...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107749/use-of-fluorescence-spectroscopy-to-control-ozone-dosage-in-recirculating-aquaculture-systems
#3
Aikaterini Spiliotopoulou, Richard Martin, Lars-Flemming Pedersen, Henrik R Andersen
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to be used as an ozone dosage determination tool in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs), by studying the relationship between fluorescence intensities and dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation by ozone, in order to optimise ozonation treatment. Water samples from six different Danish facilities (two rearing units from a commercial trout RAS, a commercial eel RAS, a pilot RAS and two marine water aquariums) were treated with different O3 dosages (1...
December 24, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107748/tracing-the-sources-and-cycling-of-phosphorus-in-river-sediments-using-oxygen-isotopes-methodological-adaptations-and-first-results-from-a-case-study-in-france
#4
Chiara Pistocchi, Federica Tamburini, Gerard Gruau, André Ferhi, Dominique Trevisan, Jean-Marcel Dorioz
An essential aspect of eutrophication studies is to trace the ultimate origin of phosphate ions (P-PO4) associated with the solid phase of river sediments, as certain processes can make these ions available for algae. However, this is not a straightforward task because of the diversity of allochthonous and autochthonous sources that can supply P-PO4 to river sediments as well as the existence of in-stream processes that can change the speciation of these inputs and obscure the original sources. Here, we present the results of a study designed to explore the potentials, limitations and conditions for the use of the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)Op) extracted from river sediments for this type of tracing...
December 26, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107723/novel-recyclable-adsorbent-for-the-removal-of-copper-ii-and-lead-ii-from-aqueous-solution
#5
Yaolan Niu, Kan Li, Diwen Ying, Yalin Wang, Jinping Jia
Adsorbents synthesized with biopolymer have been widely used in the removal of toxic metal ions. Novel high-efficiency, recyclable, and low-cost adsorbents have received more and more attention. Chitosan and cellulose are the most abundant biopolymers in nature. Composite modified adsorbent (CSTEC) was synthesized as novel fibrous materials for the adsorption of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) ions from water in this study. The functional fiber was characterized to investigate the surface appearance, functional groups, crystallinity, and thermal stability...
January 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107719/occurrence-and-elimination-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-a-long-term-operation-integrated-surface-flow-constructed-wetland
#6
Hansun Fang, Qin Zhang, Xiangping Nie, Baowei Chen, Yuandong Xiao, Qiubai Zhou, Wei Liao, Ximei Liang
Wetland construction is a recommended domestic sewage treatment technique, owing to its simplicity and cost efficiency. Concentrations of 14 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in an integrated surface flow constructed wetland (ICW) steadily operated over 10 years were investigated in the winter and summer. Domestic sewage was observed to be the primary source of ARGs in the ICW, and 77.8% and 59.5% removal rates of total targeted ARGs in the ICW were achieved in the winter and summer, respectively. Concentrations of five ARGs (sul1, tetA, tetC, tetE, and qnrS) in the winter and of six ARGs (sul1, sul3, tetA, tetC, tetE, and qnrS) in the summer were increased throughout the treatment process...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107717/diclofenac-can-exhibit-estrogenic-modes-of-action-in-male-xenopus-laevis-and-affects-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-axis-and-mating-vocalizations
#7
Norah Johanna Efosa, Wibke Kleiner, Werner Kloas, Frauke Hoffmann
Diclofenac (DCF) is a non-steroidal analgesic and antiphlogistic. Due to its tremendous use, DCF can be found in the environment, especially in sewage, but also surface waters, ground and drinking water. Previous studies indicated that DCF can modulate the reproductive physiology of fish by altering the expression of important key enzymes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad-axis (HPG-axis) and might act as an estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). Other studies, however, demonstrated that DCF does not exhibit any estrogenicity...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107716/occurrence-speciation-and-transportation-of-heavy-metals-in-9-coastal-rivers-from-watershed-of-laizhou-bay-china
#8
Li Xu, Tieyu Wang, Jihua Wang, Anxiang Lu
The occurrence, speciation and transport of heavy metals in 9 coastal rivers from watershed of Laizhou Bay were investigated. The largest dissolved concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in water were 6.26, 2755.00, 2076.00 μg/L, respectively, much higher than several drinking water guidelines. The greatest concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd in sediments were 1462, 1602, 196, 67.2, 63.5 and 1.41 mg/kg, dw, respectively. Correlation and principal component analysis was also conducted to determine the extent between the concentrations of metals in water and sediment, as well as relevant parameters...
January 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107711/the-influence-of-dissolved-si-on-ni-precipitate-formation-at-the-kaolinite-water-interface-kinetics-drs-and-exafs-analysis
#9
Xiaoli Tan, Ge Liu, Huiyang Mei, Ming Fang, Xuemei Ren, Changlun Chen
Unraveling the formation process of Ni precipitates at molecular scale is important for understanding the fate and mobility of Ni species in the real environment. Dissolved Si presents in the natural environment ubiquitously, which can alter Ni sorption as well as incorporation into neoformed precipitates. Batch experiments show that the dissolved Si leads to a rapid increase in the Ni sorption rate and interferes with the formation of Ni precipitates. The results of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analyses suggest that the nucleation of a (Ni,Al) phyllosilicate phase involves a kaolinite-like local structure...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107710/in-vivo-assesment-of-the-genotoxic-and-oxidative-stress-effects-of-particulate-matter-on-echinogammarus-veneris
#10
Melissa Marcoccia, Lucilla Ronci, Elvira De Matthaeis, Andrea Setini, Cinzia Perrino, Silvia Canepari
Seven types of atmospheric dusts (road dust, soil dust, brake dust, desert dust, pellet ash and coke and certified material NIST1648a - urban dust) have been tested for their genotoxicity on specimens of Echinogammarus veneris, a small aquatic amphipod. Experiments were carried out in vivo, by exposing the animals for 24 h to water containing 25 mg/L of dust. Each dust has been chemically analyzed for ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon and for the soluble and insoluble fractions of elements. Non-specific damages to DNA have been evaluated by the comet test, while oxidative damages have been estimated by coupling the comet test with formamido pyrimidine DNA glycosylase reaction...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107690/time-domain-nmr-as-a-new-process-monitoring-method-for-characterization-of-pharmaceutical-hydrates
#11
Stefanie Ulrike Schumacher, Benno Rothenhäusler, Alf Willmann, Jürgen Thun, Regina Moog, Martin Kuentz
Hydrates are of great pharmaceutical relevance and even though they have been characterized thoroughly by various analytical techniques, there is barely literature available on molecular mobility of the hydrate water studied by NMR relaxation in the time domain. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of differentiating hydration states of drugs by (1)H time domain NMR (TD-NMR) regarding spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times (T2 and T1) using benchtop equipment. Caffeine and theophylline were selected as model compounds and binary mixtures of hydrate to anhydrate were analyzed for each drug using a spin echo and inversion recovery pulse sequence...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107635/atomic-number-dependent-structural-transitions-in-ordered-lanthanide-monolayers-role-of-the-hydration-shell
#12
Mitchell Miller, Miaoqi Chu, Binhua Lin, Wei Bu, Pulak Dutta
When lanthanide ions are present in the aqueous subphase of a floating monolayer (Langmuir film), the ions attracted to the interface will in many cases form commensurate and/or incommensurate two-dimensional structures. These lattices depend not only on the molecules forming the monolayer, but also on the atomic number of the lanthanide, with a sudden change between the lattice formed by lighter ions and that formed by heavier ions under a given monolayer. Since there are few other relevant differences between the lanthanides, we attribute the Z-dependent 'transition' to the number of water molecules associated with each ion...
January 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107621/a-molecular-dynamics-study-of-water-flow-across-multiple-layers-of-pristine-oxidized-and-mixed-regions-of-graphene-oxide
#13
Jon Alexander Lewis Willcox, Hyung J Kim
A molecular dynamics graphene oxide model is used to shed light on commonly overlooked features of graphene oxide membranes. The model features both perpendicular and parallel water flow across multiple sheets of pristine and/or oxidized graphene to simulate "brick-and-mortar" microstructures. Additionally, regions of pristine/oxidized graphene overlap which have thus far been overlooked in the literature are explored. Differences in orientational and hydrogen-bonding features between adjacent layers of water in this mixed region are found to be even more prominent than differences between pristine and oxidized channels...
January 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107617/fabrication-of-nanostructured-mesoporous-germanium-for-applications-in-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#14
Hazem H Abdelmaksoud, Taryn M Guinan, Nicolas H Voelcker
Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is a high-throughput analytical technique ideally suited for small molecule detection from different bodily fluids (e.g. saliva, urine, and blood plasma). Many SALDI-MS substrates require complex fabrication processes and further surface modifications. Furthermore, some substrates show instability upon exposure to ambient conditions and need to be kept under special inert conditions. We have successfully optimized mesoporous germanium (meso-pGe) using bipolar electrochemical etching (BEE) and efficiently applied meso-pGe as a SALDI-MS substrate for the detection of cocaine in the context of workplace, roadside, and anti-addictive drug compliance...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107616/superhydrophilic-antireflective-periodic-mesoporous-organosilica-coating-on-flexible-polyimide-substrate-with-strong-abrasion-resistance
#15
Jing Wang, Cong Zhang, Chunming Yang, Ce Zhang, Mengchao Wang, Jing Zhang, Yao Xu
Superhydrophilic antireflective periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) coating was prepared on flexible polyimide substrate via solvent-evaporation-induced self-assembly (SEISA) method, in which tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and a special bridged silsesquioxane were used as reactants. The bridged silsesquioxane, EG-BSQ, was synthesized through the stoichiometric reaction between 3-glycidoxyporpyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and ethylene diamine (EDA) at 60 (○)C with no catalyst. Under the influence of surfactant, TEOS and EG-BSQ co-condensed and enclosed the ordered mesporous in the coating...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107563/are-commercial-sweet-cherry-rootstocks-adapted-to-climate-change-short-term-waterlogging-and-co2-effects-on-sweet-cherry-cv-burlat
#16
Margarita Pérez-Jiménez, María Hernández-Munuera, M Carmen Piñero, Gregorio López-Ortega, Francisco M Del Amor
High CO2 is able to ameliorate some negative effects due to climate change and intensify others. This study involves the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar 'Burlat' grafted on the 'Mariana 2624', 'Adara' and 'LC 52' rootstocks. In a climate chamber at two CO2 concentrations: ambient (400 µmol mol(-1) ) and elevated (800 µmol mol(-1) ), the plants were submitted to waterlogging for seven days, followed by seven days of recovery after drainage. Waterlogging drastically decreased the rate of photosynthesis, significantly endangering plant survival, particularly for the 'LC 52' and 'Adara' rootstocks...
January 20, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107553/protective-effect-of-n-n-dimethylthiourea-against-stress-induced-gastric-mucosal-lesions-in-rats
#17
Yoshiji Ohta, Koji Yashiro, Takashi Kobayashi, Kazuo Inui, Junji Yoshino
In the present study, we examined the protective effect of N,N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of hydroxyl radical (•OH), against water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. When male Wistar rats fasted for 24 h were exposed to WIRS for 3 h, gastric mucosal lesions occurred with increases in the levels of gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase, an index of tissue neutrophil infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta), lipid peroxide, and NOx (nitrite/nitrate), an index of nitric oxide synthesis, and decreases in the levels of gastric mucosal non-protein SH and vitamin C and gastric adherent mucus...
January 20, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107539/towards-cost-effective-operational-monitoring-systems-for-complex-waters-analyzing-small-scale-coastal-processes-with-optical-transmissometry
#18
Marta Ramírez-Pérez, Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Sonja Wiegmann, Elena Torrecilla, Raul Bardaji, Rüdiger Röttgers, Astrid Bracher, Jaume Piera
The detection and prediction of changes in coastal ecosystems require a better understanding of the complex physical, chemical and biological interactions, which involves that observations should be performed continuously. For this reason, there is an increasing demand for small, simple and cost-effective in situ sensors to analyze complex coastal waters at a broad range of scales. In this context, this study seeks to explore the potential of beam attenuation spectra, c(λ), measured in situ with an advanced-technology optical transmissometer, for assessing temporal and spatial patterns in the complex estuarine waters of Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) as a test site...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107511/environmental-enrichment-blunts-ethanol-consumption-after-restraint-stress-in-c57bl-6-mice
#19
Priscila Marianno, Karina Possa Abrahao, Rosana Camarini
Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h) or continuous (24 h) EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress) to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107505/septic-systems-contribution-to-phosphorus-in-shallow-groundwater-field-scale-studies-using-conventional-drainfield-designs
#20
Sara Mechtensimer, Gurpal S Toor
Septic systems can be a potential source of phosphorus (P) in groundwater and contribute to eutrophication in aquatic systems. Our objective was to investigate P transport from two conventional septic systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench) to shallow groundwater. Two new in-situ drainfields (6.1 m long by 0.61 m wide) with a 3.72 m2 infiltrative surface were constructed. The drip dispersal drainfield was constructed by placing 30.5 cm commercial sand on top of natural soil and the gravel trench drainfield was constructed by placing 30...
2017: PloS One
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