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E R Pansarin, P J Bergamo, M J Ferreira-Caliman
● Flowering plants often depend on the attraction of biotic pollinators for sexual reproduction. Consequently, the emergence and maintenance of selected floral attributes related to pollinator attraction and rewarding are driven by pollinators pressures. ● In this paper we explore the effect of pollinators, rainfall, and temperature and air humidity on the reproduction of a Brazilian terrestrial orchid, Cranichis candida based on data of phenology, flower resources, olfactory and visual attraction cues, pollinators and breeding system...
October 20, 2017: Plant Biology
Deeksha Munnur, Ivan Ahel
ADP-ribosylation is a chemical modification of macromolecules that plays an important role in regulation of quintessential biological processes such as DNA repair, transcription, chromatin remodelling, stress response, apoptosis, bacterial metabolism and many others. ADP-ribosylation is carried out by ADP-ribosyltransferase proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) that transfer either monomer or polymers of ADP-ribose onto the molecular targets by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) as a cofactor...
October 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
Chia-Huang Chang, Ching-Jung Yu, Jung-Chieh Du, Hsien-Chih Chiou, Hsin-Chang Chen, Winnie Yang, Ming-Yi Chung, Ying-Sheue Chen, Betau Hwang, I-Fang Mao, Mei-Lien Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify the association between organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to oxidative stress and genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled 93 children with ADHD and 112 control children in north Taiwan. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of OPs and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed. Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) were identified...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Research
Michael K Denk, Nicholas S Milutinović
The insecticide DDT is an omnipresent environmental contaminant and an ongoing toxicological concern. The recent discovery that methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) models are capable of reducing a range of halocarbons to hydrocarbons under biomimetic conditions has prompted us to investigate the possible role of MTHF in the metabolism of DDT. We now report that the reaction of MTHF models with DDT produces no less than five known in vivo metabolites of DDT, namely DDD, DDE, DDMU, DBP, and DDM. The capability of the MTHF models to produce the full spectrum of known DDT dehalogenation products is strong evidence that the mechanistically obscure metabolism of DDT may involve MTHF...
October 11, 2017: Chemosphere
Xiaohua Ren, Huanhuan Guo, Jinkui Feng, Pengchao Si, Lin Zhang, Lijie Ci
3D porous N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) aerogels were synthesized by a hydrothermal reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with urea and following freeze-drying process. N-rGO aerogels have a high BET surface of 499.70 m(2)/g and a high N doping content (5.93-7.46 at%) including three kinds of N (graphitic, pyridinic and pyrrolic). Their high catalytic performance for phenol oxidation in aqueous solution was investigated by catalytic activation of persulfate (PS). We have demonstrated that N-rGO aerogels are promising metal-free catalysts for phenol removal...
October 15, 2017: Chemosphere
Hou-Yun Yang, Bai-Ling Bao, Jing Liu, Yuan Qin, Yi-Ran Wang, Kui-Zu Su, Jun-Cheng Han, Yang Mu
This study evaluated the effect of temperature on methane production by CO2 reduction during microbial electrosynthesis (MES) with a mixed-culture biocathode. Reactor performance, in terms of the amount and rate of methane production, current density, and coulombic efficiency, was compared at different temperatures. The microbial properties of the biocathode at each temperature were also analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that the optimum temperature for methane production from CO2 reduction in MES with a mixed-culture cathode was 50°C, with the highest amount and rate of methane production of 2...
October 2, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
David E Heppner, Milena Hristova, Tomoaki Ida, Ana Mijuskovic, Christopher M Dustin, Virág Bogdándi, Jon M Fukuto, Tobias P Dick, Péter Nagy, Jianing Li, Takaaki Akaike, Albert van der Vliet
The reversible oxidation of protein cysteine residues (Cys-SH) is a key reaction in cellular redox signaling involving initial formation of sulfenic acids (Cys-SOH), which are commonly detected using selective dimedone-based probes. Here, we report that significant portions of dimedone-tagged proteins are susceptible to cleavage by DTT reflecting the presence of perthiosulfenic acid species (Cys-SSOH) due to similar oxidation of hydropersulfides (Cys-SSH), since Cys-S-dimedone adducts are stable toward DTT...
October 9, 2017: Redox Biology
Jisook Kim, Irene N Lee
In this paper, we report the inactivation of copper containing bovine plasma amine oxidase (BPAO) by a series of saturated alkylamines containing halogen atoms at γ-position, which are 1,1,1-trihalo-3-aminopropane, 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-3-aminopropane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2-hydroxy-3-aminopropane, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(2-phenethyloxy)-3-aminopropane. The trihalo-2-hydroxypropylamine analogs exhibited a time-dependent inactivation behavior of BPAO, with 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxy-3-aminopropane as the most efficient inactivator...
October 16, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Jie Zhang, Yue-Hai Wang, Quan-Yuan Wei, Xiao-Jia Du, Yong-Shui Qu
As the most representative of lignocellulosic materials, corn stalk (CS) will be a great candidate to produce xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). Owing to the high impurity content of the XOS produced by directly enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan extracted from CS, subsequent refining steps are essential. The present study was aimed to investigate desorption during ethanol elution to improve the quality and antioxidant activity of XOS from CS. The desorption was systematically investigated after optimizing the elution conditions...
October 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Virginia Montiel Corona, Elías Razo-Flores
Continuous H2 and CH4 production in a two-stage process to increase energy recovery from agave bagasse enzymatic-hydrolysate was studied. In the first stage, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and stirring speed on volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) was evaluated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); by controlling the homoacetogenesis with the agitation speed and maintaining an OLR of 44 g COD/L-d, it was possible to reach a VHPR of 6 L H2/L-d, equivalent to 1.34 kJ/g bagasse...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Kun Dai, Fang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Raymond Jianxiong Zeng
Alkaline mixed culture fermentation (MCF) is a promising technology for reducing organic waste and producing biochemicals. However, chemostat metabolite spectra that are necessary for constructing a model and analyzing factors are seldom reported. In the present study, the effects of pH on the metabolites distribution in mesophilic (35 °C), thermophilic (55 °C), and extreme-thermophilic (70 °C) alkaline MCF were demonstrated. A chemical oxygen demand balance above 80% was achieved, and the main metabolites included acetate, ethanol, propionate, lactate, and formate...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Chunhui Zhao, Hui Mu, Yuxiao Zhao, Liguo Wang, Bin Zuo
This study firstly evaluated the microbial role when choosing the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) as microbial and nutritional regulators to improve the biomethanation of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW). Results showed that the enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and Firmicutes and Spirochaeta in the AGS were responsible for the enhanced methane yield. A synthetic waste representing the mixture of WAS and FVW was then used to investigate the influences of different substrate composition on methane generations...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Cheng Cheng, Zhen Zhou, Zhan Qiu, Jiyuan Yang, Wei Wu, Hongjian Pang
Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment and packing carriers on sludge reduction, settleability, dewaterability and microbial community structure in the anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) were investigated with three anaerobic reactors operated in parallel. Ultrasonication from 3.65% in the ASSR to 5.08%, and packing carriers further enhanced the efficiency to 19.2%. Ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge decreased oxidation-reduction potential in ASSR and enhanced the release of intracellular substances. The deterioration of sludge settleability and dewaterability in the ASSR after ultrasonic pretreatment was improved by packing carriers...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Maktum Muharja, Fitri Junianti, Dian Ranggina, Tantular Nurtono, Arief Widjaja
The objective of this work is to develop an integrated green process of subcritical water (SCW), enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of coconut husk (CCH) to biohydrogen. The maximum sugar yield was obtained at mild severity factor. This was confirmed by the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The tendency of the changing of sugar yield as a result of increasing severity factor was opposite to the tendency of pH change. It was found that CO2 gave a different tendency of severity factor compared to N2 as the pressurizing gas...
October 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhiwen Zeng, Hongsheng Wang, Yosry Morsi, Xiumei Mo
Surgical adhesive is the optimal candidate for the replacement of traditional mechanical wound closure. In our paper, mussel adhesive proteins inspired hydrogel adhesive was prepared with 3, 4-dihydroxyphyenylanine acrylamide (DOPA-AA), poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDAA) and thiolated chitosan (CSS) by UV irradiation. DOPA-AA, containing catechol group and vinyl group, was successful synthesized and characterized by FTIR and (1)HNMR. The gelation time, equilibrium water content, degradation, materials properties and adhesive strength of the hydrogels were studied...
October 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yanqiu Du, Chunming Li, Jing Jin, Chao Li, Wei Jiang
Amino acid-based P(acryloyl-6-aminocaproic acid) (PAACA) brushes were fabricated on polyisobutylene (PIB) surface combined with plasma pre-treatment and UV-induced grafting polymerization to construct an antifouling and functional material. The hydrophilicity and hemocompatibility of PIB were largely improved by surface modification of AACA, which were confirmed by water contact angle and platelet adhesion, respectively. PAACA brushes were precisely located onto the surface of PIB to create a patterned PIB-g-PAACA structure, and then the carboxyl groups on PAACA was activated to immobilize functional protein-Concanavalin A (Con A)...
October 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xiao Sun, Jinglun Li, Hongjing Zhao, Yu Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Yizhi Shao, Yuan Xue, Mingwei Xing
Arsenic or copper is one of the most highly toxic pollution that can cause dysfunction to brains, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study is to investigate the mechanisms of arsenic or/and copper-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and autophagy in chicken brains and elucidate the interactions between arsenic and copper. A total of 72 1-day-old Hy-line chickens were divided into four groups (18 chickens per group) treated with 30mg/kg arsenic trioxide (As2O3) or/and 300mg/kg copper sulfate (CuSO4) for 12weeks...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Yang Liu, Yahui Yang, Qiong Liu, Yaomin Li, Jie Lin, Wenzhang Li, Jie Li
H2O, as a product of reduced reaction by H2, may affect the chemical equilibrium according to the changing of the pressure ratio of H2O/H2 in the system. Meanwhile, the performance may also be influenced by adsorption of H2O on the surface of the material. In this work, the effect of H2O is studied by reducing plate-like array WO3 films under different pressure ratio of H2O/H2. It is controlled by changing the water temperature in the washing bottle through which the Ar/H2 (80:20) gas flows. The higher water vapor pressure not only decreases the content of W(5+) but also increases the content of surface hydroxyl groups in the WO3 films...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Jiali Lv, Jun Liu, Jinfeng Zhang, Kai Dai, Changhao Liang, Zhongliao Wang, Guangping Zhu
The design and control of effective, sustainable, cheap, and reusable photocatalysts are crucial to the development of solar energy conversion to hydrogen (H2) for solving environmental problems. The cadmium sulfide/diethylenetriamine (CdS/DETA) hybrid in a single crystalline structure was achieved by a solvothermal approach. The organic-inorganic CdS/DETA hybrid shows high performance and satisfactory stability for H2 production under visible-light irradiation. The synergetic chemical coupling effect between CdS and DETA leads to a marked increase in the H2 generation rate and the apparent quantum yield...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Haixin Zhao, Shu Cui, Lan Yang, Guodong Li, Nan Li, Xiaotian Li
Photocatalysts with a hierarchically porous structure have attracted considerable attention owing to their wide pore size distribution and high surface area, which enhance the efficiency of transporting species to active sites. In this study, hierarchically meso-macroporous TiO2 photocatalysts decorated with highly dispersed CdS nanoparticles were synthesized via hydrolysis, followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The textural mesopores and interconnected pore framework provided more accessible active sites and efficient mass transport for the photocatalytic process...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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