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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679833/the-contribution-of-cattle-urine-and-dung-to-nitrous-oxide-emissions-quantification-of-country-specific-emission-factors-and-implications-for-national-inventories
#1
D R Chadwick, L M Cardenas, M S Dhanoa, N Donovan, T Misselbrook, J R Williams, R E Thorman, K L McGeough, C J Watson, M Bell, S G Anthony, R M Rees
Urine patches and dung pats from grazing livestock create hotspots for production and emission of the greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2 O), and represent a large proportion of total N2 O emissions in many national agricultural greenhouse gas inventories. As such, there is much interest in developing country specific N2 O emission factors (EFs) for excretal nitrogen (EF3, pasture, range and paddock) deposited during gazing. The aims of this study were to generate separate N2 O emissions data for cattle derived urine and dung, to provide an evidence base for the generation of a country specific EF for the UK from this nitrogen source...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675780/seroprevalence-of-brucellosis-and-q-fever-coxiellosis-in-cattle-herds-in-maigana-and-birnin-gwari-agro-ecological-zone-of-kaduna-state-nigeria
#2
S G Adamu, J Kabir, J U Umoh, M A Raji
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis and Q fever in cattle in Maigana and Birnin Gwari agro-ecological zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the significance of Brucella spp. and Coxiella burnetti infections in cattle. A total of 400 sera samples (139 from males and 261 from females cattle) were collected and screened for brucellosis using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for brucellosis and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for Q fever...
April 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673337/communities-in-charge-of-alcohol-cica-a-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomised-control-trial-of-an-alcohol-health-champions-programme
#3
Penny A Cook, Suzy C Hargreaves, Elizabeth J Burns, Frank de Vocht, Steve Parrott, Margaret Coffey, Suzanne Audrey, Cathy Ure, Paul Duffy, David Ottiwell, Kiran Kenth, Susan Hare, Kate Ardern
BACKGROUND: Communities In Charge of Alcohol (CICA) takes an Asset Based Community Development (ABCD) approach to reducing alcohol harm. Through a cascade training model, supported by a designated local co-ordinator, local volunteers are trained to become accredited 'Alcohol Health Champions' to provide brief opportunistic advice at an individual level and mobilise action on alcohol availability at a community level. The CICA programme is the first time that a devolved UK region has attempted to coordinate an approach to building health champion capacity, presenting an opportunity to investigate its implementation and impact at scale...
April 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670890/correlations-between-microbial-communities-in-stool-and-clinical-indicators-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Lang Lin, Zai-Bo Wen, Dong-Jiao Lin, Jiang-Ting Dong, Jie Jin, Fei Meng
AIM: To analyze the bacterial community structure and distribution of intestinal microflora in people with and without metabolic syndrome and combined these data with clinical indicators to determine relationships between selected bacteria and metabolic diseases. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 20 patients with metabolic syndrome and 16 controls at Cangnan People's Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China. DNA was extracted and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified for high throughput sequencing...
April 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664242/dental-public-health-in-action-putting-oral-health-on-the-local-public-health-agenda
#5
I F Walker, S Eapen-Simon, S Gibson
Oral health is a key public health issue across England. In Wakefield in the north of England, local data suggested the oral health of local children was significantly worse than the national average. This paper describes the work undertaken by Wakefield Council to strategically address this issue. A structured process was adopted. Key lessons include; having senior ownership from the Director of Public Health, partnership working across all key stakeholders, utilising dental public health expertise from Public Health England and the use of extensive engagement with stakeholders...
April 18, 2018: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664037/provider-initiated-hiv-testing-counselling-in-incident-tuberculosis-cases-under-national-tb-programme-conditions-at-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-tirupati-south-india
#6
Alladi Mohan, J Harikrishna, D Prabath Kumar, N Dinesh Kumar, Prerna S Sharma, B Siddhartha Kumar, K V S Sarma
Background & objectives: : As sparse published data are available regarding burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in incident tuberculosis (TB) cases at tertiary care teaching hospitals under National TB Programme conditions from India, the present study was designed to assess the proportion of referred registered TB patients who had actually undergone HIV testing and HIV-seropositivity in these. Methods: : This was a study of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in patients registered for the treatment under Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) of Government of India at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tirupati, south India, during 2012-2013...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659658/effect-of-dietary-fat-intake-and-genetics-on-fat-taste-sensitivity-a-co-twin-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Andrew Costanzo, Caryl Nowson, Liliana Orellana, Dieuwerke Bolhuis, Konsta Duesing, Russell Keast
Background: Individuals with impaired fat taste (FT) sensitivity have reduced satiety responses after consuming fatty foods, leading to increased dietary fat intake. Habitual consumption of dietary fat may modulate sensitivity to FT, with high consumption decreasing sensitivity [increasing fatty acid taste threshold (FATT)] and low consumption increasing sensitivity (decreasing FATT). However, some individuals may be less susceptible to diet-mediated changes in FATT due to variations in gene expression...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648666/the-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factor-gubhlh3-positively-regulates-soyasaponin-biosynthetic-genes-in-glycyrrhiza-uralensis
#8
Keita Tamura, Koki Yoshida, Yasuko Hiraoka, Daiki Sakaguchi, Ayaka Chikugo, Keiichi Mochida, Mareshige Kojoma, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka, Hikaru Seki
Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice) is a widely used medicinal plant belonging to the Fabaceae. Its main active component, glycyrrhizin, is an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin widely used as a medicine and as a natural sweetener. Licorice also produces other triterpenoids, including soyasaponins. Recent studies have revealed various oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) required for the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in licorice. Of these enzymes, β-amyrin synthase (bAS) and β-amyrin C-24 hydroxylase (CYP93E3) are involved in the biosynthesis of soyasapogenol B (an aglycone of soyasaponins) from 2,3-oxidosqualene...
April 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643520/-comparison-of-gut-microbiotal-compositional-analysis-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-through-different-bioinformatics-pipelines
#9
S W Zhu, Z J Liu, M Li, H Q Zhu, L P Duan
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the same biological conclusion, diagnostic or curative effects regarding microbial composition of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients could be reached through different bioinformatics pipelines, we used two common bioinformatics pipelines (Uparse V2.0 and Mothur V1.39.5)to analyze the same fecal microbial 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing data. METHODS: The two pipelines were used to analyze the diversity and richness of fecal microbial 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing data of 27 samples, including 9 healthy controls (HC group), 9 diarrhea IBS patients before (IBS group) and after Rifaximin treatment (IBS-treatment, IBSt group)...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629683/near-real-time-tracking-of-gaps-in-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-three-districts-of-kwazulu-natal-province-south-africa
#10
F Moyo, A Haeri Mazanderani, S Bhardwaj, O B Mhlongo, T Kufa, K Ng'oma, B A Smith, G G Sherman
BACKGROUND: Identifying and addressing gaps in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is required if South Africa (SA) is to achieve targets for eliminating MTCT (eMTCT). Potential PMTCT gaps that increase MTCT risk include late maternal HIV diagnosis, lack of or delayed antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and lack of effective prophylaxis for HIV-exposed infants. OBJECTIVES: To investigate, in near real time, PMTCT gaps among HIV-infected infants in three districts of KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627613/synthesis-spectral-dft-modeling-cytotoxicity-and-microbial-studies-of-novel-zr-iv-ce-iv-and-u-vi-piroxicam-complexes
#11
Walaa H El-Shwiniy, Wael A Zordok
The Zr(IV), Ce(IV) and U(VI) piroxicam anti-inflammatory drug complexes were prepared and characterized using elemental analyses, conductance, IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment,I HNMR and thermal analysis. The ratio of metal: Pir is found to be 1:2 in all complexes estimated by using molar ratio method. The conductance data reveal that Zr(IV) and U(VI) chelates are non-electrolytes except Ce(IV) complex is electrolyte. Infrared spectroscopic confirm that the Pir behaves as a bidentate ligand co-ordinated to the metal ions via the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of ν(CO)carbonyl and ν(CN)pyridyl , respectively...
March 29, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624209/withdrawn-grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Loretta Lau, Paul Mick, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2008 and previously updated in 2011.Acute suppurative otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases in childhood. Recurrent acute otitis media is defined for the purposes of this review as either three or more acute infections of the middle ear cleft in a six-month period, or at least four episodes in a year. Strategies for managing the condition include the assessment and modification of risk factors where possible, repeated courses of antibiotics for each new infection, antibiotic prophylaxis and the insertion of ventilation tubes (grommets)...
April 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622470/clinician-tasking-in-ambulance-control-improves-the-identification-of-major-trauma-patients-and-pre-hospital-critical-care-team-tasking
#13
Neil Sinclair, Paul A Swinton, Michael Donald, Lisa Curatolo, Peter Lindle, Steph Jones, Alasdair R Corfield
INTRODUCTION: Trauma remains the fourth leading cause of death in western countries and is the leading cause of death in the first four decades of life. NICE guidance in 2016 advocated the attendance of pre-hospital critical care trauma team (PHCCT) in the pre-hospital stage of the care of patients with major trauma. Previous publications support dispatch by clinicians who are also actively involved in the delivery of the PHCCT service; however there is a lack of objective outcome measures across the current reviewed evidence base...
March 30, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620136/traumatic-brain-injury-patient-experience-and-satisfaction-with-discharge-from-trauma-hospital
#14
Cathrine Buaas Tverdal, Emilie Isager Howe, Cecilie Røe, Eirik Helseth, Juan Lu, Olli Tenovuo, Nada Andelic
OBJECTIVES: To describe the discharge process for patients with traumatic brain injury from a trauma hospital, and patient experience and satisfaction with care transition. Furthermore, to evaluate associations between discharge process and patient satisfaction and quality of care transition. DESIGN: Prospective-retrospective observational study. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS: Seventy-four patients admitted to ward or intensive care unit at a trauma referral hospital within 24 h of traumatic brain injury...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617189/cumulative-burden-of-morbidity-among-testicular-cancer-survivors-after-standard-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy-a-multi-institutional-study
#15
Sarah L Kerns, Chunkit Fung, Patrick O Monahan, Shirin Ardeshir-Rouhani-Fard, Mohammad I Abu Zaid, AnnaLynn M Williams, Timothy E Stump, Howard D Sesso, Darren R Feldman, Robert J Hamilton, David J Vaughn, Clair Beard, Robert A Huddart, Jeri Kim, Christian Kollmannsberger, Deepak M Sahasrabudhe, Ryan Cook, Sophie D Fossa, Lawrence H Einhorn, Lois B Travis
Purpose In this multicenter study, we evaluated the cumulative burden of morbidity (CBM) among > 1,200 testicular cancer survivors and applied factor analysis to determine the co-occurrence of adverse health outcomes (AHOs). Patients and Methods Participants were ≤ 55 years of age at diagnosis, finished first-line chemotherapy ≥ 1 year previously, completed a comprehensive questionnaire, and underwent physical examination. Treatment data were abstracted from medical records. A CBM score encompassed the number and severity of AHOs, with ordinal logistic regression used to assess associations with exposures...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604429/familiarization-of-undergraduate-medical-students-with-the-two-dimensional-vision-of-laparoscopic-surgery-preliminary-results-of-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#16
Maximos Frountzas, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Anastasia Prodromidou, Konstantinos Kontzoglou, Despina N Perrea, Nikolaos Nikiteas
BACKGROUND: To date, the feasibility of pre-graduate training in 2D vision has not been studied thoroughly. The purpose of this pilot study is to present the preliminary results of a pre-graduate laparoscopic training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited pre-graduate medical students to participate in an experimental training program which strengthened their essential skills in 2D-vision. An easy-to-use, cost-effective, hand-made laparoscopic training box was constructed and used...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590182/clinical-endpoints-in-the-controlled-human-challenge-model-for-shigella-a-call-for-standardization-and-the-development-of-a-disease-severity-score
#17
Chad K Porter, Amanda Lynen, Mark S Riddle, Kawsar Talaat, David Sack, Ramiro L Gutiérrez, Robin McKenzie, Barbara DeNearing, Brittany Feijoo, Robert W Kaminski, David N Taylor, Beth D Kirkpatrick, A Louis Bourgeois
BACKGROUND: Since 1946 the controlled human infection model (CHIM) for Shigella has been used to improve understanding of disease pathogenesis, describe clinical and immunologic responses to infection and as a tool for vaccine development. As the frequency and intent for use in vaccine comparisons increases, standardization of the primary endpoint definition is necessary. METHODS: Subject-level data were obtained from previously conducted experimental Shigella CHIM studies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575415/gastrointestinal-dysmotility-a-qualitative-exploration-of-the-journey-from-symptom-onset-to-diagnosis
#18
K Twist, J Ablett, A Wearden, P Paine, D Vasant, S Lal, S Peters
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysmotility (GID) covers a spectrum of disorders disrupting enteric neuromuscular co-ordination which, when severe, causes intractable gastrointestinal symptoms and malnutrition and is a recognized cause of chronic intestinal failure. To date, no study has provided an in-depth account of the experiences of patients with severe GID and their psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore patients' experiences from symptom onset and the process of seeking and receiving a diagnosis...
March 25, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570700/fluctuating-finite-element-analysis-ffea-a-continuum-mechanics-software-tool-for-mesoscale-simulation-of-biomolecules
#19
Albert Solernou, Benjamin S Hanson, Robin A Richardson, Robert Welch, Daniel J Read, Oliver G Harlen, Sarah A Harris
Fluctuating Finite Element Analysis (FFEA) is a software package designed to perform continuum mechanics simulations of proteins and other globular macromolecules. It combines conventional finite element methods with stochastic thermal noise, and is appropriate for simulations of large proteins and protein complexes at the mesoscale (length-scales in the range of 5 nm to 1 μm), where there is currently a paucity of modelling tools. It requires 3D volumetric information as input, which can be low resolution structural information such as cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) maps or much higher resolution atomistic co-ordinates from which volumetric information can be extracted...
March 23, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562704/quality-of-patient-centered-care-provided-to-patients-attending-hematological-cancer-treatment-centers
#20
Flora Tzelepis, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Christine L Paul, Robert W Sanson-Fisher, Douglas Joshua, Mariko L Carey
The Institute of Medicine has recommended that improvements are needed in patient-centered care. This study examined hematological cancer patients' perceptions of which aspects of cancer care were being delivered well and areas that required improvement, and whether patient characteristics, or the treatment center they attended, were associated with quality of patient-centered care. Participants were recruited via three Australian hematological cancer treatment centers and completed a paper-and-pen survey assessing sociodemographic, disease, and psychological and treatment characteristics at recruitment...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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