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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434193/mediators-of-socioeconomic-differences-in-adiposity-among-youth-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
M K Gebremariam, N Lien, R A Nianogo, O A Arah
BACKGROUND: Youth with a low socioeconomic position in developed countries are at a disproportionately higher risk of being overweight or obese than their counterparts. Tackling these inequalities requires that the mechanisms behind them are well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to summarize existing evidence regarding the factors that mediate or contribute to the explanation of the relationship between socioeconomic position and adiposity among youth...
April 23, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434177/eating-disorders-and-food-addiction-in-men-with-heroin-use-disorder-a-controlled-study
#2
Fatih Canan, Servet Karaca, Suna Sogucak, Omer Gecici, Murat Kuloglu
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the prevalence estimates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder and a matched sample of control participants. METHODS: A group of 100 men with heroin use disorder, consecutively admitted to a detoxification and therapy unit, were screened for DSM-5 eating disorders, along with a group of 100 male controls of similar age, education, and body mass index. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-version 11, and the Eating Attitudes Test were used for data collection...
April 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434072/risk-factors-for-childhood-obesity-do-the-birth-weight-type-of-delivery-and-mother-s-overweight-have-an-implication-on-current-weight-status
#3
Aysel Vehapoglu, Nilufer Goknar, Ozden Turel, Emel Torun, Gamze Ozgurhan
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, including the type of delivery, breastfeeding and its duration, birth weight, the timing of solid food introduction, the mother's education level at birth, and smoking status during pregnancy, that are associated with obesity in children living in Istanbul. METHODS: This study involving 4990 healthy children aged 2-14 years, at an outpatient clinic in a tertiary care hospital from June 2012 to July 2014...
April 22, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434027/can-ultrasound-be-used-as-the-primary-imaging-in-children-with-suspected-crohn-disease
#4
Timothy L Tsai, Megan B Marine, Matthew R Wanner, Matthew L Cooper, Steven J Steiner, Fangqian Ouyang, S Gregory Jennings, Boaz Karmazyn
BACKGROUND: There is growing literature on the use of ultrasound (US) for evaluation of Crohn disease in adults, but few studies have been conducted on children. Several studies demonstrated high accuracy of US in the diagnosis of Crohn disease. Using US as the primary screening imaging modality for Crohn disease can reduce health care costs, the need for sedation and ionizing radiation exposure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to determine if US can be used for screening evaluation of pediatric Crohn disease...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433996/factor-xii-as-a-risk-marker-for-hemorrhagic-stroke-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Kristina Johansson, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Lars Johansson, Ingemar Bylesjö, Torbjörn K Nilsson, Mats Eliasson, Stefan Söderberg, Marcus Lind
BACKGROUND: Coagulation factor XII (FXII) is involved in pathological thrombus formation and is a suggested target of anticoagulants. It is unclear whether FXII levels are correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and whether they are associated with myocardial infarction or ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between FXII and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. We also aimed to study the associations between FXII levels and future myocardial infarction and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke...
April 21, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433948/metabolic-syndrome-in-subjects-with-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder-in-a-current-depressive-episode-population-based-study-metabolic-syndrome-in-current-depressive-episode
#6
Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Karen Jansen, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Thaíse Campos Mondin, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flávio Kapczinski, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Jean Pierre Oses, Carolina David Wiener
OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their components in young adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a current depressive episode. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with young adults aged 24-30 years old. Depressive episode (bipolar or unipolar) was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - Plus version (MINI Plus). The MetS was assessed using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III)...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433814/synovial-fluid-pro-inflammatory-profile-differs-according-to-the-characteristics-of-knee-pain
#7
Ying Ying Leung, Janet L Huebner, Benjamin Haaland, Steven Bak Siew Wong, Virginia Byers Kraus
OBJECTIVE: The role of inflammation and pain in osteoarthritis (OA) is not fully understood. We evaluated the association between pro-inflammatory biomarkers and pain. METHODS: We used baseline data and samples from a randomized controlled trial of colchicine for symptomatic knee OA. Severity of pain of the more symptomatic knee was assessed by NHANES-I criterion and WOMAC pain index. Pains on movement and at rest were self-reported on an 11-point Likert scale. Severity of radiographic tibiofemoral OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) grade...
April 19, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433734/prospective-association-of-fetal-liver-blood-flow-at-30-weeks-gestation-with-newborn-adiposity
#8
Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Masanao Ohashi, Kaeko Sumiyoshi, Chigusa Ikenoue, Claudia Buss, Daniel L Gillen, Hyagriv N Simhan, Sonja Entringer, Pathik D Wadhwa
BACKGROUND: The production of variation in adipose tissue accretion represents a key fetal adaptation to energy substrate availability during gestation. Because umbilical venous blood transports nutrient substrate from the maternal to the fetal compartment, and the fetal liver is the primary organ where nutrient inter-conversion occurs, it has been proposed that variations in the relative distribution of umbilical venous blood flow shunting either through ductus venosus or perfusing the fetal liver represents a mechanism underlying this adaptation...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433732/the-clinical-significance-of-an-estimated-fetal-weight-below-the-10th-centile-a-comparison-of-outcomes-between-5th-versus-5th-9th-centile
#9
Malgorzata Mlynarczyk, Suneet P Chauhan, Hind A Baydoun, Catherine M Wilkes, Kimberly R Earhart, Yili Zhao, Christopher Goodier, Eugene Chang, Nicole M Lee Plenty, E Kaitlyn Mize, Michelle Owens, Shilpa Babbar, Dev Maulik, Emily DeFranco, David McKinney, Alfred Z Abuhamad
BACKGROUND: The association between small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10(th) centile for gestational age) and neonatal morbidity is well established. Yet there is a paucity of data on the relationship between suspected SGA (sonographic estimated fetal weight <10(th) centile), at two thresholds and subsequent neonatal morbidity. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sonographic estimated fetal weight (SEFW) < 5(th) centile versus 5-9(th) centile and neonatal morbidity...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433641/analysis-of-complications-of-pelvic-mesh-excision-surgery-using-the-clavien-dindo-classification-system
#10
Goran Rac, Alyssa Greiman, Andrew Rabley, T J Tipton, Leah R Chiles, Drew A Freilich, Ross Rames, Lindsey Cox, Michelle Koski, Eric S Rovner
PURPOSE: To describe and categorize complications in patients undergoing vaginal mesh excision surgery using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 277 patients who underwent vaginal mesh extraction between 2007 and 2015 at a single institution was conducted with Institutional Review Board approval. Surgical complications were stratified using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Complications were noted to be either peri-operative (prior to discharge) or post-operative (within 90 days)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433617/induced-and-controlled-dietary-ketosis-as-a-regulator-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-pathologies
#11
Madeline K Gibas, Kelly J Gibas
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity...
March 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433586/a-comparison-of-hepatic-steatosis-index-controlled-attenuation-parameter-and-ultrasound-as-noninvasive-diagnostic-tools-for-steatosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#12
Liang Xu, Wei Lu, Ping Li, Feng Shen, Yu-Qiang Mi, Jian-Gao Fan
AIMS: To evaluate the value of noninvasive tools for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: Consecutive treatment-naïve patients with CHB with body mass index less than 30kg/m(2) who underwent liver biopsy, ultrasound and FibroScan(®) were enrolled. The diagnostic performance of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and ultrasound for hepatic steatosis compared with liver biopsy was assessed...
March 30, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433425/effect-of-spinal-fusion-surgery-on-total-hip-arthroplasty-outcomes-a-matched-comparison-study
#13
Jing Loong Moses Loh, Lei Jiang, Hwei Chi Chong, Seng Jin Yeo, Ngai Nung Lo
BACKGROUND: Studies regarding postoperative outcomes after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients who have comorbid factors tend to focus on medical diseases. However, there is a paucity of literature examining the effect of a patient's orthopedic surgical history on outcomes after THA. Significantly, there are currently no studies on the effect of spinal fusion surgery on THA outcomes. METHODS: A review of 82 consecutive patients who had prior spinal fusion surgery who underwent elective THA from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2015, was conducted...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433217/clinical-significance-of-prognostic-nutritional-index-after-surgical-treatment-in-lung-cancer
#14
Satoru Okada, Junichi Shimada, Daishiro Kato, Hiroaki Tsunezuka, Satoshi Teramukai, Masayoshi Inoue
BACKGROUND: The prognostic nutritional index (PNI), calculated as 10 × serum albumin (g/dL) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count (cells/mm(3)), can reportedly predict postoperative complications and prognosis for various types of malignancy. However, the clinical significance and prognostic value of the PNI for both short- and long-term outcomes remains uncertain in patients with lung cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 248 patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
April 19, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433203/the-limitations-of-transforming-very-high-body-mass-indexes-into-z-scores-among-8-7-million-2-to-4-year-old-children
#15
David S Freedman, Nancy F Butte, Elsie M Taveras, Alyson B Goodman, Cynthia L Ogden, Heidi M Blanck
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations among several body mass index (BMI) metrics (z-scores, percent of the 95th percentile (%BMIp95) and BMI minus 95th percentile (ΔBMIp95) as calculated in the growth charts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is known that the widely used BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles calculated from the growth charts can differ substantially from those that directly observed in the data for BMIs above the 97th percentile (z = 1...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432911/lifting-the-lid-on-geographic-complexity-in-the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-education-in-china
#16
Maigeng Zhou, Xiaoqi Feng, Jiang Yong, Yichong Li, Mei Zhang, Andrew Page, Thomas Astell-Burt, Wenhua Zhao
In China, rising obesity has coincided with increasing affluence. Few studies have properly accounted for geographic variation, however, which may influence prior results. Using large data with biomarkers in China, we show body mass index (BMI) to be positively correlated with higher person-level education if estimated using ordinary least squares. In stark contrast, fitting the same data within a multilevel model gives the complete opposite result. We go on to show that the relationship between BMI and person-level education in China is dependent upon geography, underlining why multilevel modelling is crucial for revealing these types of people-place contingencies...
April 19, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432747/whole-body-adipose-tissue-and-lean-muscle-volumes-and-their-distribution-across-gender-and-age-mr-derived-normative-values-in-a-normal-weight-swiss-population
#17
Erika J Ulbrich, Daniel Nanz, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Magda Marcon, Michael A Fischer
PURPOSE: To determine age- and gender-dependent whole-body adipose tissue and muscle volumes in healthy Swiss volunteers in Dixon MRI in comparison with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) measurements. METHODS: Fat-water-separated whole-body 3 Tesla MRI of 80 healthy volunteers (ages 20 to 62 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 17.5 to 26.2 kg/m(2) (10 men, 10 women per decade). Age and gender-dependent volumes of total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), and the total lean muscle tissue (TLMT) normalized for body height were determined by semi-automatic segmentation, and correlated with anthropometric and BIA measurements as well as lifestyle parameters...
April 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432746/impact-of-baseline-hba1c-diabetes-duration-and-bmi-on-clinical-outcomes-in-the-lixilan-o-trial-testing-iglarlixi-insulin-glargine-lixisenatide-titratable-fixed-ratio-combination-versus-insulin-glargine-and-lixisenatide-monocomponents
#18
M J Davies, L A Leiter, B Guerci, G Grunberger, F J Ampudia-Blasco, C Yu, W Stager, E Niemoeller, E Souhami, J Rosenstock
To determine whether baseline characteristics impact clinical outcomes in the LixiLan-O trial (N = 1170), the efficacy and safety of iGlarLixi, a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U (iGlar) and lixisenatide (Lixi) was compared with iGlar or Lixi alone in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on oral therapy. Subgroups according to baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; <8%, ≥8% [<64, ≥64 mmol/mol]); T2DM disease duration (<7, ≥7 years) and body mass index (BMI; <30, ≥30 kg/m(2) ) were investigated...
April 22, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432710/medical-students-perceptions-of-the-importance-of-exercise-and-their-perceived-competence-in-prescribing-exercise-to-older-people
#19
Agathe Daria Jadczak, Khai Loon Tam, Solomon Yu, Renuka Visvanathan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a 4.5-week geriatric medicine course on fifth year medical students' perception of the importance of and their competence in prescribing exercise to older people. METHODS: The modified Exercise and Physical Activity Competence Questionnaire was administered to 81 students before and after the course. Scores ranged from 0 to 6. One open-ended question about perceived barriers to exercise prescription was asked. RESULTS: Students' perceptions of the importance of designing an exercise prescription (P = 0...
April 22, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432403/bone-marrow-fat-content-in-70-adolescent-girls-with-anorexia-nervosa-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#20
Kirsten Ecklund, Sridhar Vajapeyam, Robert V Mulkern, Henry A Feldman, Jennifer M O'Donnell, Amy D DiVasta, Catherine M Gordon
BACKGROUND: Adolescents and women with anorexia nervosa have increased bone marrow fat and decreased bone formation, at least in part due to hormonal changes leading to preferential stem cell differentiation to adipocytes over osteoblasts. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate marrow fat content and correlate with age and disease severity using knee MRI with T1 relaxometry (T1-R) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) in 70 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 70 girls with anorexia nervosa who underwent 3-T knee MRI with coronal T1-W images, T1-R and single-voxel proton MRS at 30 and 60 ms TE...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
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