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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909964/neonatal-onset-chronic-diarrhea-caused-by-homozygous-nonsense-wnt2b-mutations
#1
Amy E O'Connell, Fanny Zhou, Manasvi S Shah, Quinn Murphy, Hannah Rickner, Judith Kelsen, John Boyle, Jefferson J Doyle, Bharti Gangwani, Jay R Thiagarajah, Daniel S Kamin, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Camilla Richmond, David T Breault, Pankaj B Agrawal
Homozygous nonsense mutations in WNT2B were identified in three individuals from two unrelated families with severe, neonatal-onset osmotic diarrhea after whole-exome sequencing was performed on trios from the two families. Intestinal biopsy samples from affected individuals were used for histology and immunofluorescence and to generate enteroids ex vivo. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated chronic inflammatory changes in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Immunofluorescence demonstrated diminished staining for OLFM4, a marker for intestinal stem cells (ISCs)...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908044/utilization-and-efficacy-of-elbasvir-grazoprevir-for-treating-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-after-liver-transplantation
#2
Satoshi Miuma, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Hidetaka Shibata, Naota Taura, Susumu Eguchi, Kazuhiko Nakao
AIM: Recently, elbasvir/grazoprevir combination therapy (EBR/GZR therapy) has been reported to have excellent antiviral effects for chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, it has not been recommended for patients with post-liver transplant (LT) HCV re-infections because of a lack of evidence for effectiveness and drug-drug interactions. METHODS: We report the usage of EBR/GZR in five post-LT HCV re-infected patients with the kinetics of renal function and tacrolimus (Tac) trough levels during and after therapy...
June 16, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905987/risk-factors-of-the-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Łukasz Lis, Patryk Jerzak, Andrzej Konieczny, Michał Sroka, Barbara Noceń-Rychlewska, Paweł Podgórski, Wojciech Witkiewicz, Zbigniew Hruby
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a Gram-positive bacillus responsible for diarrhea and colitis, mainly among hospitalized patients. It is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. OBJECTIVES: The main goal of the study was to assess the risk factors of the C. difficile infection in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the medical records of all patients treated at the Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation of the Research and Development Center in the Provincial Specialist Hospital in Wrocław, Poland, between February 2009 and May 2012, who developed diarrhea, abdominal pain and/or fever within 72 h after admission...
June 15, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902647/analysis-of-fecal-primary-bile-acids-detects-increased-stool-weight-and-colonic-transit-in-patients-with-chronic-functional-diarrhea
#4
Priya Vijayvargiya, Michael Camilleri, Victor Chedid, Paula Carlson, Irene Busciglio, Duane Burton, Leslie Donato
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with bile acid diarrhea (BAD) are identified based on increased levels of BAs in fecal samples collected over a 48-hr period while on a 100-gram fat diet (48-hr BA), retention of 75 Se-labeled homocholic acid taurine, or serum levels of C4 or FGF19. BAD increases fecal weight and colonic transit. We investigated whether results of tests for BAD associate with increased fecal weight and more rapid colonic transit over a 24- or 48-hr period in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D)...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898958/-giardia-infection-of-the-small-intestine-induces-chronic-colitis-in-genetically-susceptible-hosts
#5
Sara M Dann, Christine H Y Le, Elaine M Hanson, Matthew C Ross, Lars Eckmann
The lumen-dwelling protozoan Giardia is an important parasitic cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. Infection can persist over extended periods with minimal intestinal inflammation, suggesting that Giardia may attenuate host responses to ensure its survival, although clearance eventually occurs in most cases. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory regulator critical for intestinal homeostasis and controlling host responses to bacterial exposure, yet its potential role in coordinating antiprotozoal host defense in the intestine is not known...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898479/is-irritable-bowel-syndrome-also-present-in-dogs
#6
Matteo Cerquetella, Giacomo Rossi, Andrea Spaterna, Beniamino Tesei, Albert E Jergens, Jan S Suchodolski, Gabrio Bassotti
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in humans is described as the recurrent presence of gastrointestinal signs, without gross histopathologic evidence of inflammation and of other morphologic lesions; however, it is a syndrome not unanimously defined in veterinary medicine. There is some evidence that dysmotility could be related to stressors in some dogs that present with clinical signs (e.g. chronic idiopathic large-bowel diarrhea) that share overlapping aspects with human IBS. The authors hypothesize that an IBS-like condition, similar to that described in humans, might also be present in dogs...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897589/efficacy-of-lubiprostone-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation-analyzed-by-opioid-class
#7
Lynn R Webster, Randall P Brewer, Peter Lichtlen, Taryn Losch-Beridon, Shadreck Mareya, Martin Wang
Objectives: To examine the efficacy and safety of lubiprostone for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients by opioid class received. Design: Data were pooled from three phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Subjects/Setting: Adults with chronic noncancer pain receiving opioid therapy for 30 or more days and diagnosed with OIC. Methods: Overall mean change from baseline in spontaneous bowel movement (SBM) frequency, overall treatment response (≥1 SBM/week improvement over baseline SBM frequency in all treatment weeks with available data and ≥3 SBMs/week for ≥9 of the 12 weeks of treatment), and OIC-related symptoms were examined in patients taking opioids...
June 1, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895758/burden-of-common-childhood-diseases-in-relation-to-improved-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-wash-among-nigerian-children
#8
Zhifei He, Ghose Bishwajit, Dongsheng Zou, Sanni Yaya, Zhaohui Cheng, Yan Zhou
Having access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities constitute a key component of healthy living and quality of life. Prolonged exposure to insanitary living conditions can significantly enhance the burden of infectious diseases among children and affect nutritional status and growth. In this study we examined the prevalence of some common infectious diseases/disease symptoms of childhood among under-five children in Nigeria, and the association between the occurrence of these diseases with household’s access to WASH facilities...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895707/comprehensive-safety-analysis-of-venetoclax-monotherapy-for-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#9
Matthew S Davids, Michael Hallek, William Wierda, Andrew W Roberts, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Jeffrey A Jones, John F Gerecitano, Su Young Kim, Jalaja Potluri, Todd Busman, Andrea Best, Maria E Verdugo, Elisa Cerri, Monali Desai, Peter Hillmen, John F Seymour
PURPOSE: The oral BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax is an effective therapy for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), including disease with high-risk genomic features such as chromosome 17p deletion (del[17p]) or progressive disease following B-cell receptor pathway inhibitors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the safety of 400mg daily venetoclax monotherapy in 350 patients with CLL using an integrated dataset from three phase-I/II studies...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893516/stool-patterns-and-symptoms-of-disordered-anorectal-function-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#10
Paweł W Petryszyn, Leszek Paradowski
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) typically clinically manifest with symptoms like chronic diarrhea, cramps, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. However, symptoms of abnormal anorectal function seem to be of equal importance, regardless of the presence or absence of perianal disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess stool patterns and the prevalence of symptoms of disordered anorectal function, particularly urgency and fecal incontinence, and their severity in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)...
June 12, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892169/assessment-of-colonic-contents-in-patients-with-chronic-constipation-using-mri
#11
Yumi Inoh, Kenji Kanoshima, Kanji Ohkuma, Akiko Fuyuki, Shiori Uchiyama, Hidenori Ohkubo, Takuma Higurashi, Hiroshi Iida, Takashi Nonaka, Koji Fujita, Akihiko Kusakabe, Masahiko Inamori, Kazumasa Hiroishi, Hajime Nagase, Atushi Nakajima, Taro Takahara
Although chronic constipation is common, colonic functional evaluating tests are uncommon. This study examines whether chronic constipation and gastrointestinal symptoms are correlated with the lateral diameter of the colon measured from MRI images. We included chronic constipation patients in a prospective, cross-sectional study using MRI at three centers. We divided 3D MRI colorectal images into 6 segments using with specified sequences and selected the maximum luminal diameter from each segment. We used the GSRS questionnaire to evaluate gastrointestinal symptoms...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890559/severe-eosinophilic-colitis-caused-by-neuropathic-agents-in-a-patient-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-functional-abdominal-pain-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Konstantinos C Fragkos, John Barragry, Charisma Shahi Fernando, Marco Novelli, Joanna Begent, Natalia Zárate-Lopez
Eosinophilic colitis is a rare clinical condition that belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Its occurrence can be primary or secondary to infection, medications, or autoimmune/hematological conditions. We present a case of a young female adult with severe chronic fatigue syndrome, widespread chronic pain, including functional abdominal pain, who developed severe eosinophilic colitis following successive treatments with gabapentin and pregabalin. On both occasions, symptoms manifested as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia and improved upon discontinuation of the medications...
June 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884226/sucroferric-oxyhydroxide-decreases-serum-phosphorus-level-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-and-improves-renal-anemia-in-hemodialysis-patients
#13
Hisato Shima, Keiko Miya, Kazuyoshi Okada, Jun Minakuchi, Shu Kawashima
OBJECTIVE: Sucroferric oxyhydroxide, a novel iron-based phosphate-binder, has been shown to have beneficial effects in lowering serum phosphorus levels and improving renal anemia in clinical studies. Although an effect of this agent on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has been reported in an animal study, there is little clinical data supporting this finding. This study aimed to evaluate the effect on chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder, FGF23, renal anemia, iron-related parameters, adverse events of sucroferric oxyhydroxide in hemodialysis patients...
June 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881387/a-decade-of-th9-cells-role-of-th9-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Shachi Pranjal Vyas, Ritobrata Goswami
T helper cell subsets play a critical role in providing protection against offending pathogens by secreting specific cytokines. However, unrestrained T helper cell responses can promote chronic inflammation-mediated inflammatory diseases. Dysregulated T helper cell responses have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory diseases, including allergic airway inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among others. Aberrant pro-inflammatory responses induced by Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets are known to trigger IBD...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881299/economic-evaluation-of-point-of-care-testing-in-the-remote-primary-health-care-setting-of-australia-s-northern-territory
#15
Brooke A Spaeth, Billingsley Kaambwa, Mark Ds Shephard, Rodney Omond
Aim: To determine the cost-effectiveness of utilizing point-of-care testing (POCT) on the Abbott i-STAT device as a support tool to aid decisions regarding the emergency medical retrievals of patients at remote health centers in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Methods: A decision analytic simulation model-based economic evaluation was conducted using data from patients presenting with three common acute conditions (chest pain, chronic renal failure due to missed dialysis session(s), and acute diarrhea) at six remote NT health centers from July to December 2015...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880613/real-world-outcomes-and-management-strategies-for-venetoclax-treated-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients-in-the-united-states
#16
Anthony R Mato, Meghan Thompson, John N Allan, Danielle M Brander, John M Pagel, Chaitra S Ujjani, Brian T Hill, Nicole Lamanna, Frederick Lansigan, Ryan Jacobs, Mazyar Shadman, Alan P Skarbnik, Jeffrey J Pu, Paul M Barr, Alison R Sehgal, Bruce D Cheson, Clive S Zent, Hande H Tuncer, Stephen J Schuster, Peter V Pickens, Nirav N Shah, Andre Goy, Allison M Winter, Christine Garcia, Kaitlin Kennard, Krista Isaac, Colleen Dorsey, Lisa M Gashonia, Arun K Singavi, Lindsey E Roeker, Andrew Zelenetz, Annalynn Williams, Christina Howlett, Hanna Weissbrot, Naveed Ali, Sirin Khajavian, Andrea Sitlinger, Eve Tranchito, Joanna Rhodes, Joshua Felsenfeld, Neil Bailey, Bhavisha Patel, Timothy F Burns, Melissa Yacur, Mansi Malhotra, Jakub Svoboda, Richard R Furman, Chadi Nabhan
Venetoclax is a BCL2 inhibitor approved for 17p-deleted relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia with activity following kinase inhibitors. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of patients with CLL treated with venetoclax to describe outcomes, toxicities, and treatment selection following venetoclax discontinuation. A total of 141 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were included (98% relapsed/refractory). Median age at venetoclax initiation was 67 years (range 37-91), median prior therapies was 3 (0-11), 81% unmutated IGHV, 45% del(17p), and 26...
June 7, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879143/an-open-label-multiple-ascending-dose-study-of-the-anti-ctla-4-antibody-ipilimumab-in-viremic-hiv-patients
#17
Elizabeth Colston, Dennis Grasela, David Gardiner, R Pat Bucy, Blisse Vakkalagadda, Alan J Korman, Israel Lowy
Expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a negative regulator of T-cell function, is increased in chronic HIV-1 infection. It was hypothesized that CTLA-4 blockade may enhance immune response to HIV-1 and result in better control of viremia. This open-label, multiple ascending dose study (NCT03407105)-the first to examine ipilimumab in participants with HIV-1 infection-assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ipilimumab, as well as whether ipilimumab enhanced immune response to HIV-1 and improved control of viremia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877275/recombinant-thrombomodulin-used-to-successfully-treat-cronkhite-canada-syndrome-with-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-due-to-sepsis-in-a-compromised-patient-a-case-report
#18
Kahori Morino, Yuichi Honma, Shinsuke Kumei, Tatsuyuki Watanabe, Keiichiro Kume, Ichiro Yoshikawa, Masaru Harada
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare non-inherited disease characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis, chronic diarrhea, ectodermal dysplasia, skin hyperpigmentation, hair loss and nail atrophy. Although the efficacy of corticosteroid and immunomodulatory agents has been demonstrated, no standard therapy regimen has been established, and the prognosis of CCS is still poor due to various complications. We here in report a CCS patient complicated with severe sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation who was successfully treated by combined modality therapies, including recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin...
June 6, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875660/-fructus-mume-extracts-alleviate-diarrhea-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-the-combination-therapy-of-lapatinib-and-capecitabine
#19
Hua Xing, Lirong Zhang, Jinshu Ma, Zhen Liu, Changlong Song, Yuxia Liu
Lapatinib and capecitabine have been widely used in the therapy of breast cancer. However, long-term use of lapatinib and capecitabine often causes the most common side effect diarrhea, which limit the medicine use. Fructus mume (F. mume) has been proved to be effective to treat chronic diarrhea with few side effects. The compounds from F. mume were extracted by using an ethanol method. Extracts of F. mume (EFM) were analyzed by HPLC. We investigated the protective effects of EFM on the diarrhea caused by lapatinib and capecitabine...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872537/-pentatrichomonas-hominis-infection-in-two-domestic-cats-with-chronic-diarrhea
#20
Bethânia Ferreira Bastos, Beatriz Brener, Mariana Alves de Figueiredo, Daniela Leles, Flavya Mendes-de-Almeida
Case series summary: Chronic diarrhea is a common and recurring problem in feline medicine. Intestinal trichomonads have been reported as causative agents of diarrhea in cats. While Pentatrichomonas hominis is considered commensal, Tritrichomonas foetus has been found to cause feline large bowel diarrhea in cats. In our report, two young cats infected with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and presenting with chronic diarrhea were identified as having trichomonads in their feces, based on direct examination and fecal culture...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
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