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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224117/perc-manipulates-metabolism-and-surface-antigens-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#1
Jay L Mellies, Amy Platenkamp, Jossef Osborn, Lily Ben-Avi
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is an important cause of profuse, watery diarrhea in infants living in developing regions of the world. Typical strains of EPEC (tEPEC) possess a virulence plasmid, while related clinical isolates that lack the pEAF plasmid are termed atypical EPEC (aEPEC). tEPEC and aEPEC tend to cause acute vs. more chronic type infections, respectively. The pEAF plasmid encodes an attachment factor as well as a regulatory operon, perABC. PerC, a poorly understood regulator, was previously shown to regulate expression of the type III secretion system through Ler...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223090/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-for-the-treatment-of-severe-complications-after-omega-loop-gastric-bypass
#2
Tigran Poghosyan, Clementine Caille, David Moszkowicz, Mouna Hanachi, Claire Carette, Jean-Luc Bouillot
BACKGROUND: Omega-loop gastric bypass (OLGB) may be associated with severe complications, including anastomotic leak, refractory ulcer or stenosis, undernutrition, and disabling digestive disorders (chronic diarrhea, steatorrhea, bile reflux, and vomiting). OLGB conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was suggested to treat these complications. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and risk of severe complications after OLGB conversion to RYGB. SETTING: University hospital...
December 9, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219994/coinfection-with-hymenolepis-nana-hymenolepis-diminuta-giardia-intestinalis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report-with-complex-immunologic-interactions
#3
Gladymar Pérez-Chacón, Leonor A Pocaterra, Elsy Rojas, Aurora Hernán, Juan Carlos Jiménez, Luz Núñez
We describe the case of a 43-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected man receiving combined antiretroviral therapy and coinfected with Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Giardia intestinalis, presenting as chronic diarrhea and critical weight loss. Immunological aspects of these interactions are reviewed.
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212712/testing-for-chronic-diarrhea
#4
M Raman
Chronic diarrhea is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The etiologies for chronic diarrhea are diverse and broad with varying clinical implications. A useful method of categorizing chronic diarrhea to guide a diagnostic work-up is a pathophysiology-based framework. Chronic diarrhea may be categorized as malabsorptive, secretory, osmotic, and inflammatory or motility related. Frequently, overlap between categories may exist for any given diarrhea etiology and diagnostic testing must occur with an understanding of the differential diagnosis...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211341/food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
A Nowak-Węgrzyn, E Jarocka-Cyrta, Apb Moschione Castro
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-, cell-mediated food allergy of unknown prevalence and pathophysiology. Onset is typically during the first year of life; seafood-induced FPIES may start in adulthood. Acute FPIES manifests within 1-4 hours after ingestion with repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock in 15% of cases. Chronic FPIES manifests with intermittent emesis, watery diarrhea, and poor growth progressing to dehydration and hypovolemic shock over a period of days to weeks...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203283/current-and-emergent-pharmacologic-treatments-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-evidence-based-treatment-in-practice
#6
REVIEW
Susan Lucak, Lin Chang, Albena Halpert, Lucinda A Harris
Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is a common, chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms that can be distressing for patients and often result in substantially impaired quality of life. This review focuses on providing clinicians with information on practical, evidence-based treatment for IBS-D. Current therapies commonly used for the treatment of IBS-D, including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, are briefly reviewed, followed by discussion of the emergent pharmacologic treatments (rifaximin and eluxadoline) and medical foods (IBgard(®) and EnteraGam(®))...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201975/selective-inhibition-of-phosphodiesterases-4a-b-c-and-d-isoforms-in-chronic-respiratory-diseases-current-and-future-evidences
#7
Sonia Contreras, Javier Milara, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
Chronic respiratory diseases affect millions of people every day. According to World Health Organization estimates, ~235 million people suffer from asthma, ~64 million suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and millions more suffer from allergic rhinitis around the world. In recent last years, the first phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, roflumilast, was approved as a treatment to reduce the risk of exacerbations in stable and severe COPD associated with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations...
February 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187396/methyl-orvinol-dual-activity-opioid-receptor-ligand-inhibits-gastrointestinal-transit-and-alleviates-abdominal-pain-in-the-mouse-models-mimicking-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Marta Zielińska, Agata Jarmuż, Andrzej Wasilewski, Gerta Cami-Kobeci, Stephen Husbands, Jakub Fichna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The major IBS-D symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and discomfort. High density of opioid receptors (ORs) in the GI tract and their participation in the maintenance of GI homeostasis make ORs ligands an attractive option for developing new anti-IBS-D treatments. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of methyl-orvinol on the GI motility and secretion and in mouse models mimicking symptoms of IBS-D...
December 5, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184376/seronegative-adult-autoimmune-enteropathy-in-a-male-traveler
#9
Patrick McCabe, Latifat Alli-Akintade, Jesse Stondell
Autoimmune enteropathy (AIE) is rare but damaging. The lack of consistent objective findings makes diagnosis a challenge. A 45-year-old male developed noninfectious diarrhea with significant weight loss and electrolyte abnormalities. Computed tomography delineated enteritis. Colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed villous atrophy, chronic inflammation, and ulceration of the terminal ileum and cecum. Pathology showed cryptitis with apoptosis and abscesses throughout the small and large bowel and absent goblet cells...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182023/a-randomized-single-blind-parallel-group-study-comparing-monoherbal-formulation-containing-holarrhena-antidysenterica-extract-with-mesalamine-in-chronic-ulcerative-colitis-patients
#10
Sarika Johari, Tejal Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Incidences of side effects and relapses are very common in chronic ulcerative colitis patients after termination of the treatment. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the treatment with monoherbal formulation of Holarrhena antidysenterica with Mesalamine in chronic ulcerative colitis patients with special emphasis to side effects and relapse. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Patients were enrolled from an Ayurveda Hospital and a private Hospital, Gujarat...
July 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176463/severe-chronic-norovirus-diarrheal-disease-in-transplant-recipients-clinical-features-of-an-under-recognized-syndrome
#11
Robin K Avery, Bonnie E Lonze, Edward S Kraus, Kieren A Marr, Robert A Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NV) infection has been reported as a cause of severe chronic diarrhea in transplant recipients, but this entity remains under-recognized in clinical practice, leading to diagnostic delays. Transplant clinicians should become familiar with this syndrome in order to facilitate early detection and management. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and outcomes variables were summarized from a series of transplant recipients with positive stool NV reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays at Johns Hopkins in 2013-2014...
February 7, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176047/gastrointestinal-physiology-and-function
#12
Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Anthony C Johnson, David Grundy
The gastrointestinal (GI) system is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested food and liquids. Due to the complexity of the GI tract and the substantial volume of material that could be covered under the scope of GI physiology, this chapter briefly reviews the overall function of the GI tract, and discusses the major factors affecting GI physiology and function, including the intestinal microbiota, chronic stress, inflammation, and aging with a focus on the neural regulation of the GI tract and an emphasis on basic brain-gut interactions that serve to modulate the GI tract...
February 8, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174746/the-farnesoid-x-receptor-good-for-bad
#13
REVIEW
Stephen J Keely, Julian R F Walters
Diarrhea is a feature of several chronic intestinal disorders that are associated with increased delivery of bile acids into the colon. Although the prevalence of bile acid diarrhea is high, affecting approximately 1% of the adult population, current therapies often are unsatisfactory. By virtue of its capacity to inhibit colonic epithelial fluid secretion and to down-regulate hepatic bile acid synthesis through induction of the ileal fibroblast growth factor 19 release, the nuclear bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor, represents a promising target for the development of new therapeutic approaches...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169840/bile-acid-disease-the-emerging-epidemic
#14
Ibironke Oduyebo, Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our objective was to review advances in bile acids in health and disease published in the last 2 years. Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is recognized as a common cause of chronic diarrhea, and its recognition has been facilitated by development of new screening tests. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary BAD can account for 30% of cases of chronic diarrhea. The mechanisms leading to BAD include inadequate feedback regulation by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) from ileal enterocytes, abnormalities in synthesis or degradation of proteins involved in FGF-19 regulation in hepatocytes and variations as a function of the bile acid receptor, TGR5 (GPBAR1)...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169285/a-randomized-phase-iii-clinical-trial-of-plecanatide-a-uroguanylin-analog-in-patients-with-chronic-idiopathic-constipation
#15
Philip B Miner, William D Koltun, Gregory J Wiener, Marianela De La Portilla, Blas Prieto, Kunwar Shailubhai, Mary Beth Layton, Laura Barrow, Leslie Magnus, Patrick H Griffin
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of plecanatide, a guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist and the first uroguanylin analog approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). METHODS: This phase III, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 1,394 patients with CIC. Patients received either plecanatide (3 or 6 mg) or placebo, orally, once daily, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients who were durable overall complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) responders over the 12-week treatment period...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167477/efficacy-and-safety-of-entoban-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-diarrhea
#16
Sadia Shakeel, Khan Usmanghani, Hafiz Muhammad Asif
The current randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of Entoban for treating patients of chronic diarrhea. The study enrolled 150 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, among them 95 were males and 55 were females. Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Metronidazole tablets (400 mg) were used in a control group for 7-10 days. The test group received Entoban capsule 400mg every 8 hours for five days. Primary outcome of the study was daily bowel frequency evaluation; the secondary outcome was evaluation of clinical symptoms including abdominal pain, distention, stool consistency and sensation of incomplete evacuation...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160344/eus-guided-celiac-plexus-block-and-neurolysis
#17
REVIEW
Ichiro Yasuda, Hsiu-Po Wang
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) is widely used for reducing pain originating from upper abdominal organs. It is mainly indicated to treat pancreatic cancer pain, but also to relieve pain due to chronic pancreatitis. Real-time guidance and color Doppler imaging by endoscopic sonography made the procedure easier and safer, resulting in greater pain relief. Currently, two techniques are used for EUS-CPN. The classic approach, known as the central technique, involves injection of a neurolytic agent at the base of the celiac axis...
February 3, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158186/a-high-throughput-phenotypic-screen-identifies-clofazimine-as-a-potential-treatment-for-cryptosporidiosis
#18
Melissa S Love, Federico C Beasley, Rajiv S Jumani, Timothy M Wright, Arnab K Chatterjee, Christopher D Huston, Peter G Schultz, Case W McNamara
Cryptosporidiosis has emerged as a leading cause of non-viral diarrhea in children under five years of age in the developing world, yet the current standard of care to treat Cryptosporidium infections, nitazoxanide, demonstrates limited and immune-dependent efficacy. Given the lack of treatments with universal efficacy, drug discovery efforts against cryptosporidiosis are necessary to find therapeutics more efficacious than the standard of care. To date, cryptosporidiosis drug discovery efforts have been limited to a few targeted mechanisms in the parasite and whole cell phenotypic screens against small, focused collections of compounds...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151917/chronic-diarrhea-associated-with-high-serum-level-of-immunoglobulin-a-and-diffuse-infiltration-of-plasma-cell-in-small-intestine-a-case-report
#19
Junwen Yang, Shuijiao Chen, Linlin Chen, Miao Ouyang, Fujun Li
RATIONALE: Chronic diarrhea in adult patients due to various causes is very common in clinic, but patient suffering with mal-absorption due to immunoproliferative small intestinal disease was rarely reported in China. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 35-year-old female presented with more than three years history of chronic diarrhea, rickets, high serum value of immunoglobulin A protein, and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration suggested that the patient was in a sideropenic and megalobastic anemia stage...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147377/case-report-acute-flair-of-ulcerative-colitis-during-pregnancy-is-still-a-major-problem
#20
Marijana Protic, Srdjan Markovic, Dino Tarabar
Although severe flare of ulcerative colitis (UC) is uncommon, it significantly increases the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight and other adverse fetal outcomes. It is critical to optimize aggressive medical treatment with both mother and fetal health. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old woman with a severe flare of UC at the 16th gestational week. The diagnosis of extensive UC was established 8 years ago. From the time she was diagnosed, she had 5 moderate flares successfully treated with oral and topical mesalamine...
2017: Digestive Diseases
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