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Tianyuan Peng, Zachary Wooke, Nicola L B Pohl
Acidic hydrolysis is commonly used as a first step to break down oligo- and polysaccharides into monosaccharide units for structural analysis. While easy to set up and amenable to mass spectrometry detection, acid hydrolysis is not without its drawbacks. For example, ring-destruction side reactions and degradation products, along with difficulties in optimizing conditions from analyte to analyte, greatly limits its broad utility. Herein we report studies on a hydrogen peroxide/CuGGH metallopeptide-based glycosidase mimetic design for a more efficient and controllable carbohydrate hydrolysis...
February 3, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Tiezheng Li, Chao Li, David N Quan, William E Bentley, Lai-Xi Wang
Chemoenzymatic glycan remodeling of antibodies using an endoglycosidase and its mutant is emerging as an attractive approach for producing homogeneous antibody glycoforms. We report in this paper a site-specific covalent immobilization of the endoglycosidases (Endo-S2 and its glycosynthase mutant D184M) using a recombinant microbial transglutaminase (MTG) and evaluation of the immobilized enzymes in deglycosylation and glycosylation of a therapeutic antibody. The site-specific covalent immobilization was achieved by introduction of a Q-tag at the C-terminus of the recombinant enzymes followed by conjugation of the enzymes to a primary amine-containing solid support through MTG-catalyzed transglutamination...
February 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Juliana Jendiroba Faraoni, Carmen Victoria Torres Toro, Laís Lopes Machado de Matos, Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate how casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) associated with Nd:YAG or Diode laser affects dentin exposed to hydrochloric acid (HCl) with or without tooth brushing. DESIGN: One hundred and sixty human root dentin blocks were selected after they were initially eroded with liquid HCl (pH 1.2) 3x for one day. The blocks were divided into the following groups: G1- liquid HCl (HCl-l), G2- HCl-l + brushing, G3- gaseous HCl (HCl-g), and G4- HCl-g + brushing...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Jihoon Kim, Ji-Youn Chang, Yoon-Young Kim, Moon-Jong Kim, Hong-Seop Kho
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid on its viscosity and enzymatic activities of lysozyme and peroxidase in solution and on the hydroxyapatite surface. DESIGN: Hyaluronic acids of four different molecular weights (10 kDa, 100 kDa, 1 MDa, and 2 MDa), hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine lactoperoxidase, and human whole saliva were used. Viscosity values of hyaluronic acids were measured using a cone-and-plate viscometer at six different concentrations (0...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Ahmad Abdolmaleki, Mehrdad Dadsetani, Abedin Zabardasti
The variations in nonlinear optical activity (NLO) of anthracene (C14 H10 ) was investigated via intermolecular interactions between C14 H10 and HX molecules (XF, Cl and Br) using B3LYP-D3 method at 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The stabilization of those complexes was investigated via vibrational analysis, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, molecular electrostatic potential, natural bond orbitals and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) analysis. Furthermore, the optical spectra and the first hyperpolarizabilities of C14 H10 ⋯HX complexes were computed...
February 16, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Mengyue Zhang, Ying Wang, Hongmei Zhang, Jian Cao, Zhenghao Fei, Yanqing Wang
The effects of six imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with different alkyl chain length ([Cn Mim]Cl, n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) on the structure and functions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by multi-spectral methods and molecular docking. ILs with the longer alkyl chain length have the stronger binding interaction with BSA and the greater conformational damage to protein. The effects of ILs on the functional properties of BSA were further studied by the determination of non-enzyme esterase activity, β-fibrosis and other properties of BSA...
February 14, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Khaled R A Abdellatif, Wael A A Fadaly, Yaseen A M M Elshaier, Waleed A M Ali, Gehan M Kamel
Twelve new compounds of 1,3,4-trisubstituted-pyrazole derivatives possessing two cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pharmacophoric moieties (SO2 Me or/and SO2 NH2 ) 11a-c, 12a-c, 13a-c and 14a-c were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their COX inhibition, anti-inflammatory activity, ulcerogenic liability. All compounds were more selective for COX-2 isozyme and showed good in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The bisaminosulphonyl derivatives (14a-c) were the most COX-2 selective compounds (S.I. = 9.87, 9...
February 16, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Muhammad Bilal Shakoor, Irshad Bibi, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Farrakh Nawaz, Abida Farooqi, Ravi Naidu, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Ghulam Murtaza, Andreas Lüttge
In this study, we tested 123 groundwater wells from five different areas of Punjab, Pakistan for arsenic (As) contamination level and species, as well as delineated hydrogeochemical behaviour of As in aquifers. Results revealed that 75% and 41% of the groundwater wells exceeded the safe As limit of World Health Organisation (WHO, 10 μg L-1 ) and Pakistan-EPA (50 μg L-1 ), respectively. Arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) spanned 0-80% and 20-100% of total As (1.2-206 μg L-1 ), respectively...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Pinpanit Boonchuay, Charin Techapun, Noppol Leksawasdi, Phisit Seesuriyachan, Prasert Hanmoungjai, Masanori Watanabe, Shinji Takenaka, Thanongsak Chaiyaso
An integrated process for xylooligosaccharides (XOs) and bioethanol production from corncob was investigated. XOs were produced by a consecutive process of KOH treatment and hydrolysis by an in-house thermostable endo-xylanase from Streptomyces thermovulgaris. XO yields of 0.15 g/gKOH-treated corncob (22.13 g/L) and 0.52 g/graw corncob of cellulose-rich corncob (CRC) were obtained. After 96 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, CRC hydrolysate contained 62.16, 51.21, 10.03 and 0.92 g/L of total sugar, glucose, xylose and arabinose, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hop V Phan, Richard Wickham, Sihuang Xie, James A McDonald, Stuart J Khan, Hao H Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Long D Nghiem
A pilot-scale study was conducted to investigate the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Of the 44 TrOCs monitored, 24 were detected in all primary sludge samples. Phase distribution of TrOCs was correlated well with their hydrophobicity (>67% mass in the solid phase when LogD > 1.5). The pilot-scale anaerobic digester achieved a steady performance with a specific methane yield of 0.39-0.92 L/gVSremoved and methane composition of 63-65% despite considerable variation in the primary sludge...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Benjamin A Musa Bandowe, Moritz Bigalke, Jozef Kobza, Wolfgang Wilcke
Little is known about oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) and azaarenes (AZAs) in forest soils. We sampled all horizons of forest soils from five locations at increasing distances from an Al plant in Slovakia, and determined their polycyclic aromatic compound (PACs) concentrations. The ∑29PAHs concentrations were highest in the Oa and lowest in the Oi horizon, while the ∑14OPAHs and ∑4AZAs concentrations did not show a consistent vertical distribution among the organic horizons. The concentration ratios of PAHs and OPAHs between deeper O horizons and their overlying horizon (enrichment factors) were positively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficients (KOW ) at several locations...
February 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vadim V Annenkov, Elena N Danilovtseva, Viktor A Pal'shin, Olga N Verkhozina, Tatyana A Shishlyannikova, Graham J Hickman, Carole C Perry
Siliceous frustules of diatom algae contain unique long-chain polyamines, including those having more than six nitrogen atoms. These polyamines participate in the formation of the siliceous frustules of the diatoms but their precise physiological role is not clear. The main hypotheses include formation of a polyamine and polyphosphate supramolecular matrix. We have synthesized novel fluorescent dyes from a synthetic oligomeric mixture of polyamines and the fluorophore 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole. The long polyamine chain ensures the high affinity of these dyes to silica, which allows their application in the staining of siliceous materials, such as valves of diatom algae and fossilized samples from sediments...
February 17, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Paradorn Muangnil, Saravut Satitsri, Kwanruthai Tadpetch, Patchreenart Saparpakorn, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Supa Hannongbua, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Chatchai Muanprasat
Overstimulation of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of secretory diarrheas, which remain an important global health problem. This study aimed to identify inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion from a library of fungus-derived compounds and to evaluate their pharmacological properties and anti-diarrheal utility. We identified zearalenone, 7'-dehydrozearalenone and 8'-hydroxyzearalenone isolated from the seagrass-derived fungus Fusarium sp. PSU-ES123 as inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells...
February 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Meng Sun, Kelei Mu, Qingquan Wei, Zhe Yin, Wenyue Yan, Lu Sun, Yu Shao
Highly efficient heterostructured stannic disulfide/stannic anhydride (SnS2 /SnO2 ) hybrids with different morphologies were fabricated via a two-step hydrothermal method. The composition and morphology of the obtained products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The SEM images showed that core-shell structured SnS2 /SnO2 nanotubes and hierarchical SnS2 flowers decorated with SnO2 particles were fabricated under different synthetic conditions...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Wenyu Wang, Qinyan Yue, Ruihua Li, Fan Bu, Xue Shen, Baoyu Gao
This study investigated membrane fouling in a coagulation/ultrafiltration (C-UF) process by comparing the floc properties and humic acid (HA) removal efficiency of three hydrous Al(III) species (Ala , Alb , and Alc ). The results indicated that the coagulation and membrane mechanisms were different for all three Al species because of the differences in floc properties. The HA removal efficiency increased with increasing Al dosage until an equilibrium was reached at the optimal dosage of 6 mg L-1 . In addition, membrane fouling gradually decreased as the Al dosages increased...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Karianne S Enerstvedt, Magne O Sydnes, Eivind Larssen, Daniela M Pampanin
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known contaminants, ubiquitously present in the habitat and spawning areas for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The Atlantic cod is a key species and a globally important food source, thus continuous monitoring of PAHs is considered highly valuable to ensure ecosystem sustainability and human food safety. PAH adducts to plasma proteins are applied as sensitive biomarkers of PAH exposure in humans and other species, thus the presence of PAH protein adducts in Atlantic cod plasma was investigated to identify PAH protein adduct biomarker candidates of exposure to PAHs...
February 16, 2018: Chemosphere
F N J Frakking, W S Bril, J C Sinnige, J E van 't Klooster, B A W de Jong, E J van Hannen, M Tersmette
BACKGROUND: A large outbreak of three epidemic vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) clones affected our hospital for almost two years. AIM: To describe the strategy to successfully control this outbreak and eradicate VRE from our hospital. METHODS: Infection control interventions started after detection of VRE in three patients. After ongoing transmission despite isolation precautions, cleaning and contact tracing, hospital-wide surveillance was started...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Berit P Jensen, Rajneeta Saraf, Jing Ma, Sarah Berry, Cameron C Grant, Carlos A Camargo, Christiaan W Sies
BACKGROUND: Demand for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is growing and dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is attractive as samples are easier to collect, transport and store. METHODS: A 2D LC-MS/MS assay without derivatization was developed. DBS punches (3.2 mm) were ultrasonicated with d6 -25OHD3 in 70% methanol followed by hexane extraction, dry-down and reconstitution. The assay was validated and applied to two studies comparing whole blood adult DBS with serum samples (n = 40) and neonatal whole blood DBS with cord serum samples (n = 80)...
February 20, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Patryk Oleszczuk, Michał Kołtowski
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biochar aging on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (the total content - Ctot , and the freely dissolved - Cfree ) in biochar and its ecotoxicity. Two biochars (BCS and BCM) with varying properties were aged for 420 days at different temperatures (-20 °C, 4 °C, 20 °C, 70 °C), at a variable temperature (-20/20 °C), in the presence of nutrients, and in the presence of inoculum and nutrients. After the aging process, Ctot and Cfree PAHs were determined in samples obtained and an ecotoxicological analysis was performed, which involved tests with bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), invertebrates (Folsomia candida) and plants (Lepidium sativum)...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yang Liu, Yu Zhang, Shao-Nong Chen, J Brent Friesen, Dejan Nikolić, Mary P Choules, James B McAlpine, David C Lankin, Richard A Gemeinhart, Guido F Pauli
Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent (NADES) species can exhibit unexpected solubilizing power for lipophilic molecules despite their simple composition, hydrophilic organic molecules and water. In the present study, the unique properties of NADES species were applied in combination with a model polymer system: a hydrophilic chitosan/alginate hydrogel. Briefly, NADES species (e.g., mannose-dimethylurea-water, 2:5:5, mole/mole) formed matrices to 1) dissolve lipophilic molecules (e.g., curcumin), 2) load lipophilic molecule(s) into the hydrogel, and 3) spontaneously vacate from the system...
February 20, 2018: Fitoterapia
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