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Lorna French, Eilis M M Kennedy
BACKGROUND: There has been increased interest in early screening and intervention for young children with, or at risk of, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This has generated a debate about the potential harms versus benefits of early identification and treatment. This review aims to identify the evidence base for early intervention in ASD. METHODS: A systematic review searching for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for children up to 6 years of age with, or at risk of, ASD was undertaken...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Vibhuti, Rehan Khan, Alpana Sharma, Suman Jain, Sujata Mohanty, Kameshwar Prasad
Stroke is a multi-factorial polygenic disease and is a major cause of death and adult disability. Administration of bone marrow stem cells protects ischemic rat brain by facilitating recovery of neurological functions. But the molecular mechanism of stem cells action and their effect on gene expression is not well explored. In this study, we have transplanted 1× 10(6) human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAo) adult male Wistar rats through intracarotid artery route at 24 hours after surgery...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
John D Mooney, John Holmes, Lucy Gavens, Frank de Vocht, Matt Hickman, Karen Lock, Alan Brennan
BACKGROUND: The considerable challenges associated with implementing national level alcohol policies have encouraged a renewed focus on the prospects for local-level policies in the UK and elsewhere. We adopted a case study approach to identify the major characteristics and drivers of differences in the patterns of local alcohol policies and services in two contrasting local authority (LA) areas in England. METHODS: Data were collected via thirteen semi-structured interviews with key informants (including public health, licensing and trading standards) and documentary analysis, including harm reduction strategies and statements of licensing policy...
October 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
Minakshi Ghate, H K Dahule, N Thejo Kalyani, S J Dhoble
A novel blue luminescent 6-chloro-2-(4-cynophenyl) substituted diphenyl quinoline (Cl-CN DPQ) organic phosphor has been synthesized by the acid-catalyzed Friedlander reaction and then characterized to confirm structural, optical and thermal properties. Structural properties of Cl-CN-DPQ were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy...
October 18, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Helen Crump, Jenny King, Chris Graham, Ruth Thorlby, Veena Raleigh, Don Redding, Nick Goodwin
INTRODUCTION: Older people with chronic conditions often receive poor care because of the fragmented way in which their services are delivered from multiple sources. Providers have limited tools to directly capture the views of older people about their experiences of care co-ordination. The study aim was to design and test a survey tool to capture the experiences of older people with chronic conditions regarding how well their health and (where applicable) social care was co-ordinated...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Integrated Care
Sahand Zanjani-Pour, Judith R Meakin, Alex Breen, Alan Breen
Finite element (FE) models driven by medical image data can be used to estimate subject-specific spinal biomechanics. This study aimed to combine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) in subject-specific FE models of upright standing, flexion and extension. Supine MR images of the lumbar spine were acquired from healthy participants using a 0.5 T MR scanner. Nine 3D quasi-static linear FE models of L3 to L5 were created with an elastic nucleus and orthotropic annulus. QF data was acquired from the same participants who performed trunk flexion to 60° and trunk extension to 20°...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Stephanie Pedersen, Lei Liu, Brian Glebe, Steven Leadbeater, Sigbjørn Lien, Elizabeth G Boulding
Little is known about the genetic architecture of traits important for salmonid restoration ecology. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for juvenile body length, weight, shape, and vertical skin pigmentation patterns (parr marks) within three hybrid backcross families between European and North American subspecies of Atlantic salmon. Amounts of variation in skin colour and pattern quantified in the two second-generation transAtlantic families exceeded the ranges seen in purebred populations...
October 16, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Jiabei Zeng, Yang Liu, Biao Leng, Zhang Xiong, Yiu-Ming Cheung
Supervised dimensionality reduction (DR) plays an important role in learning systems with high-dimensional data. It projects the data into a low-dimensional subspace and keeps the projected data distinguishable in different classes. In addition to preserving the discriminant information for binary or multiple classes, some real-world applications also require keeping the preference degrees of assigning the data to multiple aspects, e.g., to keep the different intensities for co-occurring facial expressions or the product ratings in different aspects...
October 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Harriet Rosanne Etheredge, Claire Penn, Jennifer Watermeyer
BACKGROUND: Communication is essential to the transplant process, but it is challenging in South Africa (SA) because of the complexity of the country and the health system, the nature of transplantation as a technical procedure with inherent psychological considerations, and the large number of professionals involved. Transplant communication has not been explored in SA, and this study was the first to use health communication methods to generate empirical evidence relating to it. OBJECTIVE: To explore communication in transplant settings in Gauteng Province, SA...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Jiajia Zhang, Fang Cui, Linxu Xu, Xinzi Pan, Xiaoqiang Wang, Xiao Zhang, Tieyu Cui
Herein, a novel and facile high-yield strategy is reported to efficiently fabricate 1D self-supported Au/CaO nanocatalysts using dual metal co-ordination polymers as templates. Significantly, a uniform distribution of dual metal nanoparticles can be ensured due to the fact that both Ca(2+) and Au(3+) ions are initially introduced into the co-ordination polymer via chemical bonding with bifunctional organic linkers and then, the Au and CaO nanoparticles are formed simultaneously in one pot via calcination. Furthermore, the as-prepared Au/CaO nanoribbons exhibit excellent catalytic performance in the transesterification reaction, which can be attributed to the small size and high distribution of CaO nanoparticles as well as the special 1D structure with high surface area...
October 12, 2017: Nanoscale
Marie Poole, Claire Bamford, Emma McLellan, Richard P Lee, Catherine Exley, Julian C Hughes, Karen Harrison-Dening, Louise Robinson
BACKGROUND: In recent years, UK policy has increasingly recognised the importance of end-of-life care in dementia. While professional consensus on optimal palliative care in dementia has been reported, little is known about the perspectives of people with dementia and family carers. AIM: To compare the views of people with dementia and family carers of people with dementia (current and recently bereaved) on optimal end-of-life care. DESIGN: Qualitative interviews (32) and a focus group were conducted...
October 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
M Rosario Ramírez-Flores, Rubén Rellán-Álvarez, Barbara Wozniak, Mesfin-Nigussie Gebreselassie, Iver Jakobsen, Víctor Olalde-Portugal, Ivan Baxter, Uta Paszkowski, Ruairidh J H Sawers
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is an ancient interaction between plants and fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. In exchange for photosynthetically fixed carbon, the fungus provides the plant host with greater access to soil nutrients via an extensive network of root-external hyphae. Here, to determine the impact of the symbiosis on the host ionome, the concentration of 19 elements was determined in the roots and leaves of a panel of 30 maize varieties, grown under phosphorus-limiting conditions, with or without inoculation with the fungus Funneliformis mosseae...
August 2, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Jennifer Philip, Anna Collins, Caroline Brand, Vijaya Sundararajan, Carrie Lethborg, Michelle Gold, Rosalind Lau, Gaye Moore, Michael Murphy
Background: Patients with high-grade malignant glioma (HGG) have significant supportive and palliative care needs yet few tailored guidelines exist to inform practice. This study sought to develop a HGG framework of supportive and palliative care informed by patient, family and health care professional (HCP) reported needs. Methods: This study integrates a mixed-methods research program involving: (1) Qualitative study: exploring experiences through systematic literature review and qualitative study (10 patients, 23 carers and 36 HCPs); (2) Epidemiological cohort study (N=1,821) describing care of cases of HGG in Victoria, Australia using linked hospital datasets...
July 27, 2017: Neuro-oncology
Deepak Regmi, Amit Thapa, Bidur Kc, Bikram Shakya
BACKGROUND: The excellent visualization and minimally invasive approach employed in endoscopic endonasal procedures has now revolutionized the pituitary surgery, replacing the transnasal microscopic technique worldwide. However, it involves major shift in hand-eye co-ordination from static 3 dimensional images of microscope to 2 dimensional endoscopic images hence demands training and inter-disciplinary approach. Here we present our experiences in learning and developing a safe endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic approach to resect pituitary adenomas...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Souad Mroue, Andrea Simeunovic, Hélène S Robert
Being sessile organisms, plants have evolved mechanisms allowing them to control their growth and development in response to environmental changes. This occurs by means of complex interacting signalling networks that integrate diverse environmental cues into co-ordinated and highly regulated responses. Auxin is an essential phytohormone that functions as a signalling molecule, driving both growth and developmental processes. It is involved in numerous biological processes ranging from control of cell expansion and cell division to tissue specification, embryogenesis, and organ development...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Justine Bresson, Stefan Bieker, Lena Riester, Jasmin Doll, Ulrike Zentgraf
Leaf senescence is not a chaotic breakdown but a dynamic process following a precise timetable. It enables plants to economize with their resources and control their own viability and integrity. The onset as well as the progression of leaf senescence are co-ordinated by a complex genetic network that continuously integrates developmental and environmental signals such as biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, studying senescence requires an integrative and multi-scale analysis of the dynamic changes occurring in plant physiology and metabolism...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Aldiene Henrieke Hengelaar, Margo van Hartingsveldt, Yvette Wittenberg, Faridi van Etten-Jamaludin, Rick Kwekkeboom, Ton Satink
In Dutch policy and at the societal level, informal caregivers are ideally seen as essential team members when creating, together with professionals, co-ordinated support plans for the persons for whom they care. However, collaboration between professionals and informal caregivers is not always effective. This can be explained by the observation that caregivers and professionals have diverse backgrounds and frames of reference regarding providing care. This thematic synthesis sought to examine and understand how professionals experience collaboration with informal caregivers to strengthen the care triad...
October 9, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
Christine Scoffoni, Lawren Sack, Donald Ort
Resolving the drivers of hydraulic decline during drought is crucial for understanding drought tolerance in crops and natural ecosystems. In the past 15 years, studies of the decline of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) have supported a major role in controlling plant drought responses. We analyzed the variation in Kleaf decline with dehydration in a global database of 310 species, providing novel insights into its underlying mechanisms, its co-ordination with stem hydraulics, its influence on gas exchange and drought tolerance, and its linkage with species ecological distributions...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Pradeep Yerramsetty, Erin M Agar, Won C Yim, John C Cushman, James O Berry, Robert Sharwood
Nuclear-encoded RLSB protein binds chloroplastic rbcL mRNA encoding the Rubisco large subunit. RLSB is highly conserved across all groups of land plants and is associated with positive post-transcriptional regulation of rbcL expression. In C3 leaves, RLSB and Rubisco occur in all chlorenchyma cell chloroplasts, while in C4 leaves these accumulate only within bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts. RLSB's role in rbcL expression makes modification of its localization a likely prerequisite for the evolutionary restriction of Rubisco to BS cells...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
X Lin, M Z Qureshi, M A Romero, S Khalid, A Aras, U Ozbey, A A Farooqi
Past several years have witnessed dramatic leaps in our understanding of rewiring of gene expression at the translation level during cancer developmentthat provides linchpin support to the transformed phenotype. Most recent and ground-breaking developments in the field of molecular oncology aredriven by an explosion in technological advancements and have started to reveal previously unimagined regulatory mechanisms and how they intricately co-ordinate to modulate cancer progression, loss of apoptosis and development of resistance against different therapeutics...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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