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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458010/galectin-9-is-critical-for-mucosal-adaptive-immunity-through-the-t-h-17-iga-axis
#1
Chih-Chia Liang, Chi-Shan Li, I-Chun Weng, Huan-Yuan Chen, Hsueh-Han Lu, Chiu-Ching Huang, Fu-Tong Liu
Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protection against pathogens and toxins in the gut. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-9, a tandem repeat-type β-galactoside-binding protein, in intestinal mucosal immunity. By mucosal immunization of Lgals9-/- and littermate control mice, it was found that lack of galectin-9 impaired mucosal antigen-specific IgA response in the gut...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457962/genotype-identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-isolates-from-stool-samples-of-diarrheic-children
#2
Songtao Ding, Wei Huang, Qizhong Qin, Jun Tang, Handeng Liu
Among approximately 14 human-pathogenic microsporidian species, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common. It can inhabit the small intestines, causing chronic diarrhea and wasting syndrome. Until now, determining prevalence and the corresponding genotypes of E. bieneusi in humans have been performed only in a few provinces of China. Herein, 93 fecal specimens were collected from diarrheic children in Chongqing. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the E. bieneusi rDNA sequence, we found 11 (11...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457051/signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-ileal-crohn-disease-or-both-a-case-of-diagnostic-challenge
#3
Joana R Carvalho, Joana Tavares, Inês Goulart, Paula Moura Dos Santos, Emília Vitorino, Cristina Ferreira, Fátima Serejo, José Velosa
Signet ring cell carcinoma is a rare form of adenocarcinoma that predominantly affects the stomach. Signet ring cell carcinoma originated from the ileum is extremely rare and the prognosis is poor. We present a case of small bowel obstruction with features suggesting Crohn disease of the ileum. The symptoms were chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain with a family history of inflammatory bowel disease. The patient underwent surgery and histopathology revealed both aspects of signet ring cell carcinoma and Crohn disease of the ileum...
January 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455410/can-patients-with-symptomatic-tarlov-cysts-be-differentiated-from-patients-with-specific-low-back-pain-based-on-comprehensive-history-taking
#4
Maria Anna Hulens, Wim Dankaerts, Ricky Rasschaert, Frans Bruyninckx, Marie-Laure Willaert, Charlotte Vereecke, Greet Vansant
BACKGROUND: Tarlov cysts (TCs) are expanded nerve root sheaths that occur near the dorsal root ganglion and result from increased intraspinal hydrostatic pressure. TCs most frequently affect the lumbosacral plexus and therefore may cause specific symptoms such as perineal pain and neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sphincter problems. It has been estimated that 1% of the population has symptomatic Tarlov cysts (STCs). However, STCs appear to be underdiagnosed, with the pain reported by patients commonly attributed to degenerative alterations seen on MRI...
February 17, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451364/the-prevalence-of-celiac-disease-in-adult-chinese-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-of-china-a-prospective-controlled-cohort-study
#5
Guanjun Kou, Jing Guo, Xiuli Zuo, Changqing Li, Chao Liu, Rui Ji, Han Liu, Xiao Wang, Yanqing Li
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory enteropathy with a symptom spectrum similar to that of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). CD is a common, but largely undiagnosed, condition in Western countries. However, it is extremely rare among Chinese people, and few studies have evaluated its prevalence in China. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of CD in IBS patients diagnosed using the Rome III criteria in North China. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, controlled cohort study performed in Qilu Hospital involving 246 IBS patients and 246 healthy controls...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449603/cinacalcet-versus-placebo-for-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#6
Guoqi Wang, Hongyan Liu, Chengzhi Wang, Xiaojian Ji, Weijun Gu, Yiming Mu
To assess the efficacy and safety of cinacalcet on secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease, Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until March 2016. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was conducted to control the risks of type I and II errors and calculate required information size (RIS). A total of 25 articles with 8481 participants were included. Compared with controls, cinacalcet administration did not reduce all-cause mortality (RR = 0...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439890/brugada-type-pattern-on-electrocardiogram-associated-with-high-dose-loperamide-abuse
#7
Christie Sun, Jessica A Brice, Richard F Clark
BACKGROUND: Loperamide has been increasing in popularity recently for its effects separate from treatment of diarrhea. In large doses or in combination with other agents, it can lead to desirable effects in the central nervous system. However, cardiotoxicity has been reported with its abuse. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male who had been chronically abusing loperamide was found to have Brugada-like changes on his electrocardiogram (ECG). He had no other clinical symptoms associated with Brugada syndrome and did not have similar findings on previous ECGs...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435875/a-prospective-study-to-evaluate-the-role-of-duodenal-bulb-biopsy-in-the-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease
#8
Bhanwar Singh Dhandhu, Gaurav Kumar Gupta, Shashank J Wanjari, Nidhi Sharma, Sandeep Nijhawan
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CeD) requires a biopsy from the small intestine to confirm the diagnosis. Conventionally, duodenal bulb (D1) was avoided as a biopsy site due to histological confounding factors at this site. However, sometimes, the bulb mucosa is the only affected site. The aim of the present study was to assess changes in duodenal bulb histology and compare it to distal duodenal histology and to analyze whether the addition of duodenal bulb biopsy increases the diagnostic yield of the CeD...
February 13, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428470/dsp-6952-a-novel-5-ht4-receptor-partial-agonist-inhibits-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-ameliorates-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-experimental-animals
#9
Yukiko Mine, Tomohiro Itakura, Seiko Oku, Reiko Asada, Isao Shimizu
The pharmacological profile of DSP-6952, a novel 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist, was investigated to evaluate the potential use for GI disorders, and to compare its effects in some GI dysfunction models with those of clinically efficacious prokinetic agents. DSP-6952 enhanced gastric motility and caused colonic giant migrating contractions (GMCs) associated with defecation in conscious dogs, having ED50 value for inducing GMCs of 1.56mg/kg. DSP-6952 (3-10mg/kg, i.g.) significantly enhanced colonic transit rate in guinea pigs; this enhancement was antagonized by SB-207266, a selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426710/diagnostics-and-treatments-in-chronic-diarrhea-and-weight-loss-in-horses
#10
REVIEW
Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa
Chronic diarrhea in the horse is defined as diarrhea present for more than several days with little if any improvement. The diagnosis and treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea usually present a great challenge to the clinician. There are many limitations to treatment of these patients given the limited numbers in which a final diagnosis can be achieved. The lack of knowledge of the alterations of horse microbiota during chronic diarrhea and the multiplicity of causes also make treatment challenging. A poor prognosis is often attached to chronic diarrhea, particularly in cases with neoplasia and inflammatory bowel disease...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421808/pathophysiology-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-a-holistic-overview
#11
Gerald Holtmann, Ayesha Shah, Mark Morrison
Background and Summary: Traditionally, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), including functional dyspepsia or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are defined by more or less specific symptoms and the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that cause these symptoms. This concept is now considered to be outdated; if appropriate tests are applied, structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain or cause the symptoms may be found in many patients. Another feature of FGID are the highly prevalent psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety...
February 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419653/long-term-use-of-naldemedine-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation-in-patients-with-chronic-non-cancer-pain-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-3-study
#12
Lynn R Webster, Srinivas Nalamachu, Bart Morlion, Jyotsna Reddy, Yuko Baba, Tadaaki Yamada, Juan Camilo Arjona Ferreira
The long-term safety of naldemedine, a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist, was evaluated in patients with opioid-induced constipation and chronic non-cancer pain in a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study. Eligible adults who could be on a routine laxative regimen were randomized 1:1 to receive once-daily oral naldemedine 0.2 mg (n = 623) or placebo (n = 623). The primary endpoint was summary measures of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Additional endpoints included opioid withdrawal on the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale and the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale, pain intensity on Numeric Rating Scale, frequency of bowel movements, and constipation-related symptoms and quality of life on the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms and Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life scales, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415929/-pharmacological-pharmaceutical-and-clinical-profiles-of-sucroferric-oxyhydroxide-p-tol%C3%A2-chewable-tab-250%C3%A2-mg-500%C3%A2-mg-a-therapeutic-agent-for-hyperphosphatemia
#13
Satoshi Tatemichi, Fumiaki Nakagaki, Shoichi Yoshioka, Natsuko Shichiri
Sucroferric oxyhydroxide (P-TOL® chewable tablets, 250 and 500 mg) is a phosphate binder for oral use; it is composed of polynuclear iron (III)-oxyhydroxide, sucrose, and starches, and is currently indicated for alleviating hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis. The results of non-clinical pharmacological studies have suggested that P-TOL consistently decreases serum phosphorus levels in the aqueous environment at pH levels similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby suppressing the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism, aberrant calcification, and abnormal bone metabolism associated with hyperphosphatemia...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413700/green-synthesis-of-nio-nanoparticles-using-aegle-marmelos-leaf-extract-for-the-evaluation-of-in-vitro-cytotoxicity-antibacterial-and-photocatalytic-properties
#14
A Angel Ezhilarasi, J Judith Vijaya, K Kaviyarasu, L John Kennedy, R Jothi Ramalingam, Hamad A Al-Lohedan
In the present study, we report the green synthesis of NiO nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos as a fuel and this method is ecofriendly and cost effective. The plant Aegle marmelos is used in the field of pharmaceuticals to cure diseases like chronic diarrhea, peptic ulcers and dysentery in India for nearly 5 centuries. The as-prepared nanoparticles were confirmed as pure face centered cubic phase and single crystalline in nature by XRD. The formation of agglomerated spherical nanoparticles was shown by HR-SEM and HR-TEM images...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413205/common-gastrointestinal-complications-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-aids-an-overview
#15
REVIEW
Vincent P Hall
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS into a manageable chronic illness. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) can experience multiple physical symptoms or problems related to HIV infection and treatment. A common problem for PLWHA continues to be diarrhea and nausea and vomiting (NV). Diarrhea and NV can negatively impact the quality of life and adherence to medication therapy among PLWHA and are common reasons to change or discontinue HAART regimens...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406201/proton-pump-inhibitors-review-of-emerging-concerns
#16
REVIEW
Avinash K Nehra, Jeffrey A Alexander, Conor G Loftus, Vandana Nehra
First introduced in 1989, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most widely utilized medications worldwide, both in the ambulatory and inpatient clinical settings. The PPIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including symptomatic peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and nonulcer dyspepsia as well as for prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. PPIs inhibit gastric acid secretion, and the most commonly associated adverse effects include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and headache...
February 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402137/perceived-stress-its-physiological-correlates-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Kristen R Weaver, Gail D'Eramo Melkus, Jason Fletcher, Wendy A Henderson
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract associated with high psychological comorbidity and diminished quality of life. Patients with IBS display a heightened sensitivity to stress, although the literature is inconsistent as to whether they have a dysregulated stress response. The purpose of the present investigation, a substudy of a larger research effort, was to examine physiological correlates of perceived stress in patients with IBS (cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone) and to explore associations between perceived stress and quality of life...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397527/effect-of-roflumilast-on-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Lu-Fei Shen, Xiao-Dong Lv, Wen-Yu Chen, Qi Yang, Zhi-Xian Fang, Wei-Fen Lu
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of roflumilast effect on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been reported in the last decade. The current meta-analysis was designed to systematically review and perform meta-analysis of the RCTs of roflumilast treatment in COPD. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane clinical trials database were searched to identify RCTs of roflumilast treatment on COPD...
February 3, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392154/chronic-diarrhea-as-the-only-symptom-in-a-patient-with-duodenal-colo-renal-primary-fistula
#19
Viviana Parra, Javier Preciado Aponte, Margarita Huertas Quintero, Sara Garcia, Luis Carlos Sabbagh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391826/spotlight-on-naldemedine-in-the-treatment-of-opioid-induced-constipation-in-adult-patients-with-chronic-noncancer-pain-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Emily K Stern, Darren M Brenner
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is an increasingly prevalent problem in the USA due to the growing use of opioids. A novel class of therapeutics, the peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs), has been developed to mitigate the deleterious effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract while maintaining central analgesia and minimizing opioid withdrawal. This review aimed to summarize the literature on naldemedine, the third PAMORA to gain US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of OIC in adults with chronic noncancer pain-related syndromes...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
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