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hiv HCV neurocognitive

A González-Baeza, F Carvajal, C Bayón, I Pérez-Valero, M Montes-Ramírez, J R Arribas
The emotional processing in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive individuals (HIV+) has been scarcely studied. We included HIV+ individuals (n = 107) on antiretroviral therapy (≥2 years) who completed 6 facial processing tasks and neurocognitive testing. We compared HIV+ and healthy adult (HA) participants (n = 40) in overall performance of each facial processing task. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to explore predictors of poorer accuracy in those measures in which HIV+ individuals performed poorer than HA participants...
August 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Benedetta Milanini, Nicoletta Ciccarelli, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Silio Limiti, Pierfrancesco Grima, Barbara Rossetti, Elena Visconti, Enrica Tamburrini, Roberto Cauda, Simona Di Giambenedetto
Progress in treatments has led to HIV+ patients getting older. Age and HIV are risk factors for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). We explored the role of cognitive reserve (CR) on cognition in a group of virologically suppressed older HIV+ people. We performed a multicenter study, consecutively enrolling asymptomatic HIV+ subjects ≥60 years old during routine outpatient visits. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered. Raw test scores were adjusted based on Italian normative data and transformed into z-scores; NCI was defined according to Frascati criteria...
October 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Ruth Coughlan, Stephen Cameron
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality; however, residual inflammation often persists in the absence of detectable viral load. In addition, chronic use of cART and an ageing HIV-positive population present new challenges to treating physicians who must balance the need for good virological control with risk of treatment-related toxicities. Discussions at the 17th International Workshop on Co-morbidities and Adverse Drug Reactions in HIV once again sought a better understanding of the complex relationship between HIV-, treatment- and age-related factors in the development of comorbidities in those infected with HIV...
2016: Antiviral Therapy
Mercedes Márquez, Clotilde Fernández Gutiérrez del Álamo, José Antonio Girón-González
Even in cases where viral replication has been controlled by antiretroviral therapy for long periods of time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have several non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related co-morbidities, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which have a clear impact on survival. It has been considered that persistent innate and acquired immune activation contributes to the pathogenesis of these non-AIDS related diseases. Immune activation has been related with several conditions, remarkably with the bacterial translocation related with the intestinal barrier damage by the HIV or by hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
M Vassallo, J Durant, C Lebrun-Frenay, R Fabre, M Ticchioni, S Andersen, F DeSalvador, A Harvey-Langton, B Dunais, I Cohen-Codar, N Montagne, E Cua, L Fredouille-Heripret, M Laffon, J Cottalorda, P Dellamonica, C Pradier
OBJECTIVES: Inversion of the CD4:CD8 ratio is a marker of immune activation and age-associated disease. We measured the CD4:CD8 ratio as a marker of cognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients and explored differences according to clinical severity. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from two prospective cohorts of HIV-infected patients randomly selected to undergo neuropsychological tests was performed. Test scores were adjusted for age, gender and education...
August 2015: HIV Medicine
Paul A Volberding
The 20th International AIDS Conference held in Melbourne, Australia, from July 20 through July 25, 2014, provided much new data on nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing antiretroviral therapy, potential consequences of switching suppressive antiretroviral regimen, antiretroviral treatment with integrase strand transfer inhibitors, effects of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar presented by Paul A...
December 2014: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
David B Clifford, Florin Vaida, Yu-Ting Kao, Donald R Franklin, Scott L Letendre, Ann C Collier, Christina M Marra, Benjamin B Gelman, Justin C McArthur, Susan Morgello, David M Simpson, Igor Grant, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) on neurocognitive performance in chronically HIV-infected patients enrolled in the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. METHODS: A total of 1,582 participants in CHARTER who were tested for HCV antibody underwent neurocognitive testing; serum HCV RNA was available for 346 seropositive patients. Neurocognitive performance was compared in 408 HCV-seropositive and 1,174 HCV-seronegative participants and in a subset of 160 seropositive and 707 seronegative participants without serious comorbid neurologic conditions that might impair neurocognitive performance, using linear regression and taking into account HIV-associated and demographic factors (including IV drug use) and liver function...
January 20, 2015: Neurology
Raffaella Libertone, Pietro Balestra, Patrizia Lorenzini, Carmela Pinnetti, Martina Ricottini, Samanta Menichetti, Maria Maddalena Plazzi, Alberto Giannetti, Valerio Tozzi, Andrea Antinori, Adriana Ammassari
INTRODUCTION: Chronic liver disease leads to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and more advanced liver fibrosis is associated with greater deficits. Further, cognitive performances do not differ significantly among patients affected by diverse types of chronic liver diseases. Thus, it would be useful to have a clinical tool associated with early cognitive change applicable to the HIV-infected population with high HCV prevalence. Aim of the analysis was to assess the association between NCI and aspartate aminotransferase-platelet ratio index (APRI) or Fibrosis-4, which are non-invasive scores used to assess liver fibrosis...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Raffaella Libertone, Patrizia Lorenzini, Pietro Balestra, Carmela Pinnetti, Martina Ricottini, Maria Maddalena Plazzi, Samanta Menichetti, Mauro Zaccarelli, Emanuele Nicastri, Rita Bellagamba, Adriana Ammassari, Andrea Antinori
INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system (CNS) penetration-effectiveness (CPE) rank was proposed in 2008 as an estimate of penetration of ARV regimen into the CNS, and validated as predictor of CSF HIV-1 replication. RESULTS on predictive role of CPE on neurocognitive and clinical outcome were conflicting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of neurocognitive profile in HIV-infected cART-treated patients. All patients underwent neuropsychological (NP) assessment by standardized battery of 14 tests on 5 different domains...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Ignacio Pérez-Valero, Alicia González-Baeza, Miriam Estébanez, Susana Monge, María L Montes-Ramírez, Carmen Bayón, Federico Pulido, José I Bernardino, Francisco X Zamora, Juan J González-García, María Lagarde, Asunción Hernando, Francisco Arnalich, José R Arribas
BACKGROUND: The evolution of neurocognitive performance in aviremic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients treated with <3 antiretrovirals is unknown. METHODS: We prospectively included aviremic (≥1 year) HIV-positive patients, without concomitant major neurocognitive confounders, currently receiving boosted lopinavir or darunavir as monotherapy (n = 67) or triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) (n = 67) for ≥1 year. We evaluated neurocognitive function (7 domains) at baseline and after 1 year...
December 1, 2014: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: This consensus document is an update of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) guidelines for HIV-1 infected adult patients. METHODS: To formulate these recommendations a panel composed of members of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida reviewed the efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings...
August 2014: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Alexander J Gill, Dennis L Kolson
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a group of syndromes of varying degrees of cognitive impairment affecting up to 50 % of HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathogenesis of HAND is thought to be driven by HIV invasion and productive replication within brain perivascular macrophages and endogenous microglia, and to some degree by restricted infection of astrocytes. The persistence of HAND in individuals experiencing suppression of systemic HIV viral load with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is incompletely explained, and suggested factors include chronic inflammation, persistent HIV replication in brain macrophages, effects of aging on brain vulnerability, and co-morbid conditions including hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection, substance abuse, and CNS toxicity of ART, among other factors...
September 2014: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, Anya Umlauf, Sandra A Chung, Megan L Cochran, Benchawanna Soontornniyomkij, Ben Gouaux, Will Toperoff, David J Moore, Eliezer Masliah, Ronald J Ellis, Igor Grant, Cristian L Achim
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) remain prevalent in patients who receive HAART and may be associated with cumulative exposure to antiretroviral medications and other factors. We proposed that chronic toxic effects of antiretroviral drugs could contribute to cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), which might be one of the key underpinnings of HAND. DESIGN: Clinicopathological cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in the California NeuroAIDS Tissue Network...
June 1, 2014: AIDS
Chantelle J Giesbrecht, Allen E Thornton, Clare Hall-Patch, Evelyn J Maan, Hélène C F Côté, Deborah M Money, Melanie Murray, Neora Pick
BACKGROUND: Through implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remarkable gains have been achieved in the management of HIV infection; nonetheless, the neurocognitive consequences of infection remain a pivotal concern in the cART era. Research has often employed norm-referenced neuropsychological scores, derived from healthy populations (excluding many seronegative individuals at high risk for HIV infection), to characterize impairments in predominately male HIV-infected populations...
2014: PloS One
Saurabh Gupta, Jennifer E Iudicello, Chuan Shi, Scott Letendre, Adam Knight, Jianhua Li, Patricia K Riggs, Donald R Franklin, Nichole Duarte, Hua Jin, J Hampton Atkinson, Xin Yu, Zunyou Wu, Igor Grant, Robert K Heaton
BACKGROUND: Prior research has demonstrated neuropsychological (NP) impairment in persons with histories of injection drug use (IDU), hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), individually, but little is known about the NP effects of these three risk factors in combination. This issue is particularly important in China, which is addressing its highly HCV-comorbid IDU epidemic with widespread government sponsored MMT, especially in light of recent evidence suggesting that methadone may be neuroprotective in some circumstances...
April 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
José L Casado, Ana Marín, Ana Moreno, Verónica Iglesias, María J Perez-Elías, Santiago Moreno, Iñigo Corral
Prolonged time on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be associated with a low incidence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI). We investigated the rate of NCI in 162 largely pretreated patients with HIV RNA suppression according to CNS antiretroviral drug penetration in comparison with 67 patients on their first ART line. Cognitive performance (Trailmaking A, B, Digit Symbol, Grooved Pegboard; demographically adjusted and converted to Z scores, NPZ4) was evaluated, and CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) ranks of 1 to 4 were assigned and summed per regimen...
February 2014: Journal of Neurovirology
Denise C Hsu, Irini Sereti, Jintanat Ananworanich
Despite the major advances in the management of HIV infection, HIV-infected patients still have greater morbidity and mortality than the general population. Serious non-AIDS events (SNAEs), including non-AIDS malignancies, cardiovascular events, renal and hepatic disease, bone disorders and neurocognitive impairment, have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. SNAEs occur at the rate of 1 to 2 per 100 person-years of follow-up. The pathogenesis of SNAEs is multifactorial and includes the direct effect of HIV and associated immunodeficiency, underlying co-infections and co-morbidities, immune activation with associated inflammation and coagulopathy as well as ART toxicities...
2013: AIDS Research and Therapy
Edana Cassol, Vikas Misra, Susan Morgello, Dana Gabuzda
Despite reduced prevalence of severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens, milder forms of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) remain prevalent in HIV-infected populations. These mild forms of HAND consist of subtypes, probably reflecting distinct, though possibly overlapping, pathophysiological mechanisms. Factors associated with HAND in HIV patients with prolonged viral suppression on ART include older age, low nadir CD4, active HCV co-infection, and cardiovascular risk factors, but underlying mechanisms and their relationship to innate immune activation, chronic inflammation, and other features of systemic disease are poorly understood...
December 2013: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Randi Melissa Schuster, Raul Gonzalez
Although the prevalence of neurocognitive disturbances among individuals with HIV has decreased in recent years, rates of impairment still remain high. This review presents findings from comorbid conditions that may contribute to further neurocognitive impairments in this already vulnerable population. We will focus on three co-factors that have received substantial attention in the neuroAIDS literature: drug use, hepatitis C co-infection (HCV), and aging. All three conditions commonly co-occur with HIV and likely interact with HIV in complex ways...
February 16, 2012: Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine
Jeanne M Sisk, Kenneth W Witwer, Patrick M Tarwater, Janice E Clements
BACKGROUND: Host cell microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate the expression of both cellular and viral RNAs, in particular impacting both Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). To investigate the role of miRNAs in regulating replication of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macrophage lineage cells, we used primary macrophages to study targeting of SIV RNA by miRNAs. We examined whether specific host miRNAs directly target SIV RNA early in infection and might be induced via type I interferon pathways...
2013: Retrovirology
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