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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217772/the-intracellular-immune-receptor-rx1-regulates-the-dna-binding-activity-of-a-golden2-like-transcription-factor
#1
Philip D Townsend, Christopher H Dixon, Erik J Slootweg, Octavina Ca Sukarta, Ally Wh Yang, Timothy R Hughes, Gary J Sharples, Lars-Olof Palsson, Frank L W Takken, Aska Goverse, Martin J Cann
Plant NLR proteins enable the immune system to recognise and respond to pathogen attack. An early consequence of immune activation is transcriptional reprogramming and some NLRs have been shown to act in the nucleus and interact with transcription factors. The Rx1 NLR protein of potato is further able to bind and distort double-stranded DNA. However, Rx1 host targets that support a role for Rx1 in transcriptional reprogramming at DNA are unknown. Here we report a functional interaction between Rx1 and NbGlk1, a Golden2- like transcription factor...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206906/what-is-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-cga-an-umbrella-review
#2
S G Parker, P McCue, K Phelps, A McCleod, S Arora, K Nockels, S Kennedy, H Roberts, S Conroy
Background: comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is now the accepted gold standard for caring for frail older people in hospital. However, there is uncertainty about identifying and targeting suitable recipients and which patients benefit the most. Objectives: our objectives were to describe the key elements, principal measures of outcome and the characteristics of the main beneficiaries of inpatient CGA. Methods: we used the Joanna Briggs Institute umbrella review method...
December 1, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205766/the-bile-salt-sodium-taurocholate-induces-campylobacter-jejuni-outer-membrane-vesicle-production-and-increases-omv-associated-proteolytic-activity
#3
Abdi Elmi, Amber Dorey, Eleanor Watson, Heena Jagatia, Neil F Inglis, Ozan Gundogdu, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Brendan W Wren, David G E Smith, Nick Dorrell
Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, secretes an arsenal of virulence-associated proteins within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). C. jejuni OMVs contain three serine proteases (HtrA, Cj0511 and Cj1365c) which cleave the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) tight and adherens junction proteins occludin and E-cadherin, promoting enhanced C. jejuni adhesion to and invasion of IECs. C. jejuni OMVs also induce IECs innate immune responses. The bile salt sodium taurocholate (ST) is sensed as a host signal to co-ordinate the activation of virulence-associated genes in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae...
December 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197567/biologically-anchored-chitosan-gelatin-srhap-scaffold-fabricated-on-titanium-against-chronic-osteomyelitis-infection
#4
D Nancy, N Rajendran
The obstacles faced to treat chronic osteomyelitis infection clinically led to the search for an ideal biomaterial, resulted in combining two major aspects of bone tissue engineering namely surface modified metallic implant and polymer nanocomposite scaffold. In the present study Gelatin - Strontium incorporated Hydroxyapatite (SrHAP) forming HG scaffold, vancomycin loaded chitosan -gelatin polyelectrolyte complex incorporated gelatin-SrHAP, forming HV scaffolds (HV1-0.5wt% and HV2-1wt% vancomycin) were investigated...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196903/concurrent-use-of-prescription-drugs-and-herbal-medicinal-products-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Taofikat B Agbabiaka, Barbara Wider, Leala K Watson, Claire Goodman
BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) is common among older adults; however, little is known about concurrent use with prescription drugs, as well as potential interactions associated with such combinations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the literature on concurrent prescription and HMP use among older adults to assess prevalence, patterns, potential interactions and factors associated with this use. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted in the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2017 for studies reporting concurrent use of prescription medicines with HMPs in adults ≥ 65 years of age...
December 1, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196610/single-molecule-live-cell-imaging-of-bacterial-dna-repair-and-damage-tolerance
#6
REVIEW
Harshad Ghodke, Han Ho, Antoine M van Oijen
Genomic DNA is constantly under threat from intracellular and environmental factors that damage its chemical structure. Uncorrected DNA damage may impede cellular propagation or even result in cell death, making it critical to restore genomic integrity. Decades of research have revealed a wide range of mechanisms through which repair factors recognize damage and co-ordinate repair processes. In recent years, single-molecule live-cell imaging methods have further enriched our understanding of how repair factors operate in the crowded intracellular environment...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192424/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#7
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Ludovic Reveiz, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
December 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186834/urinary-phthalate-concentrations-in-mothers-and-their-children-in-ireland-results-of-the-democophes-human-biomonitoring-study
#8
Elizabeth Cullen, David Evans, Chris Griffin, Padraig Burke, Rory Mannion, Damien Burns, Andrew Flanagan, Ann Kellegher, Greet Schoeters, Eva Govarts, Pierre Biot, Ludwine Casteleyn, Argelia Castaño, Marike Kolossa-Gehring, Marta Esteban, Gerda Schwedler, Holger M Koch, Jürgen Angerer, Lisbeth E Knudsen, Reinhard Joas, Anke Joas, Birgit Dumez, Ovnair Sepai, Karen Exley, Dominique Aerts
Background: Phthalates are chemicals which are widespread in the environment. Although the impacts on health of such exposure are unclear, there is evidence of a possible impact on the incidence of a diverse range of diseases. Monitoring of human exposure to phthalates is therefore important. This study aimed to determine the extent of phthalate exposure among mothers and their children in both rural and urban areas in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated concentrations. It formed part of the 'Demonstration of a study to Co-ordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale' (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182912/smc-complexes-sweeping-through-the-chromosome-going-with-the-flow-and-against-the-tide
#9
REVIEW
Stephan Gruber
Bacteria transcribe, duplicate and segregate their genomes all at once. Conflicts between DNA replication and active transcription are a major source of DNA damage and jeopardize genome integrity and cell survival. Co-orientation of replication forks and transcription units is thought to reduce the impact of such conflicts. Like transcription and replication, chromosome segregation relies on the translocation of multi-subunit protein complexes along DNA. Here, I highlight recent advances in our understanding of two major classes of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes in bacteria: Smc-ScpAB, whose DNA translocation is co-oriented with DNA replication by specific start sites, and MukBEF, which apparently lacks such co-ordination...
November 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179682/faecal-bacterial-microbiota-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-the-effect-of-lactulose-administration
#10
Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Amit Goel, Ankur Singh, Avani Sasi, Rakesh Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota may be altered in patients with cirrhosis, and may further change after administration of lactulose. We studied the composition of gut microbiota in patients with cirrhosis and assessed the effect on it of lactulose administration. METHODS: Stool specimens were collected from 35 patients with cirrhosis (male 26; median [range] age: 42 [29-65] years) and 18 healthy controls (male 14; 44.5 [24-67] years); 21 patients provided another specimen after lactulose administration for 55 [42-77] days...
November 28, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177099/estimating-the-need-for-inpatient-neonatal-services-an-iterative-approach-employing-evidence-and-expert-consensus-to-guide-local-policy-in-kenya
#11
REVIEW
Georgina A V Murphy, Donald Waters, Paul O Ouma, David Gathara, Sasha Shepperd, Robert W Snow, Mike English
Universal access to quality newborn health services will be essential to meeting specific Sustainable Development Goals to reduce neonatal and overall child mortality. Data for decision making are crucial for planning services and monitoring progress in these endeavours. However, gaps in local population-level and facility-based data hinder estimation of health service requirements for effective planning in many low-income and middle-income settings. We worked with local policy makers and experts in Nairobi City County, an area with a population of four million and the highest neonatal mortality rate amongst counties in Kenya, to address this gap, and developed a systematic approach to use available data to support policy and planning...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173467/augmentation-of-antioxidant-and-iron-iii-chelation-properties-of-tertiary-mixture-of-bioactive-ligands
#12
Lokesh K N, Channarayappa, Marikunte Venkataranganna, Gunti Gowtham Raj, Hansraj Patil, Hardik Dave
The excess of iron in plasma and cellular compartment pose direct and indirect toxic effects. In the present investigation, we proposed additive function of nutritional bioactive ligands in combination which has shown enhanced antioxidant and iron(III) chelation property. The optimal interaction and in vitro antioxidant activity of tertiary mixture comprising of curcumin+quercetin+gallic acid was validated by central composite design (CCD) based on ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The additive denticity of nutritional bioactive ligands was investigated by UV-vis, FTIR & MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, which has given substantial evidence for the formation of tris-bidentate [curcumin-quercetin-gallic acid-Fe(III)] co-ordination complex...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173232/do-in-utero-shocks-have-adverse-effects-on-child-health-outcomes-and-can-welfare-schemes-ameliorate-such-effects-evidence-from-andhra-pradesh-india
#13
Salma Ahmed, Ranjan Ray
This study aimed to assess whether shocks experienced by children in the mother's womb can have an adverse effect on their future health, and whether these effects can be ameliorated by government welfare schemes. Data were taken from three phases of the Young Lives Survey carried out in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh in 2002, 2007 and 2009-2010. Different types of in utero shock were distinguished from the data. Using ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation, it was observed that multiple in utero shocks reduced children's weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores by 0...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172364/an-update-on-current-resuscitation-council-uk-guidelines
#14
Sarah L McKernon, Laura Kaura, Kathryn H Taylor, Samantha Reid, Mary C Balmer
On 15 October 2015, The Resuscitation Council (UK) published new resuscitation guidelines following the review of resuscitation science by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The 2015 guidelines emphasize the importance of interactions between the emergency medical dispatcher, the bystander who provides cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the prompt deployment of an automated external defibrillator (AED); the co-ordination of these three elements is crucial to improving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival...
April 2017: Dental Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161943/analysis-of-sequence-divergence-in-redfin-cypriniformes-cyprinidae-tribolodon-based-on-mtdna-and-ndna-markers-with-inferences-in-systematics-and-genetics-of-speciation
#15
Anna O Zolotova, Yuri Ph Kartavtsev
To clarify relationship of species of the genus Tribolodon in the Russian part of their distribution ranges, two mitochondrial markers (Co-1 and Cyt-b), a nuclear marker (Rho), and a gene marker of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1,2) were used. Depending on the marker, different numbers of species groups were detected by the ABGD method, but in combination with the analysis of phylograms, these data generally support the known species clusters and regional intraspecies groups. A complex analysis of sequences from three redfin species within the area of the study, based on four marker genes and using the methods of molecular phylogenetics, ordination of genetic distances, recombinant analysis, and population genetic approaches, has revealed clusters of three commonly recognized species, regional intraspecific groups or individuals of local populations, and few hybrid individuals...
November 21, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161375/health-system-factors-affecting-implementation-of-integrated-management-of-childhood-illness-imci-qualitative-insights-from-a-south-african-province
#16
Himani Pandya, Wiedaad Slemming, Haroon Saloojee
The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy has been adopted by 102 countries including South Africa, as the preferred primary health care (PHC) delivery strategy for sick children under 5 years. Despite substantial investment to support IMCI in South Africa, its delivery remains sub-optimal, with varied implementation in different settings. There is scarce research globally, and in the local context, examining the effects of health system characteristics on IMCI implementation. This study explored key determinants of IMCI delivery in a South African province, with a specific focus on health system building blocks using a health system dynamics framework...
November 17, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157767/nurses-perceptions-of-patient-care-continuity-in-day-surgery
#17
Marja Renholm, Tarja Suominen, Pauli Puukka, Helena Leino-Kilpi
PURPOSE: The increase in day surgery has brought about a significant change in patient care and care continuity. The purpose of this study was to analyze nurses' perceptions of the realization of continuity of care in day surgery. Continuity of care is examined from the perspectives of time, flow, co-ordination flow, caring relationship flow, and information flow. DESIGN: Descriptive study. METHODS: A questionnaire including demographics and questions about continuity of care was completed by 83 of the 120 eligible nurses (response rate, 69%) in one hospital district in Finland...
December 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157288/development-of-a-framework-to-improve-the-utilisation-of-malaria-research-for-policy-development-in-malawi
#18
Chikondi Mwendera, Christiaan de Jager, Herbert Longwe, Charles Hongoro, Kamija Phiri, Clifford M Mutero
BACKGROUND: The existing gap between research evidence and public health practice has attributed to the unmet Millennium Development Goals in Africa and consequently, has stimulated the development of frameworks to enhance knowledge translation. These efforts aim at maximising health research utilisation in policy and practice to address the world's disease burdens, including malaria. This study aimed at developing a contextual framework to improve the utilisation of malaria research for policy development in Malawi...
November 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150527/transcriptional-regulators-of-redox-balance-and-other-homeostatic-processes-with-the-potential-to-alter-neurodegenerative-disease-trajectory
#19
REVIEW
Scott W Burnside, Giles E Hardingham
Diverse neurodegenerative diseases share some common aspects to their pathology, with many showing evidence of disruption to the brain's numerous homeostatic processes. As such, imbalanced inflammatory status, glutamate dyshomeostasis, hypometabolism and oxidative stress are implicated in many disorders. That these pathological processes can influence each other both up- and downstream makes for a complicated picture, but means that successfully targeting one area may have an effect on others. This targeting requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which homeostasis is maintained during health, in order to uncover strategies to boost homeostasis in disease...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150526/the-devil-is-in-the-domain-understanding-protein-recognition-of-multiple-rna-targets
#20
REVIEW
Glen R Gronland, Andres Ramos
RNA regulation provides a finely tuned and highly co-ordinated control of gene expression. Regulation is mediated by hundreds to thousands of multi-functional RNA-binding proteins which often interact with large sets of RNAs. In this brief review, we focus on a recent work that highlights how the proteins use multiple RNA-binding domains to interact selectively with the different RNA targets. Deconvoluting the molecular complexity of the RNA regulatory network is essential to understanding cell differentiation and function, and requires accurate models for protein-RNA recognition and protein target selectivity...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
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