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C Suresh, H Nagabhushana, R B Basavaraj, G P Darshan, D Kavyashree, B Daruka Prasad, S C Sharma, R Vanithamani
For the first time, intense red color composite of SiO2 @LaOF:Eu3+ core-shell nanostructures (NS) were fabricated via facile solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. The obtained core-shell particles display better spherical shape and non-agglomeration with a narrow size distribution. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra exhibits intense peaks at ∼593 nm, 611 nm, 650 nm corresponds to5 D0 → 7 FJ (J = 0, 1 and 2) Eu3+ transitions respectively. The spectral intensity parameters and Eu-O ligand behaviors are estimated by means of Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ayman B Farag, Heba A Ewida, Mahmoud Salama Ahmed
Development of HDAC inhibitors have become an ultimate need targeting different types of cancer. In silico virtual screening was applied to screen novel scaffolds via scaffold hopping strategy to develop different acrylamide and aryl/heteroaryl hydrazide based analogs merged with thioether moiety. The acrylamide based analogs showed significant hydrophobic interaction within binding pocket in addition to co-ordination with Zn+2 via carbonyl group, however the aryl/heteroaryl hydrazide based analogs showed binding towards Zn+2 via thiol moiety...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Toby Freeman, Sara Javanparast, Fran Baum, Anna Ziersch, Tamara Mackean
OBJECTIVES: Regional primary health-care organisations plan, co-ordinate, and fund some primary health-care services in a designated region. This article presents a framework for examining the equity performance of regional primary health-care organisations, and applies it to Australian Medicare Locals (funded from 2011 to 2015). METHODS: The framework was developed based on theory, literature, and researcher deliberation. Data were drawn from Medicare Local documents, an online survey of 210 senior Medicare Local staff, and interviews with 50 survey respondents...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Koyeli Girigoswami
In the recent times, nanomaterials are used in many sectors of science, medicine and industry, without revealing its toxic effects. Thus, it is in urgent need for exploring the toxicity along with the application of such useful nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are categorized with a particle size of 1-100 nm. They have gained increasing attention because of their novel properties, including a large specific surface area and high reaction activity. The various fundamental and practical applications of nanomaterials include drug delivery, cell imaging, and cancer therapy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Diana Vidovic, Raul Ayala Davila, Richard M Gronostajski, Tracey J Harvey, Michael Piper
BACKGROUND: Radial glial stem cells within the developing nervous system generate a variety of post-mitotic cells, including neurons and glial cells, as well as the specialised multi-ciliated cells that line the walls of the ventricular system, the ependymal cells. Ependymal cells separate the brain parenchyma from the cerebrospinal fluid and mediate osmotic regulation, the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, and the subsequent dispersion of signalling molecules via the co-ordinated beating of their cilia...
February 16, 2018: Neural Development
Kilian B Kennel, Julius Burmeister, Martin Schneider, Cormac T Taylor
The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) co-ordinates the adaptive transcriptional response to hypoxia in metazoan cells. The hypoxic sensitivity of HIF is conferred by a family of oxygen-sensing enzymes termed HIF hydroxylases. This family consists of three prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) and a single asparagine hydroxylase termed factor inhibitor HIF (FIH). It has recently become clear that HIF hydroxylases are functionally non-redundant and have discreet but overlapping physiologic roles. Furthermore, altered abundance or activity of these enzymes is associated with a number of pathologies...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Erin L McAdam, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Leguminous plant roots can form a symbiosis with soil dwelling nitrogen-fixing rhizobia leading to the formation of a new root organ, the nodule. Successful nodulation requires co-ordination of spatially separated events in the root, including infection in the root epidermis and nodule organogenesis deep in the root cortex. We show that the hormone gibberellin plays distinct roles in these epidermal and cortical programs. We employed a unique set of genetic material in pea that includes severely gibberellin-deficient lines and della-deficient lines that enabled us to characterise all stages of infection and nodule development...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
G Andre Ng
Each heart beat originates from complex molecular processes which result in the generation of a spontaneous action potential that triggers an electrical cascade to the rest of the heart, converted into co-ordinated mechanical action to allow effective function as a pump. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Che A Stafford, Kate E Lawlor, Valentin J Heim, Aleksandra Bankovacki, Jonathan P Bernardini, John Silke, Ueli Nachbur
Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) proteins are critical regulators of innate immune signaling pathways and therefore have potential as drug targets. X-linked IAP (XIAP) and cellular IAP1 and IAP2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2) are E3 ligases that have been shown to be required for signaling downstream of NOD2, an intracellular receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan. We used genetic and biochemical approaches to compare the responses of IAP-deficient mice and cells to NOD2 stimulation. In all cell types tested, XIAP is the only IAP required for signaling immediately downstream of NOD2, while cIAP1 and cIAP2 are dispensable for NOD2-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Sally Grier, David Evans, Andy Gibson, Teh Li Chin, Margaret Stoddart, Michele Kok, Richard Campbell, Val Kenny, Alasdair MacGowan
Plain English summary: In 2015 a microbiology team in Bristol joined a European research project that aims to develop new antibiotics to fight drug resistant infections. The microbiology team were convinced of the benefits of patient and public involvement, but had found it difficult to find former patients to work with on earlier microbiology research. This paper describes how the team overcame this challenge to successfully recruit a PPI panel to develop PPI within the European project...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
Akira Naito, Keiko Okushita, Katsuyuki Nishimura, Gregory Steven Boutis, Akihiro Aoki, Tetsuo Asakura
Poly-L-alanine (PLA) sequences are a key element in the structure of the crystalline domains of spider dragline silks, wild silkworm silks, antifreeze proteins and amyloids. To date, no atomic level structures of AP-PLA longer than Ala4 have been reported using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In this work, dipolar assisted rotational resonance (DARR) solid-state NMR spectra were observed to determine the effective inter-nuclear distances of 13C uniformly labeled alanine tetramer with antiparallel (AP) β-sheet structure, whose atomic co-ordinates are determined from the X-ray crystallographic analysis...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Miranda J Meents, Yoichiro Watanabe, A Lacey Samuels
Background: Secondary cell walls (SCWs) form the architecture of terrestrial plant biomass. They reinforce tracheary elements and strengthen fibres to permit upright growth and the formation of forest canopies. The cells that synthesize a strong, thick SCW around their protoplast must undergo a dramatic commitment to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin production. Scope: This review puts SCW biosynthesis in a cellular context, with the aim of integrating molecular biology and biochemistry with plant cell biology...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Botany
Rachel J Carter, Catherine M Nickson, James M Thompson, Andrzej Kacperek, Mark A Hill, Jason L Parsons
PURPOSE: To investigate the precise mechanism of recognition and processing of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced complex DNA damage (CDD), where two or more DNA lesions are in close proximity, in cellular DNA which is packaged with histones to form chromatin. METHODS AND MATERIALS: HeLa and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (UMSCC74A and UMSCC6) cells were irradiated with high linear energy transfer (LET) α-particles or protons, versus low-LET protons and X rays...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
David J Walker, Stephen C Land
Sprouty2 (Spry2) acts as a central regulator of tubular growth and branch patterning in the developing mammalian lung by controlling both magnitude and duration of growth factor signalling. To determine if this protein coordinates airway and vascular growth factor signalling, we tested the hypothesis that Spry2 links the primary cue for airway outgrowth, fibroblast growth factor-10 (FGF-10), to genomic events underpinning the expression and release of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Using primary fetal distal lung epithelial cells (FDLE) from rat, and immortalised human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-), we identified a nuclear sub-population of Spry2 which interacted with regions of the rat and human VEGF-A promoter spanning the hypoxia response element (HRE) and adjacent 3' sites...
January 31, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Rathinavel Ashokkumar, Sankar Jamuna, M S Sakeena Sadullah, S Niranjali Devaraj
The molecular mechanisms involved in ER stress-induced post myocardial injury remain elusive. In this study, we have investigated the molecular mechanism of ER stress-mediated myocyte death in Isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction and its inhibition by a potent anti oxidant and anti-apoptotic bioflavonoid, Vitexin. ISO mediated apoptosis was found to be associated with ER permeabilization and characterized by enhanced production of ROS, activation of caspase-3, modulation of Bcl2 family proteins and activation of bnip3...
February 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qian S Liu, Na Liu, Zhendong Sun, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its derivatives are now being highly concerned due to their emerging environmental occurrence and deleterious effects on non-target organisms. Considering the potential neurotoxicity of TBBPA derivatives which has been demonstrated in vitro, what could happen in vivo is worthy of being studied. Tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2-hydroxyethyl ether) (TBBPA-BHEE), a representative TBBPA derivative, was selected for a 21-day exposure experiment on neonatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats through intranasal administration...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Dipak J Garole, Bharat C Choudhary, Debajyoti Paul, Amulrao U Borse
In this study, Lagerstroemia speciosa biomass modified by polyethylenimine (PEI-LS) was developed as a potential biosorbent for sorption and recovery of platinum(II) from platinum bearing waste solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of various parameters on the sorption and recovery of platinum(II) using PEI-LS. The equilibrium time for platinum(II) sorption process was found to be 6 h. Both the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherm data fits pseudo second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lucio D'Andrea, Miguel Simon-Moya, Briardo Llorente, Ernesto Llamas, Mónica Marro, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Li Li, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion, Ariel Vicente
Profound metabolic and structural changes are required for fleshy green fruits to ripen and become colorful and tasty. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), fruit ripening involves the differentiation of chromoplasts, specialized plastids that accumulate carotenoid pigments such as β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) and lycopene. Here, we explored the role of the plastidial Clp protease in chromoplast development and carotenoid accumulation. Ripening-specific silencing of one of the subunits of the Clp proteolytic complex resulted in β-carotene-enriched fruits that appeared orange instead of red when ripe...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Tz-Yi Wu, Sandip Dhole, Manikandan Selvaraju, Chung-Ming Sun
A novel and efficient method for the one-pot synthesis of 2H-indazole from readily available building blocks is reported. The reaction of 2-nitrobenzylamines with zinc and ammonium formate underwent partial reduction to nitroso benzylamine followed by an intramolecular cyclization to afford 2H-indazole via N-N bond formation. The carboxylic acid moiety of indazole was proceeded to regioselective alkyne insertion under ruthenium catalysis to form pyranone-fused indazoles. The regioselectivity is influenced by the weak co-ordination of indazole ring nitrogen to the metal center...
January 30, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
Peter Hallas, Johnny Lauridsen, Mikkel Brabrand
BACKGROUND: The formation of critical care teams is a complex process where team members need to get a shared understanding of a serious situation. No previous studies have focused on how this shared understanding is achieved during the formation of cardiac arrest teams. "Sensemaking" is a concept well known in organizational studies. It refers to the collaborative effort among members in a dialogue to create meaning in an ambiguous situation, often by using subtle variations in the sentences in the dialogue...
January 29, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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