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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636230/quantification-of-fatty-acids-in-erythrocytes-and-plasma-by-fast-gas-chromatography
#1
Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Sagar K Thakkar, Isabelle Masserey-Elmelegy, William Bousi, Patric Fontannaz, Francesca Giuffrida
As a result of the heterogeneous nature of lipid classes in complex biological matrices such as plasma and erythrocytes, it is imperative to have a robust and validated methodology for fatty acid quantification. The effective method presented here combines available methodology of fast gas chromatography and an improvement of the sample preparation methodology before injection into the gas chromatograph. This methodology ensures complete transesterification and quantification of total and individual fatty acids (and not only in relative amounts) by addition of internal standards...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636148/magneto-structural-characterization-of-oxalamide-dihalo-bridged-copper-dimers-intra-and-interdimer-interactions-studied-by-single-crystal-esr-spectroscopy
#2
Dijana Zilic, Debdeep Maity, Mario Cetina, Kresimir Molcanov, Zoran Dzolic, Mirta Herak
The detailed single crystal electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis of oxalamide complexes with halogen-bridged copper dimers, supported by X-ray, magnetic susceptibility and powder ESR studies, is reported. Four complexes with two different ligands were synthesized: [CuLA(μ-X)]₂ and [CuLV(μ-X)]₂, where LA = N-(L-alanine methyl ester)-N'-((2-pyridine-2-yl)methyl)oxalamide and LV=N-(L-valine methyl ester)-N'-((2-pyridine-2-yl)methyl)oxalamide, while X=Cl or Br. X-ray analysis shows that geometry at each copper(II) ion is square pyramidal while two pyramids share one base-to-apex edge with parallel basal planes...
June 21, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632381/molecular-modeling-of-the-interactions-between-carborane-containing-analogs-of-indomethacin-and-cyclooxygenase-2
#3
Menyhárt-Botond Sárosi, Wilma Neumann, Terry P Lybrand, Evamarie Hey-Hawkins
Molecular modeling studies were performed in order to gain insight into the binding mode and interaction of carborane-containing derivatives of indomethacin methyl ester with the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX 2) isoform, and to assess the predictive capability of the computational tools available for studying carboranes, a unique class of pharmacophores. Docking simulations were able to identify the correct binding mode and reproduced the experimental binding affinity trends with encouraging quality. Nevertheless, the docking results needed to be verified through extensive and resource intensive quantum chemical calculations, and the interpretation of the theoretical results would not have been straightforward without the supporting experimental data...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631807/compositional-analyses-and-shelf-life-modeling-of-njangsa-ricinodendron-heudelotii-seed-oil-using-the-weibull-hazard-analysis
#4
Harold K Abaidoo-Ayin, Prince G Boakye, Kerby C Jones, Victor T Wyatt, Samuel A Besong, Stephen E Lumor
This study investigated the compositional characteristics and shelf-life of Njangsa seed oil (NSO). Oil from Njangsa had a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of which alpha eleostearic acid (α-ESA), an unusual conjugated linoleic acid was the most prevalent (about 52%). Linoleic acid was also present in appreciable amounts (approximately 34%). Our investigations also indicated that the acid-catalyzed transesterification of NSO resulted in lower yields of α-ESA methyl esters, due to isomerization, a phenomenon which was not observed under basic conditions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631070/lipids-of-the-tail-gland-body-and-muzzle-fur-of-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes
#5
Stuart McLean, Noel W Davies, David S Nichols
The tail gland of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) secretes lipids containing volatile terpenes used in social communication. We have analysed lipids extracted from fur of the tail gland, body (flanks) and muzzle of foxes. GC-MS showed a novel group of iso-valerate and tiglate monoesters of alkane-1,2-diols (C18:0-22:0). There was also a larger group of Type II diesters in which a second, longer chain, fatty acid (FA) was attached to the free alcohol group. LC-MS showed the full range of diol diesters, mostly C36:0-50:0, with smaller amounts of the corresponding mono-unsaturated tiglate esters...
June 19, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630908/biofuel-by-isomerizing-metathesis-of-rapeseed-oil-esters-with-bio-ethylene-for-use-in-contemporary-diesel-engines
#6
Kai F Pfister, Sabrina Baader, Mathias Baader, Silvia Berndt, Lukas J Goossen
Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and (bio)ethylene are converted into biofuel with an evenly rising boiling point curve, which fulfills the strict boiling specifications prescribed by the fuel standard EN 590 for modern (petro)diesel engines. Catalyzed by a Pd/Ru system, RME undergoes isomerizing metathesis in a stream of ethylene gas, leading to a defined olefin, monoester, and diester blend. This innovative refining concept requires negligible energy input (60°C) and no solvents and does not produce waste...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629324/residual-transpiration-as-a-component-of-salinity-stress-tolerance-mechanism-a-case-study-for-barley
#7
Md Hasanuzzaman, Noel W Davies, Lana Shabala, Meixue Zhou, Tim J Brodribb, Sergey Shabala
BACKGROUND: While most water loss from leaf surfaces occurs via stomata, part of this loss also occurs through the leaf cuticle, even when the stomata are fully closed. This component, termed residual transpiration, dominates during the night and also becomes critical under stress conditions such as drought or salinity. Reducing residual transpiration might therefore be a potentially useful mechanism for improving plant performance when water availability is reduced (e.g. under saline or drought stress conditions)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628981/biodiesel-synthesis-from-calophyllum-inophyllum-oil-with-different-supercritical-fluids
#8
Neha Lamba, Kaveri Gupta, Jayant M Modak, Giridhar Madras
Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) is primarily synthesized using edible vegetable oils and methanol with a catalyst. However, in the present study, FAMEs were synthesized from a non-edible oil (Calophyllum inophyllum also called as sura honne, Punnagam, Alexandrian Laurel) in different supercritical fluids: methanol (MeOH), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), methyl acetate (MeOAc) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) non-catalytically. Reactions were performed from 523K to 673K at 30MPa with a molar ratio of 40:1 with times varying from 3min to 3h...
June 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628891/synthesis-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-6-sulfo-6-deoxy-d-glucosamine-and-its-derivatives
#9
Kornelia Skarbek, Iwona Gabriel, Piotr Szweda, Marek Wojciechowski, Muna A Khan, Boris Görke, Sławomir Milewski, Maria J Milewska
6-Sulfo-6-deoxy-D-glucosamine (GlcN6S), 6-sulfo-6-deoxy-D-glucosaminitol (ADGS) and their N-acetyl and methyl ester derivatives have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of enzymes catalyzing reactions of the UDP-GlcNAc pathway in bacteria and yeasts. GlcN6S and ADGS at micromolar concentrations inhibited glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) synthase of microbial origin. The former was also inhibitory towards fungal GlcN6P N-acetyl transferase, but at millimolar concentrations. Both compounds and their N-acetyl derivatives exhibited antimicrobial in vitro activity, with MICs in the 0...
June 12, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626449/characterization-of-feruloyl-esterases-produced-by-the-four-lactobacillus-species-l-amylovorus-l-acidophilus-l-farciminis-and-l-fermentum-isolated-from-ensiled-corn-stover
#10
Zhenshang Xu, Huiying He, Susu Zhang, Tingting Guo, Jian Kong
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play important roles in silage fermentation, which depends on the production of sufficient organic acids to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms. However, LAB are not able to degrade cellulose and hemicellulose. Bacteria and fibrolytic enzymes are usually used as inoculants to improve the silage quality and digestibility. In the present study, we isolated four Lactobacillus strains (L. amylovorus CGMCC 11056, L. acidophilus CCTCC AB2010208, L. farciminis CCTCC AB2016237 and L...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626388/increasing-n-acetylaspartate-in-the-brain-during-postnatal-myelination-does-not-cause-the-cns-pathologies-of-canavan-disease
#11
Abhilash P Appu, John R Moffett, Peethambaran Arun, Sean Moran, Vikram Nambiar, Jishnu K S Krishnan, Narayanan Puthillathu, Aryan M A Namboodiri
Canavan disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA), a deacetylase that catabolizes N-acetylaspartate (NAA). The precise involvement of elevated NAA in the pathogenesis of Canavan disease is an ongoing debate. In the present study, we tested the effects of elevated NAA in the brain during postnatal development. Mice were administered high doses of the hydrophobic methyl ester of NAA (M-NAA) twice daily starting on day 7 after birth. This treatment increased NAA levels in the brain to those observed in the brains of Nur7 mice, an established model of Canavan disease...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626132/performance-of-palm-based-c16-18-methyl-ester-sulphonate-mes-in-liquid-detergent-formulation
#12
Zulina Abd Maurad, Zainab Idris, Razmah Ghazali
Liquid detergents are more convenient than powdered detergents as they dissolve readily in water, generate less dust and dosing is easy. However, the stability of liquid detergents is an issue of concern. Therefore, the objective of this research is to study the formulation requirement to produce heavy-duty liquid detergents based on palm-based methyl esters sulphonate (MES) with desirable properties and performance. MES is produced from renewable and sustainable feedstock suitable to replace the conventional fossil-based surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulphonates (LAS)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625064/an-off-on-two-photon-fluorescent-probe-for-tracking-cell-senescence-in-vivo
#13
Beatriz Lozano-Torres, Irene Galiana, Miguel Rovira, Eva Garrido, Selim Chaib, Andrea Bernardos, Daniel Munoz-Espin, Manuel Serrano, Ramon Martinez-Manez, Felix Sancenón
A naphthalimide-based two-photon probe (AHGa) for the detection of cell senescence has been designed. The probe contains a naphthalimide core, an L-histidine methyl ester linker and an acetylated galactose bonded to one of the aromatic nitrogen atoms of the L-histidine through a hydrolysable N-glycosidic bond. Probe AHGa is transformed into AH in senescent cells resulting in an enhanced fluorescent emission intensity. Importantly, in vivo detection of senescence was validated in mice bearing tumor xenografts treated with senescence-inducing chemotherapy...
June 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624551/accumulation-of-porphyrins-in-propionibacterium-acnes-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid-and-its-esters
#14
Arisa Ogata, Yuya Hasunuma, Emii Kikuchi, Takuya Ishii, Masahiro Ishizuka, Yoshikazu Tokuoka
We have investigated the accumulation of porphyrins in Propionibacterium acnes (P.acnes) by 5-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (ALA) and its esters, ALA methyl ester hydrochloride (mALA), ALA octyl ester hydrochloride (oALA), and ALA benzyl ester hydrochloride (bALA). From the fluorescence spectra of porphyrins accumulated in P.acnes, the order of porphyrin accumulation is as follows: ALA≫mALA≈bALA>oALA (≈0). Moreover, the PDT efficacy is reduced in the order of ALA>mALA≈bALA>oALA (≈without additives)...
June 14, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622566/crosslinking-hydroxylated-reduced-graphene-oxide-with-raft-cta-a-nano-initiator-for-preparation-of-well-defined-amino-acid-based-polymer-nanohybrids
#15
Mina Namvari, Chandra S Biswas, Qiao Wang, Wenlang Liang, Florian J Stadler
Here, we demonstrate a novel reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer agent (RAFT-CTA)-modified reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (CTA-rGONSs) by crosslinking rGONSs with a RAFT-CTA via esterification reaction. These nano CTA-rGONSs were used to polymerize a hydrophobic amino acid-based methacrylamide (N-acryloyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester) monomer with different monomer/initiator ratios. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the polymer-graphene composites were thermally more stable than GO itself...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621136/three-dimensional-morphology-control-yielding-enhanced-hole-mobility-in-air-processed-organic-photovoltaics-demonstration-with-grazing-incidence-wide-angle-x-ray-scattering
#16
Levi M J Moore, Mithun Bhattacharya, Qi Wu, Sang Gil Youm, Evgueni E Nesterov, Sarah E Morgan
Polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) device performance is defined by the three-dimensional morphology of the phase separated domains in the active layer. Here, we determine the evolution of morphology through different stages of tailored solvent vapor and thermal processing techniques in air-processed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) based OPV blends. A comparative evaluation of the effect of solvent type used for vapor annealing was performed using grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy to probe the active layer morphology...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617605/arginine-based-polymer-brush-coatings-with-hydrolysis-triggered-switchable-functionalities-from-antimicrobial-cationic-to-antifouling-zwitterionic
#17
Gang Xu, Xianneng Liu, Peng Liu, Dicky Pranantyo, Koon Gee Neoh, En-Tang Kang
Arginine polymer-based coatings with switchable properties were developed on the glass slides (GS) to demonstrate the smart transition from antimicrobial (cationic) to fouling-resistant (zwitterionic) surfaces. L-arginine methyl ester-methacryloylamide (Arg-Est) and L-arginine-methacryloylamide (Arg-Me) polymer brushes were grafted from the GS surface via surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization. In comparison to the pristine GS and Arg-Me graft polymerized GS (GS-Arg-Me) surfaces, the Arg-Est polymer brushes-functionalized GS surfaces exhibit a superior antimicrobial activity...
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617576/ex-vivo-measurement-of-electrically-evoked-dopamine-release-in-zebrafish-whole-brain
#18
Mimi Shin, Thomas M Field, Chase S Stucky, Mia N Furgurson, Michael A Johnson
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have recently emerged as useful model organism for the study of neuronal function. Here, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes (FSCV) was used to measure locally-evoked dopamine release and uptake in zebrafish whole brain preparations and results were compared with those obtained from brain slices. Evoked dopamine release ([DA]max) was similar in whole brain and sagittal brain slice preparations (0.49 ± 0.13 µM in whole brain and 0.59 ± 0.28 µM in brain slices)...
June 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612980/copper-catalyzed-oxidative-dehydrogenative-c-sp3-h-bond-amination-of-cyclo-alkanes-using-nh-free-heterocycles-as-amine-sources
#19
Chang-Sheng Wang, Xiao-Feng Wu, Pierre H Dixneuf, Jean-Francois Soule
A copper-catalyzed oxidative C(sp3)-H/N-H coupling of NH-heterocycles with affordable (cyclo)alkanes was developed. This protocol involved C(sp3)-N bond formation via a radical pathway generated by a homolytic cleavage of di-tert-butyl peroxide and trapping of the radical(s) by copper catalysts. The reaction tolerated a series of functional groups, such as bromo, fluoro, ester, ketone, nitrile, methyl and methoxy. NH-free indoles, pyroles, pyrazoles, indazoles and benzotriazoles have been successfully N-alkylated...
June 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612859/kinetics-and-branching-fractions-of-the-hydrogen-abstraction-reaction-from-methyl-butenoates-by-h-atoms
#20
Xiaoyu Li, Xiaoqing You, Chung K Law, Donald G Truhlar
In order to explore the hydrogen abstraction reaction kinetics of unsaturated methyl esters by hydrogen atoms, we selected two molecules for study, in particular methyl 3-butenoate and methyl 2-butenoate, whose C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds are at different locations. We first determined an accurate and efficient electronic structure method for the investigation by considering eight hydrogen abstraction reactions and comparing their barrier heights and reaction energies computed using several exchange-correlation density functionals to those obtained from CCSD(T)-F12a/jun-cc-pVTZ coupled cluster calculations...
June 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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