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Wen-Han Yu, Cormac Cosgrove, Christoph T Berger, Patrick C Cheney, Marina Krykbaeva, Arthur Y Kim, Lia Lewis-Ximenez, Georg M Lauer, Galit Alter
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
Clive M Michelo, Bram van Cranenbroek, Peran Touw, Frans H J Claas, Arnold van der Meer, Irma Joosten
Background: Antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplantation is an important immunological barrier to successful long-term graft survival. Next to complement activation, natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated in the process. Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), independently associated with decreased graft survival, has a strong imprint on the immune response. Here, we assessed the effect of CMV status on alloreactive NK cell reactivity. Methods: We compared antibody-mediated NK cell cytolytic activity (CD107a expression) and IFNγ production between healthy CMV-seropositive (n = 8) and CMV-seronegative (n = 11) individuals, in cocultures of NK cells with anti-HLA class I or rituximab (control) antibody-coated Raji cells...
December 2017: Transplantation Direct
Franklin R Toapanta, Paula J Bernal, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Marcelo B Sztein
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis persists as a public health problem worldwide causing ~ 165,000 deaths every year, of which ~ 55,000 are in children less than 5 years of age. No vaccine against shigellosis is currently licensed. The live-attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate CVD 1208S (S. flexneri 2a; ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen) demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. Earlier reports focused on humoral immunity. However, Shigella is an intracellular pathogen and therefore, T cell mediated immunity (T-CMI) is also expected to play an important role...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Ga Young Lee, Chan Yoon Park, Kyeong Sun Cha, Seung Eun Lee, Munkyong Pae, Sung Nim Han
Vitamin D has an immunoregulatory effect on both innate and adaptive immunity. Contradictory results regarding vitamin D and natural killer (NK) cell functions have been reported with in vitro studies, but little is known about this in vivo. We investigated whether vitamin D levels (50, 1000 or 10,000 IU/kg of diet: DD, DC or DS) affect NK cell functions in mice fed a control or high-fat diet (10% or 45% kcal fat: CD or HFD) for 12 weeks. The splenic NK cell activity was significantly higher in the CD-DS group than the HFD-DS group, and the CD-DS group showed significantly higher NK cell activity compared with the CD-DD and CD-DC groups...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Rajia Bahri, Adnan Custovic, Peter Korosec, Marina Tsoumani, Martin Barron, Jiakai Wu, Rebekah Sayers, Alf Weimann, Monica Ruiz-Garcia, Nandinee Patel, Abigail Robb, Mohamed H Shamji, Sara Fontanella, Mira Silar, E N Clare Mills, Angela Simpson, Paul J Turner, Silvia Bulfone-Paus
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the commonest cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy resulting in over-diagnosis and adverse impact on health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, the mast cell activation test (MAT)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Johnny Amer, Ahmad Salhab, Sarit Doron, Gilles Morali, Rifaat Safadi
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a central fibrogenic cell type that contributes to collagen accumulation during chronic liver disease. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from HCV patients are phagocytized by HSCs and induce their differentiation. This study aimed to characterize HSCs differentiation using a flow cytometry tool for fibrosis scoring. NK cells from healthy donors and from patients with chronic HCV with various severities of fibrosis were co-cultured with a human HSC line (LX2). LX2 phagocytosis of NK cells were stained for NK cells (CD45/CD56/CD3) and NK activation marker (CD107a) as well as INF-γ, apoptosis (Annexin-V) and α-smooth-muscle-actin (αSMA, as a marker of LX2 activation)...
March 8, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Najmeh Khosravianfar, Jamshid Hadjati, Afshin Namdar, Roobina Boghozian, Morteza Hafezi, Mahboubeh Ashourpour, Nasim Kheshtchin, Mahsa Banitalebi, Reza Mirzaei, Seyed Alireza Razavi
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are capable of suppressing the immune response. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) compared to other chemotherapy drugs have shown considerable decreases in the number of MDSCs without visible effects on T, B and natural killer cells, as well as dendritic cells (DCs). DC-based vaccines considered to be appropriate candidates for cancer immunotherapy. However, due to the presence of various factors like MDSCs in tumor microenvironment, DC vaccine cannot effectively perform its function...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Johnny Amer, Ahmad Salhab, Mazen Noureddin, Sarit Doron, Lina Abu-Tair, Rami Ghantous, Mahmud Mahamid, Rifaat Safadi
Insulin resistance is a key risk factor in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may lead to liver fibrosis. Natural killer (NK) cells are thought to exert an antifibrotic effect through their killing of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Here, we investigated how the interplay between NK cells and HSCs are modified by insulin resistance in NAFLD. Fresh peripheral blood NK cells (clusters of differentiation [CD]56dim , CD16+ ) were collected from 22 healthy adults and 72 patients with NAFLD not currently taking any medications and without signs of metabolic syndrome...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
Timothy T Spear, Yuan Wang, Thomas W Smith, Patricia E Simms, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Lance M Hellman, Brian M Baker, Michael I Nishimura
The use of T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells in adoptive cell transfer has had promising clinical success, but often, simple preclinical evaluation does not necessarily accurately predict treatment efficacy or safety. Preclinical studies generally evaluate one or a limited number of type 1 cytokines to assess antigen recognition. However, recent studies have implicated other "typed" T cells in effective anti-tumor/viral immunity, and limited functional evaluations may underestimate cross-reactivity...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Niken M Mahaweni, Gerard M J Bos, Constantine S Mitsiades, Marcel G J Tilanus, Lotte Wieten
Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy is a promising novel approach to treat cancer. However, NK cell function has been shown to be potentially diminished by factors common in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we assessed the synergistic potential of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and killer immunoglobin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand mismatched NK cells to potentiate NK cell antitumor reactivity in multiple myeloma (MM). Hypoxia, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or combinations were selected to mimic the TME...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Vera S Donnenberg, Jayce Jieming Zhang, Erika Moravcikova, Ernest Michael Meyer, Haihui Lu, Christian T Carson, Albert D Donnenberg
Flow cytometric cell surface proteomics provides a new and powerful tool to determine changes accompanying neoplastic transformation and invasion, providing clues to essential interactions with the microenvironment as well as leads for potential therapeutic targets. One of the most important advantages of flow cytometric cell surface proteomics is that it can be performed on living cells that can be sorted for further characterization and functional studies. Here, we document the surface proteome of clonogenic metastatic breast cancer (MBrCa) explants, which was strikingly similar to that of normal mesenchymal stromal cells (P = 0...
March 2, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Helen R Wagstaffe, Carolyn M Nielsen, Eleanor M Riley, Martin R Goodier
IL-15 is a key regulator of NK cell maintenance and proliferation and synergizes with other myeloid cell-derived cytokines to enhance NK cell effector function. At low concentrations, trans -presentation of IL-15 by dendritic cells can activate NK cells, whereas at higher concentrations it can act directly on NK cells, independently of accessory cells. In this study, we investigate the potential for IL-15 to boost responses to influenza virus by promoting accessory cell function. We find that coculture of human PBMCs with inactivated whole influenza virus (A/Victoria/361/2011) in the presence of very low concentrations of IL-15 results in increased production of myeloid cell-derived cytokines, including IL-12, IFN-α2, GM-CSF, and IL-1β, and an increased frequency of polyfunctional NK cells (defined by the expression of two or more of CD107a, IFN-γ, and CD25)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jooeun Bae, Teru Hideshima, Yu-Tzu Tai, Yan Song, Paul Richardson, Noopur Raje, Nikhil C Munshi, Kenneth C Anderson
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are therapeutic targets in multiple cancers. ACY241, an HDAC6 selective inhibitor, has shown anti-multiple myeloma (MM) activity in combination with immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors. Here we show ACY241 significantly reduces the frequency of CD138+ MM cells, CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, and HLA-DRLow/- CD11b+ CD33+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells; and decreases expression of PD1/PD-L1 on CD8+ T cells and of immune checkpoints in bone marrow cells from myeloma patients...
February 22, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Kjell Eneslätt, Igor Golovliov, Patrik Rydén, Anders Sjöstedt
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is normally required for efficient protection against intracellular infections, however, identification of correlates is challenging and they are generally lacking. Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent, facultative intracellular bacterium and CMI is critically required for protection against the pathogen, but how this is effectuated in humans is poorly understood. To understand the protective mechanisms, we established an in vitro co-culture assay to identify how control of infection of F...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Nevena Gajovic, Milena Jurisevic, Jelena Pantic, Gordana D Radosavljevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag Lukic, Ivan Jovanovic
Diabetic patients have higher incidence and mortality of cancer. Recent study revealed that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is involved in the acceleration of tumor metastasis. We used model of high dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes to investigate its effect on tumor growth and modulation of antitumor immune response of 4T1 murine breast cancer in BALB/c mice. Diabetes accelerated tumor appearance, growth and weight, which was associated with decreased NK cells cytotoxicity against 4T1 tumor cells in vitro...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Nimitha R Mathew, Francis Baumgartner, Lukas Braun, David O'Sullivan, Simone Thomas, Miguel Waterhouse, Tony A Müller, Kathrin Hanke, Sanaz Taromi, Petya Apostolova, Anna L Illert, Wolfgang Melchinger, Sandra Duquesne, Annette Schmitt-Graeff, Lena Osswald, Kai-Li Yan, Arnim Weber, Sonia Tugues, Sabine Spath, Dietmar Pfeifer, Marie Follo, Rainer Claus, Michael Lübbert, Christoph Rummelt, Hartmut Bertz, Ralph Wäsch, Johanna Haag, Andrea Schmidts, Michael Schultheiss, Dominik Bettinger, Robert Thimme, Evelyn Ullrich, Yakup Tanriver, Giang Lam Vuong, Renate Arnold, Philipp Hemmati, Dominik Wolf, Markus Ditschkowski, Cordula Jilg, Konrad Wilhelm, Christian Leiber, Sabine Gerull, Jörg Halter, Claudia Lengerke, Thomas Pabst, Thomas Schroeder, Guido Kobbe, Wolf Rösler, Soroush Doostkam, Stephan Meckel, Kathleen Stabla, Stephan K Metzelder, Sebastian Halbach, Tilman Brummer, Zehan Hu, Joern Dengjel, Björn Hackanson, Christoph Schmid, Udo Holtick, Christof Scheid, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Friedrich Stölzel, Rainer Ordemann, Lutz P Müller, Flore Sicre-de-Fontbrune, Gabriele Ihorst, Jürgen Kuball, Jan E Ehlert, Daniel Feger, Eva-Maria Wagner, Jean-Yves Cahn, Jacqueline Schnell, Florian Kuchenbauer, Donald Bunjes, Ronjon Chakraverty, Simon Richardson, Saar Gill, Nicolaus Kröger, Francis Ayuk, Luca Vago, Fabio Ciceri, Antonia M Müller, Takeshi Kondo, Takanori Teshima, Susan Klaeger, Bernhard Kuster, Dennis Dong Hwan Kim, Daniel Weisdorf, Walter van der Velden, Daniela Dörfel, Wolfgang Bethge, Inken Hilgendorf, Andreas Hochhaus, Geoffroy Andrieux, Melanie Börries, Hauke Busch, John Magenau, Pavan Reddy, Myriam Labopin, Joseph H Antin, Andrea S Henden, Geoffrey R Hill, Glen A Kennedy, Merav Bar, Anita Sarma, Donal McLornan, Ghulam Mufti, Betul Oran, Katayoun Rezvani, Omid Sha, Robert S Negrin, Arnon Nagler, Marco Prinz, Andreas Burchert, Andreas Neubauer, Dietrich Beelen, Andreas Mackensen, Nikolas von Bubnoff, Wolfgang Herr, Burkhard Becher, Gerard Socié, Michael A Caligiuri, Eliana Ruggiero, Chiara Bonini, Georg Häcker, Justus Duyster, Jürgen Finke, Erika Pearce, Bruce R Blazar, Robert Zeiser
Individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the gene encoding Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have a 1-year survival rate below 20%. We observed that sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased IL-15 production by FLT3-ITD+ leukemia cells. This synergized with the allogeneic CD8+ T cell response, leading to long-term survival in six mouse models of FLT3-ITD+ AML...
February 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
Jorrit De Waele, Elly Marcq, Jonas Rm Van Audenaerde, Jinthe Van Loenhout, Christophe Deben, Karen Zwaenepoel, Erik Van de Kelft, David Van der Planken, Tomas Menovsky, Johan Mj Van den Bergh, Yannick Willemen, Patrick Pauwels, Zwi N Berneman, Filip Lardon, Marc Peeters, An Wouters, Evelien Lj Smits
Prognosis of glioblastoma remains dismal, underscoring the need for novel therapies. Immunotherapy is generating promising results, but requires combination strategies to unlock its full potential. We investigated the immunomodulatory capacities of poly(I:C) on primary human glioblastoma cells and its combinatorial potential with programmed death ligand (PD-L) blockade. In our experiments, poly(I:C) stimulated expression of both PD-L1 and PD-L2 on glioblastoma cells, and a pro-inflammatory secretome, including type I interferons (IFN) and chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, CCL4 and CCL5...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Marcus Lettau, Fred Armbrust, Katharina Dohmen, Lisann Drews, Tobias Poch, Michelle Dietz, Dieter Kabelitz, Ottmar Janssen
It is widely accepted that cytotoxic T and NK cells store effector proteins including granzymes, perforin and FasL in intracellular granules, often referred to as secretory lysosomes. Upon target cell encounter, these organelles are transported to the cytotoxic immunological synapse, where they fuse with the plasma membrane to release the soluble effector molecules and to expose transmembrane proteins including FasL on the cell surface. We previously described two distinct species of secretory vesicles in T and NK cells that differ in size, morphology and protein loading, most strikingly regarding FasL and granzyme B...
January 24, 2018: International Immunology
Karen C Galvin, Melissa J Conroy, Suzanne L Doyle, Margaret R Dunne, Ronan Fahey, Emma Foley, Katie E O'Sullivan, Derek G Doherty, Justin G Geoghegan, Narayanasamy Ravi, Cliona O'Farrelly, John V Reynolds, Joanne Lysaght
Checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1 (Programmed death-1), are transforming cancer treatment for inoperable or advanced disease. As the incidence of obesity-associated malignancies, including esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) continue to increase and treatment with checkpoint inhibitors are being FDA approved for a broader range of cancers, it is important to assess how anti-PD-1 treatment might exacerbate pre-existing inflammatory processes at other sites. Outside the EAC tumor, the omentum and liver were found to be enriched with substantial populations of PD-1 expressing T cells...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
Romin Roshan, Nazzarena Labo, Matthew Trivett, Wendell Miley, Vickie Marshall, Lori Coren, Elena M Cornejo Castro, Hannah Perez, Benjamin Holdridge, Eliza Davis, Rodrigo Matus-Nicodemos, Victor I Ayala, Raymond Sowder, Kathleen M Wyvill, Karen Aleman, Christine Fennessey, Jeffrey Lifson, Mark N Polizzotto, Daniel Douek, Brandon Keele, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan, Claes Ohlen, David Ott, Denise Whitby
Prior studies of T-cell responses to KSHV have included relatively few participants and focused on relatively few KSHV antigens. To provide a more comprehensive analysis, we investigated T-cell responses to the whole KSHV proteome using IFN-γ ELISpot. Using ∼7,500 overlapping 15mer peptides we generated one to three peptide pools for each of the 82 KSHV ORFs. IFN-γ ELISpot analysis of PBMCs from 19 patients with a history of KSHV-associated disease and 24 healthy donors (11 KSHV seropositive) detected widely varied responses...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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