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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634726/connexin-channels-at-the-glio-vascular-interface-gatekeepers-of-the-brain
#1
Marijke De Bock, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Neuronal survival, electrical signaling and synaptic activity require a well-balanced micro-environment in the central nervous system. This is achieved by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an endothelial barrier situated in the brain capillaries, that controls near-to-all passage in and out of the brain. The endothelial barrier function is highly dependent on signaling interactions with surrounding glial, neuronal and vascular cells, together forming the neuro-glio-vascular unit. Within this functional unit, connexin (Cx) channels are of utmost importance for intercellular communication between the different cellular compartments...
June 20, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634078/astrocytes-regulate-the-expression-of-sp1r3-on-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-through-cx47-and-promote-their-proliferation
#2
Dan Xu, Zhaoyu Liu, Shang Wang, Yan Peng, Xiaochuan Sun
Many degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are associated with demyelination. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are potential stem cells that can differentiate into various cell types, including oligodendrocytes (OLs). Promoting the proliferation and differentiation of OPCs into mature OLs that can myelinate axons is the key to stimulate remyelination. Here, we report that astrocytes (ASTs) increase the number of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 3 (S1pR3) on OPCs and promote OPCs proliferation through a direct contact via connexin 47 (Cx47)...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627584/gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-enteric-neuronal-survival
#3
Nian Wang, Kun Li, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Research and clinical experience with vagotomy have confirmed that damage to the central nervous system severely affects physiological movement in the gastrointestinal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synchronized dual-pulse gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) on the apoptosis of enteric neurons and the possible pathways involved in these effects in vagotomized rats. For this purpose, Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into a control group, an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (ESDV group), an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with short-term SGES (ESDV + SSGES group), a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (TSDV group) and a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with long-term SGES (TSDV + LSGES group)...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625689/multiple-and-complex-influences-of-connexins-and-pannexins-on-cell-death
#4
REVIEW
Jérôme Gilleron, Diane Carette, Dominique Segretain, Georges Pointis
Cell death is a fundamental process for organogenesis, immunity and cell renewal. During the last decades a broad range of molecular tools were identified as important players for several different cell death pathways (apoptosis, pyroptosis, necrosis, autosis…). Aside from these direct regulators of cell death programs, several lines of evidence proposed connexins and pannexins as potent effectors of cell death. In the present review we discussed the potential roles played by connexins, pannexins and innexins in the different cell death programs at different scales from gap junction intercellular communication to protein-protein interactions...
June 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624390/nkx2-5-enhances-the-efficacy-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-in-treatment-heart-failure-in-rats
#5
Bo Deng, Jin Xin Wang, Xing Xing Hu, Peng Duan, Lin Wang, Yang Li, Qing Lei Zhu
AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine whether Nkx2.5 transfection of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improves the efficacy of treatment of adriamycin-induced heart failure in a rat model. MAIN METHODS: Nkx2.5 was transfected in MSCs by lentiviral vector transduction. The expressions of Nkx2.5 and cardiac specific genes in MSCs and Nkx2.5 transfected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs-Nkx2.5) were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot in vitro...
June 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622830/corrigendum-to-involvement-of-autophagy-in-connexin-40-reduction-in-the-late-phase-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-brain-res-bull-131-2017-100-106
#6
Wei Chen, Yijun Guo, Wenjin Yang, Ping Zheng, Jinsong Zeng, Wusong Tong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621931/tunable-surface-repellency-maintains-stemness-and-redox-capacity-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Daniel A Balikov, Spencer William Crowder, Timothy C Boire, Jung Bok Lee, Mukesh K Gupta, Aidan M Fenix, Holley N Lewis, Caitlyn M Ambrose, Philip A Short, Chang-Soo Kim, Dylan T Burnette, Matthew A Reilly, N Sanjeeva Murthy, Mi-Lan Kang, Won Shik Kim, Hak-Joon Sung
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine due to their multipotent differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory capabilities. Substantial research has elucidated mechanisms by which extracellular cues regulate hMSC fate decisions, but considerably less work has addressed how material properties can be leveraged to maintain undifferentiated stem cells. Here, we show that synthetic culture substrates designed to exhibit moderate cell-repellency promote high stemness and low oxidative stress - two indicators of naïve, healthy stem cells - in commercial and patient-derived hMSCs...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617431/nicotine-protects-rat-hypoglossal-motoneurons-from-excitotoxic-death-via-downregulation-of-connexin-36
#8
Silvia Corsini, Maria Tortora, Rossana Rauti, Andrea Nistri
Motoneuron disease including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be due, at an early stage, to deficit in the extracellular clearance of the excitatory transmitter glutamate. A model of glutamate-mediated excitotoxic cell death based on pharmacological inhibition of its uptake was used to investigate how activation of neuronal nicotinic receptors by nicotine may protect motoneurons. Hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs) in neonatal rat brainstem slices were exposed to the glutamate uptake blocker DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) that evoked large Ca(2+) transients time locked among nearby HMs, whose number fell by about 30% 4 h later...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612258/downregulated-glia-interplay-and-increased-mirna-155-as-promising-markers-to-track-als-at-an%C3%A2-early-stage
#9
Carolina Cunha, Catarina Santos, Cátia Gomes, Adelaide Fernandes, Alexandra Marçal Correia, Ana Maria Sebastião, Ana Rita Vaz, Dora Brites
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown cause. Absence of specific targets and biomarkers compromise the development of new therapeutic strategies and of innovative tools to stratify patients and assess their responses to treatment. Here, we investigate changes in neuroprotective-neuroinflammatory actions in the spinal cord of SOD1 (G93A) mice, at presymptomatic and symptomatic stages to identify stage-specific biomarkers and potential targets. Results showed that in the presymptomatic stage, there are alterations in both astrocytes and microglia, which comprise decreased expression of GFAP and S100B and upregulation of GLT-1, as well as reduced expression of CD11b, M2-phenotype markers, and a set of inflammatory mediators...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611680/mono-heteromeric-configurations-of-gap-junction-channels-formed-by-connexin43-and-connexin45-reduce-unitary-conductance-and-determine-both-voltage-gating-and-metabolic-flux-asymmetry
#10
Guoqiang Zhong, Nazem Akoum, Daniel A Appadurai, Volodya Hayrapetyan, Osman Ahmed, Agustin D Martinez, Eric C Beyer, Alonso P Moreno
In cardiac tissues, the expression of multiple connexins (Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx30.2) is a requirement for proper development and function. Gap junctions formed by these connexins have distinct permeability and gating mechanisms. Since a single cell can express more than one connexin isoform, the formation of hetero-multimeric gap junction channels provides a tissue with an enormous repertoire of combinations to modulate intercellular communication. To study further the perm-selectivity and gating properties of channels containing Cx43 and Cx45, we studied two monoheteromeric combinations in which a HeLa cell co-transfected with Cx43 and Cx45 was paired with a cell expressing only one of these connexins...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607928/extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-affect-myogenic-processes-in-c2c12-myoblasts-role-of-gap-junction-mediated-intercellular-communication
#11
Caterina Morabito, Nathalie Steimberg, Francesca Rovetta, Jennifer Boniotti, Simone Guarnieri, Giovanna Mazzoleni, Maria A Mariggiò
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can interact with biological systems. Although they are successfully used as therapeutic agents in physiatrics and rehabilitative practice, they might represent environmental pollutants and pose a risk to human health. Due to the lack of evidence of their mechanism of action, the effects of ELF-EMFs on differentiation processes in skeletal muscle were investigated. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to ELF-EMFs generated by a solenoid. The effects of ELF-EMFs on cell viability and on growth and differentiation rates were studied using colorimetric and vital dye assays, cytomorphology, and molecular analysis of MyoD and myogenin expression, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607585/aberrant-cx43-expression-and-mislocalization-in-metastatic-human-melanomas
#12
Katanya C Alaga, Melissa Crawford, Lina Dagnino, Dale W Laird
At present, it is unclear if melanocytes contain Cx43 gap junctions and whether Cx43 expression is regulated in melanoma onset and progression. To this end, we cultured pure populations of mouse melanocytes and found that they had no detectable Cx43 and exhibited an inability for dye transfer indicating they were devoid of functional gap junctions. Given the evidence that melanomas acquire the expression of other connexin isoforms during tumor progression, we assessed if Cx43 was also expressed and assembled into gap junctions at any stage of human melanoma onset and progression to distant metastases...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604388/targeting-neuronal-gap-junctions-in-mouse-retina-offers-neuroprotection-in-glaucoma
#13
Abram Akopian, Sandeep Kumar, Hariharasubramanian Ramakrishnan, Kaushambi Roy, Suresh Viswanathan, Stewart A Bloomfield
The progressive death of retinal ganglion cells and resulting visual deficits are hallmarks of glaucoma, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In many neurodegenerative diseases, cell death induced by primary insult is followed by a wave of secondary loss. Gap junctions (GJs), intercellular channels composed of subunit connexins, can play a major role in secondary cell death by forming conduits through which toxic molecules from dying cells pass to and injure coupled neighbors. Here we have shown that pharmacological blockade of GJs or genetic ablation of connexin 36 (Cx36) subunits, which are highly expressed by retinal neurons, markedly reduced loss of neurons and optic nerve axons in a mouse model of glaucoma...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602949/connexin-channel-and-its-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
REVIEW
Sayon Roy, Jean X Jiang, An-Fei Li, Dongjoon Kim
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the working age population. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this devastating ocular complication. The early stage of diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the loss of various cell types in the retina, namely endothelial cells and pericytes. As the disease progresses, vascular leakage, a clinical hallmark of diabetic retinopathy, becomes evident and may eventually lead to diabetic macular edema, the most common cause of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy...
June 7, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602541/connexin-43-enhances-bax-activation-via-jnk-activation-in-sunitinib-induced-apoptosis-in-mesothelioma-cells
#15
Miaki Uzu, Hiromi Sato, Ayaka Shimizu, Yukihiro Shibata, Koichi Ueno, Akihiro Hisaka
The constituent protein of gap junctions, connexin (Cx), interacts with various proteins via its C-terminus region, including kinases, cell-adhesion proteins, and a pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. This molecular interaction may affect expression and functioning of the interacting proteins and modulate the cellular physiology. In our previous work, Cx43 was found to interact directly with Bax and in the presence of sunitinib, lead to the Bax-mediated apoptosis in mesothelioma cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of how Cx43 promotes Bax-mediated apoptosis using the same cell line...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601938/enhanced-gap-junction-intercellular-communication-inhibits-catabolic-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-tenocytes-against-heat-stress
#16
Eijiro Maeda, Shunsuke Kimura, Masahiko Yamada, Masataka Tashiro, Toshiro Ohashi
Elevation of tendon core temperature during severe activity is well known. However, its effects on tenocyte function have not been studied in detail. The present study tested a hypothesis that heat stimulation upregulates tenocyte catabolism, which can be modulated by the inhibition or the enhancement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Tenocytes isolated from rabbit Achilles tendons were subjected to heat stimulation at 37 °C, 41 °C or 43 °C for 30 min, and changes in cell viability, gene expressions and GJIC were examined...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589517/inhibition-of-gap-junction-elevates-glutamate-uptake-in-cultured-astrocytes
#17
Katsura Takano, Masato Ogawa, Kenji Kawabe, Mitsuaki Moriyama, Yoichi Nakamura
Glutamate uptake is a main function of astrocytes to keep extracellular glutamate levels low and protect neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. On the other hand, astrocyte networks formed by gap junctions, which are consisted with connexins and connecting neighboring cells, are reported to play a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis in the brain. In the present study, we examined the effects of gap junction inhibitors on the glutamate uptake activity in cultured rat cortical astrocytes. At first, we confirmed the effects of gap junction inhibitors, 1-octanol and carbenoxolone, on cell-cell communication by the scrape-loading assay using a fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586033/sufentanil-attenuates-oxaliplatin-cytotoxicity-via-inhibiting-connexin-43%C3%A2-composed-gap-junction-function
#18
Qi Zhang, Min Su
Comprehensive strategies for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) have become increasingly important. One of the most important factors is pain relief. Therefore, patients with CRC are concurrently treated with analgesics and chemotherapeutic agents; however, the effects of analgesics on the therapeutic activity of chemotherapeutic agents remain largely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of three widely used analgesics in clinics: Fentanyl, remifentanil and sufentanil, on the cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent for CRC...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585113/sex-dependent-glial-signaling-in-pathological-pain-distinct-roles-of-spinal-microglia-and-astrocytes
#19
Gang Chen, Xin Luo, M Yawar Qadri, Temugin Berta, Ru-Rong Ji
Increasing evidence suggests that spinal microglia regulate pathological pain in males. In this study, we investigated the effects of several microglial and astroglial modulators on inflammatory and neuropathic pain following intrathecal injection in male and female mice. These modulators were the microglial inhibitors minocycline and ZVEID (a caspase-6 inhibitor) and the astroglial inhibitors L-α-aminoadipate (L-AA, an astroglial toxin) and carbenoxolone (a connexin 43 inhibitor), as well as U0126 (an ERK kinase inhibitor) and D-JNKI-1 (a c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor)...
June 5, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584630/connexin-43-key-roles-in-the-skin
#20
Xiao-Fei Zhang, Xiaofeng Cui
Gap junctions are tightly packed intercellular channels that serve a common purpose of allowing the intercellular exchange of small metabolites, second messengers and electrical signals. Connexins (Cxs) are gap junction proteins. Currently, 20 and 21 members of Cxs have been characterized in mice and humans, respectively. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitously expressed type of Cx in the skin. It is produced by various different types of skin cell, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial and basal cells, melanocytes and dermal papilla cells...
June 2017: Biomedical Reports
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