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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428020/repeated-sub-chronic-oral-toxicity-study-of-xylooligosaccharides-xos-in-dogs
#1
Yonglin Gao, Yunzhi Wang, Yanshen Li, Rui Han, Chunmei Li, Lin Xiao, Susan Cho, Yukui Ma, Chao Fang, Albert W Lee
In this study, Beagle dogs were administered xylooligosaccharide (XOS, CAS # 87099-0) at doses of 0, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery period was added to observe delayed or reversible toxicity. Measurements included body weight, food consumption, clinical observations, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), urinalysis, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weight, gross necropsy, and histopathological examination. Except for transient diarrhea or vomiting, no treatment-related adverse effects were noted...
April 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413775/an-interesting-case-of-mycoplasma-pneumonia-associated-multisystem-involvement-and-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage
#2
Rashmi Mishra, Edison Cano, Sindhaghatta Venkatram, Gilda Diaz-Fuentes
Severe mycoplasma pneumonia is a rare entity with only 0.5-2% of cases having a fulminant course. We present a 74-year-old woman with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and remote history of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma admitted with abdominal pain and diarrhea of 1-2 days associated with body-aches, dyspnea, dry cough and weight loss for 2-3 weeks. On physical exam, she was febrile, tachypneic, tachycardic and hypoxic on room air. Chest examination revealed diffuse crackles and end-expiratory wheezes. Laboratory tests showed anemia, acute-on-chronic kidney injury and hyaline casts and epithelial cells in the urine analysis...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409328/long-term-treatment-with-bosutinib-in-a-phase-1-2-study-in-japanese-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients-resistant-intolerant-to-prior-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-treatment
#3
Naoto Takahashi, Chiaki Nakaseko, Yukio Kobayashi, Koichi Miyamura, Chiho Ono, Yuichiro Koide, Yosuke Fujii, Kazunori Ohnishi
This long-term follow-up of a completed phase 1/2 study assessed the safety and efficacy of bosutinib in Japanese Philadelphia chromosome-positive, chronic phase (CP) or advanced phase (ADV) chronic myeloid leukemia patients who were resistant/refractory or intolerant to prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. This analysis included 63 patients with a median bosutinib follow-up of 132 weeks (range 3‒372). In the CP second-line (2L) cohort, the cumulative major cytogenetic response (MCyR) and major molecular response (MMR) rates throughout the study were 73 and 53%, respectively...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408004/development-of-the-diary-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-symptoms-to-assess-treatment-benefit-in-clinical-trials-foundational-qualitative-research
#4
Sheri E Fehnel, Claire M Ervin, Robyn T Carson, Gianna Rigoni, Jeffrey M Lackner, Stephen Joel Coons
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits. Three subtypes are defined on the basis of stool patterns: diarrhea-predominant IBS, constipation-predominant IBS, and alternating or mixed IBS. OBJECTIVES: To develop patient-reported outcome measures for qualification by the Food and Drug Administration to support product approvals and labeling in IBS; the article focuses on the qualitative research that provided the foundation for the new measures...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402581/akt-inhibitor-mk-2206-in-combination-with-bendamustine-and-rituximab-in-relapsed-or-refractory-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-results-from-the-n1087-alliance-study
#5
Jeremy T Larsen, Tait D Shanafelt, Jose F Leis, Betsy LaPlant, Tim Call, Adam Pettinger, Curtis Hanson, Charles Erlichman, Thomas Matthew Habermann, Craig Reeder, Daniel Nikcevich, Deborah Bowen, Michael Conte, Justin Boysen, Charla Secreto, Connie Lesnick, Renee Tschumper, Diane Jelinek, Neil E Kay, Wei Ding
Akt is a downstream target of B cell receptor signaling and is a central regulator of CLL cell survival. We aim to investigate the safety and efficacy of the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 in combination with bendamustine and rituximab (BR) in relapsed and/or refractory CLL in a phase I/II study. A standard phase I design was used with cohorts of three plus three patients to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of MK-2206 in combination with BR in relapsed CLL. Single-agent MK-2206 (weekly dosed) was administered one-week in advance before BR on cycle 1 and subsequently was given with BR at the same time for cycle 2-6...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400287/anti-inflammatory-and-vasoconstrictive-properties-of-potentilla-erecta-a-traditional-medicinal-plant-from-the-northern-hemisphere
#6
Ute Wölfle, Julia Hoffmann, Birgit Haarhaus, Venugopal Rao Mittapalli, Christoph M Schempp
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch is a medicinal plant of the Northern hemisphere belonging to the plant family of roses (Rosaceae). It has traditionally been used to treat inflammatory disorders of the skin and mucous membranes as well as chronic diarrhea. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study we analyzed the anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictive effect of a Potentilla erecta extract (PE) and questioned if PE is similar effective as mild corticosteroids...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397130/antidiarrheal-drug-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller
INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrhea often runs a self-limited course and little by way of treatment is needed except for oral rehydration therapy. Chronic diarrhea poses a longer-term problem. If not treatable with specific therapy aimed at the underlying pathophysiology, chronic diarrhea often needs long-term symptomatic therapy. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to examine the options for symptomatic, nonspecific treatment of diarrhea. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequently used therapies are opiate antidiarrheal drugs...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395789/functional-testing-in-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-mesenteric-ischemia
#8
REVIEW
Desirée van Noord, Jeroen J Kolkman
Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) results from insufficient oxygen delivery or utilization to meet metabolic demand. Two main mechanisms may lead to mesenteric ischemia: occlusion in the arteries or veins of the gastrointestinal tract, or reduced blood flow from shock states or increased intra-abdominal pressure, so-called non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. Severe stenoses in the three main mesenteric vessels as demonstrated with CT-angiography or MR-angiography are sufficient to proof mesenteric ischemia, for example in patients who present with weight loss, postprandial pain and diarrhea...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395788/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-chronic-mesenteric-ischemia-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Jeroen J Kolkman, Robert H Geelkerken
Although the prevalence of mesenteric artery stenoses (MAS) is high, symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is rare. The collateral network in the mesenteric circulation, a remnant of the extensive embryonal vascular network, serves to prevent most cases of ischemia. This explains the high incidence of MAS and relative rarity of cases of CMI. The number of affected vessels is the major determinant in CMI development. Most subjects with single vessel mesenteric stenosis do not develop ischemic complaints...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390869/efficacy-of-8-weeks-of-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-and-voxilaprevir-in-patients-with-chronic-hcv-infection-2-phase-3-randomized-trials
#10
Ira M Jacobson, Eric Lawitz, Edward J Gane, Bernard E Willems, Peter J Ruane, Ronald G Nahass, Sergio M Borgia, Stephen D Shafran, Kimberly A Workowski, Brian Pearlman, Robert H Hyland, Luisa M Stamm, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Yanni Zhu, G Mani Subramanian, Diana M Brainard, John G McHutchison, Norbert Bräu, Thomas Berg, Kosh Agarwal, Bal Raj Bhandari, Mitchell Davis, Jordan J Feld, Gregory J Dore, Catherine A M Stedman, Alexander J Thompson, Tarik Asselah, Stuart K Roberts, Graham R Foster
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) following 12 weeks of treatment with the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir combined with the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir. We assessed the efficacy of 8 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir plus the pangenotypic NS3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir). METHODS: In 2 phase 3, open-label trials, patients with HCV infection who had not previously been treated with a direct-acting antiviral agent were randomly assigned to groups given sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir for 8 weeks or sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377934/chronic-granulomatous-disease-mimicking-colonic-crohn-s-disease-successfully-treated-with-infliximab
#11
Armando Peixoto, Rosa Coelho, Tiago Maia, António Sarmento, Fernando Magro, Guilherme Macedo
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetically induced disease caused by mutations in one of the components of the NADPH-oxidase in phagocytes, characterized by life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and granuloma formation. Treatment includes prevention of infectious complications and immunomodulation. However, a standard strategy is not yet defined. The authors report an X-linked CGD female carrier who presented during adulthood with diarrhea and colorectal ulcers, with high impairment of quality of life...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376703/symptomatic-delayed-aortic-dissection-after-superior-mesenteric-artery-stenting-for-chronic-mesenteric-ischemia
#12
Cindy Huynh, Robert Schwartz
Chronic mesenteric ischemia most commonly occurs secondary to atherosclerotic disease of the mesenteric arteries. Patients are often older than 60 years and can present with postprandial abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, and significant weight loss. Symptomatic disease has traditionally been managed with open surgical repair, but endovascular strategies, such as percutaneous angioplasty and stenting, have emerged as the mainstays of therapy. Complications from stenting include plaque embolization, thrombosis, perforation, or dissection of the mesenteric arteries...
January 1, 2017: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375094/efficacy-and-safety-of-entoban-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-diarrhea
#13
Sadia Shakeel, Khan Usmanghani, Hafiz Muhammad Asif
The current randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and effectiveness of Entoban for treating patients of chronic diarrhea. The study enrolled 150 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, among them 95 were males and 55 were females. Written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Metronidazole tablets (400 mg) were used in a control group for 7-10 days. The test group received Entoban capsule 400mg every 8 hours for five days. Primary outcome of the study was daily bowel frequency evaluation; the secondary outcome was evaluation of clinical symptoms including abdominal pain, distention, stool consistency and sensation of incomplete evacuation...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366929/strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-united-states-of-america-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#14
Laia Jimena Vazquez Guillamet, Zane Saul, Goran Miljkovich, Gabriel Alejandro Vilchez, Nikolai Mendonca, Venkata Gourineni, Nicholas Lillo, Marguerite Pinto, Aurengzaib Baig, Louie Mar Gangcuangco
BACKGROUND Strongyloides stercoralis infection is endemic in subtropical and tropical regions but is reported rather sporadically in temperate countries. In the USA, the highest rates of infection are from the southeastern states, predominantly among immigrants. There is paucity of case reports on S. stercoralis infection among HIV-infected patients who were born and raised in the USA. CASE REPORT A 61-year-old male with known HIV infection (CD4 count: 235 cells/uL, undetectable HIV RNA, on antiretroviral therapy) presented with a 3-month history of diarrhea...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361039/cd4-t-cell-dependent-colitis-exacerbation-following-re-exposure-of-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis
#15
Abdulhadi Suwandi, Imke Bargen, Marina C Pils, Martina Krey, Susanne Zur Lage, Anurag K Singh, Tina Basler, Christine S Falk, Ursula Seidler, Mathias W Hornef, Ralph Goethe, Siegfried Weiss
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358712/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-elaeagnus-angustifolia-fruit-extract-on-rat-paw-edema
#16
Manijeh Motevalian, Mehdi Shiri, Saeedeh Shiri, Zahra Shiri, Hadi Shiri
BACKGROUND: The Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit has been traditionally used in Iranian herbal medicine to treat diarrhea and rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, the effects of E. angustifolia fruit extract on the acute and chronic phases of formalin-induced rat paw edema were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effects of E. angustifolia fruit extract were investigated through the subcutaneous injection of 100 μL of formalin (2...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356078/calcium-oxalate-crystal-related-kidney-injury-in-a-patient-receiving-roux-en-y-hepaticojejunostomy-due-to-gall-bladder-cancer
#17
Jun-Li Tsai, Shang-Feng Tsai
BACKGROUND: Calcium oxalate nephropathy is rare in current practice. It was a common complication during jejunoileal bypass, but much less seen in modern gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. The major cause of it is enteric hyperoxaluria. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a patient here with acute kidney disease due to calcium oxalate nephropathy, rather than the conditions mentioned above. The male patient received a Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy and common bile duct drainage...
March 29, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349992/central-neuromodulators-for-treating-functional-gi-disorders-a-primer
#18
REVIEW
W Harley Sobin, Thomas W Heinrich, Douglas A Drossman
Patients with functional GI disorders (FGIDs) are commonplace in the gastroenterologist's practice. A number of these patients may be refractory to peripherally acting agents, yet respond to central neuromodulators. There are benefits and potential adverse effects to using TCAs, SSRIs, SNRIs, atypical antipsychotics, and miscellaneous central neuromodulators in these patients. These agents can benefit mood, pain, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, sleep, and depression. The mechanisms by which they work, the differences between classes and individual agents, and the various adverse effects are outlined...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348938/giardia-filled-pancreatic-mass-in-a-patient-with-recently-treated-t-cell-rich-b-cell-lymphoma
#19
Raj Shah, Talal Asif, Richard Johnson
Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia)-filled pancreatic masses are a rarely reported entity. Furthermore, there are only a few case reports in literature on the association of these masses with cancer. We present a case of a G. lamblia-filled pancreatic cystic mass in a patient with a history of T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma. The authors performed a PubMed search using (Medical Subject Headings) MeSH terms of pancreas, mass, Giardia, and lymphoma.  A 53-year-old male with past medical and surgical history of T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma, status post R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab) therapy with positron emission tomography (PET) scan showing no residual disease, essential hypertension, and alcohol use disorder presented to the emergency department (ED) with epigastric pain and nausea for one week...
February 9, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340843/acquired-acrodermatitis-enteropathica-syndrome-in-a-kidney-transplant-receipt-a-case-report
#20
A Bayraktar, H Bakkaloglu, E Demir, A Turkmen, I F Azamat, Y Caliskan, Ş O Sari, N Buyukbabani, C Baykal, A E Aydin
Acrodermatitis enteropathica syndrome (AE) is a clinical entity that results in severe zinc deficiency. It can be genetic or acquired. Acquired AE has been reported in patients with chronic liver disease, malabsorption syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and chronic renal failure. We present a kidney transplant recipient with skin rash and watery diarrhea. The patient had low serum zinc levels, which quickly resolved after zinc supplementation. Skin biopsy showed cytoplasmic pallor and vacuolization and ballooning degeneration of keratinocytes within the superficial epidermis, which may have led to confluent necrosis of keratinocytes...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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