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extensor digitorum longus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939561/effects-of-a-titin-mutation-on-negative-work-during-stretch-shortening-cycles-in-skeletal-muscles
#1
Anthony L Hessel, Kiisa C Nishikawa
Negative work occurs in muscles during braking movements such as downhill walking or landing after a jump. When performing negative work during stretch-shortening cycles, viscoelastic structures within muscles store energy during stretch, return a fraction of this energy during shortening, and dissipate the remaining energy as heat. Because tendons and extracellular matrix are relatively elastic rather than viscoelastic, energy is mainly dissipated by cross bridges and titin. Recent studies demonstrate that titin stiffness increases in active skeletal muscles, suggesting that titin contributions to negative work may have been underestimated in previous studies...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937247/amino-acid-concentrations-and-protein-metabolism-of-two-types-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-in-postprandial-state-and-after-brief-starvation
#2
M Holeček, S Mičuda
We have investigated amino acid concentrations and protein metabolism in musculus extensor digitorum longus (EDL, fast-twitch, white muscle) and musculus soleus (SOL, slow-twitch, red muscle) of rats sacrificed in the fed state or after one day of starvation. Fractional protein synthesis rates (FRPS) were measured using the flooding dose method (L-[3,4,5-3H]phenylalanine). Activities of two major proteolytic systems in muscle (the ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal) were examined by measurement of chymotrypsin like activity of proteasome (CTLA), expression of ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle-ring-finger-1 (MuRF-1), and cathepsin B and L activities...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932757/a-five-repeat-micro-dystrophin-gene-ameliorated-dystrophic-phenotype-in-the-severe-dba-2j-mdx-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#3
Chady H Hakim, Nalinda B Wasala, Xiufang Pan, Kasun Kodippili, Yongping Yue, Keqing Zhang, Gang Yao, Brittney Haffner, Sean X Duan, Julian Ramos, Joel S Schneider, N Nora Yang, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Dongsheng Duan
Micro-dystrophins are highly promising candidates for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Here, we report robust disease rescue in the severe DBA/2J-mdx model with a neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-binding micro-dystrophin vector. 2 × 10(13) vector genome particles/mouse of the vector were delivered intravenously to 10-week-old mice and were evaluated at 6 months of age. Saturated micro-dystrophin expression was detected in all skeletal muscles and the heart and restored the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex and nNOS...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887840/pre-clinical-evaluation-of-n-acetylcysteine-reveals-side-effects-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
Gavin J Pinniger, Jessica R Terrill, Evanna B Assan, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle wasting disease characterised by severe muscle weakness, necrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic intervention for DMD boys. We investigated the capacity of NAC to improve dystrophic muscle function in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Young (6 w old) mdx and non-dystrophic C57 mice receiving 2% NAC in drinking water for 6 w were compared with untreated mice. Grip strength and body weight were measured weekly, before the 12 w old mice were anaesthetized and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles excised for functional analysis and tissues sampled for biochemical analyses...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880600/rare-giant-cell-tumor-of-the-distal-flexor-digitorum-longus-tendon-sheath-and-early-diagnosis-with-use-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Michael Levi, Jordan Crafton
Giant-cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS) is an uncommon occurrence for a foot and ankle surgeon. However, there is a need to recognize the symptoms of typical and atypical presentations of this pathology. These benign neoplasms are recognized clinically as a soft-tissue mass that is usually painless and palpable. The foot and ankle account for only 3% to 5% of all GCT-TS in the body, with most being located in the hand. Giant cell tumor in the tendon sheath occurring in the foot and ankle is usually encountered on the lateral ankle and dorsum of the foot, occupying the extensor tendons...
July 2017: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874726/remarkable-plasticity-of-na-k-atpase-ca-2-atpase-and-serca-contributes-to-muscle-disuse-atrophy-resistance-in-hibernating-daurian-ground-squirrels
#6
Quanling Guo, Xin Mi, Xiaoyong Sun, Xiaoyu Li, Weiwei Fu, Shenhui Xu, Qi Wang, Yasir Arfat, Huiping Wang, Hui Chang, Yunfang Gao
We investigated cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) regulation in skeletal muscle fibers of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus), non-hibernating hindlimb-unloaded (HLU) squirrels, and HLU rats to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in preventing muscle atrophy in hibernators. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in the soleus muscle (SOL) of squirrels were maintained in hibernation, decreased during interbout arousal (IB-A), and increased to autumn/pre-hibernation (AUT/Pre-H) levels in torpor after interbout arousal (Post-IBA), whereas activities in the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) were stable during hibernation, but increased during post-hibernation (Post-H)...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872121/minimally-invasive-muscle-embedding-mime-a-novel-experimental-technique-to-facilitate-donor-cell-mediated-myogenesis
#7
Joseph A Roche, Morium Begam, Sujay S Galen
Skeletal muscle possesses regenerative capacity due to tissue-resident, muscle-fiber-generating (myogenic) satellite cells (SCs), which can form new muscle fibers under the right conditions. Although SCs can be harvested from muscle tissue and cultured in vitro, the resulting myoblast cells are not very effective in promoting myogenesis when transplanted into host muscle. Surgically exposing the host muscle and grafting segments of donor muscle tissue, or the isolated muscle fibers with their SCs onto host muscle, promotes better myogenesis compared to myoblast transplantation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854427/structural-diversity-of-the-extensor-digitorum-profundus-muscle-complex-in-platyrrhini
#8
Mellin A Novikova, Aleksandra A Panyutina
Separate extension of fingers in the hand of primates is performed by 3 muscles: m. extensor pollicis longus, m. extensor digiti secundi, and m. extensor digitorum lateralis. Here it is proposed to consider them as parts of the extensor digitorum profundus muscular complex. The diversity in structure of these muscles in primates is examined based both on original anatomical study of New World monkeys and analysis of extensive published data on primates from different taxonomic groups. It is shown that in these muscles there are 2 main types of structure variations - the division of the muscle belly into several heads which give rise to separate tendons, and the split of the single terminal tendon into several branches...
August 31, 2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840049/recalcitrant-lateral-premalleolar-bursitis-of-the-ankle-associated-with-lateral-ankle-instability
#9
Masashi Naito, Takumi Matsumoto, Song Ho Chang, Masachika Ikegami, Jun Hirose, Sakae Tanaka
Lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle is a rarely reported disorder in the English literature although it is not uncommon in Asian countries where people commonly sit on their feet. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis associated with lateral ankle instability which was successfully treated with surgical resection of the bursa and repair of the anterior talofibular ligament. Operative findings revealed a communication between the bursa and articular cavity of the ankle joint via the sheath of the extensor digitorum longus tendon, which was considered to act as a check valve leading to a large and recalcitrant bursitis...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821658/opposite-synaptic-alterations-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-in-an-als-mouse-model-when-motor-units-matter
#10
Tremblay Elsa, Martineau Éric, Robitaille Richard
Denervation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) precedes the loss of motor neurons (MNs) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is characterized by a motor unit (MU) dependent vulnerability where MNs with fast-fatigable (FF) characteristics are lost first, followed by fast-fatigue resistant (FR) and slow (S) ones. However, changes of NMJ properties as a function of MU types remain debated. We hypothesized that NMJ synaptic functions would be altered precociously in a MU specific manner, prior to structural alterations of the NMJ...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813489/oxidative-and-glycolytic-skeletal-muscles-show-marked-differences-in-gene-expression-profile-in-chinese-qingyuan-partridge-chickens
#11
Shu Jingting, Xiao Qin, Shan Yanju, Zhang Ming, Tu Yunjie, Ji Gaige, Sheng Zhongwei, Zou Jianmin
Oxidative and glycolytic myofibers have different structures and metabolic characteristics and their ratios are important in determining poultry meat quality. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their differences are unclear. In this study, global gene expression profiling was conducted in oxidative skeletal muscle (obtained from the soleus, or SOL) and glycolytic skeletal muscle (obtained from the extensor digitorum longus, or EDL) of Chinese Qingyuan partridge chickens, using the Agilent Chicken Gene Expression Chip...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807824/flavan-3-ol-delays-the-progression-of-disuse-atrophy-induced-by-hindlimb-suspension-in-mice
#12
Mao Ito, Naoto Kudo, Yuji Miyake, Tatsuya Imai, Tomoki Unno, Yoko Yamashita, Yoshihisa Hirota, Hitoshi Ashida, Naomi Osakabe
Periods of skeletal muscle disuse, for example due to a sedentary lifestyle or bed rest, are associated with aging and can lead to muscle atrophy. We previously found that the flavan 3-ol fraction derived from cocoa (FL) enhanced energy expenditure with metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we examined the effect of FL on disuse muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups as follows: unsuspended-vehicle, unsuspended-FL, suspended-vehicle, and suspended-FL...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790986/colonisation-of-meat-by-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-investigating-bacterial-tropism-with-respect-to-the-different-types-of-skeletal-muscles-subtypes-of-myofibres-and-postmortem-time
#13
Caroline Chagnot, Annie Venien, Sandra Renier, Nelly Caccia, Régine Talon, Thierry Astruc, Mickaël Desvaux
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) responsible for serious diseases, especially pediatric, and of great concern for the meat industry. Meat contamination by EHEC occurs at slaughtering, especially at dehiding stage, where bacteria can be transferred from hides to carcasses. The skeletal muscle tissues comprise four major types of myofibres, which differ in their contraction velocity and metabolism. Myofibres are surrounded by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 to meat was investigated considering well-defined types of skeletal muscle and their constituent myofibres as well as postmortem changes in muscle, using fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761699/high-intensity-flywheel-exercise-and-recovery-of-atrophy-after-90-days-bed-rest
#14
Daniel L Belavý, Hiroshi Ohshima, Jörn Rittweger, Dieter Felsenberg
AIMS: To investigate differential muscle atrophy during bed-rest, the impact of a high-intensity concentric-eccentric (flywheel) resistance exercise countermeasure and muscle recovery after bed-rest. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy male subjects underwent 90 dayshead-down tilt bed-rest. Volume of individual lower-limb muscles was measured via MRI before, twice during and four times up to 1 year after bed-rest. Subjects were either inactive (n=16) or performed flywheel exercise every third day of bed-rest (n=9)...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761419/interfacing-peripheral-nerve-with-macro-sieve-electrodes-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Nathan K Birenbaum, Matthew R MacEwan, Wilson Z Ray
Macro-sieve electrodes were implanted in the sciatic nerve of five adult male Lewis rats following spinal cord injury to assess the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface regenerated peripheral nerve fibers post-spinal cord injury. Each spinal cord injury was performed via right lateral hemisection of the cord at the T9-10 site. Five months post-implantation, the ability of the macro-sieve electrode to interface the regenerated nerve was assessed by stimulating through the macro-sieve electrode and recording both electromyography signals and evoked muscle force from distal musculature...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730826/effect-of-carcinogen-1-2-dimethylhydrazine-treatment-on-fibre-types-in-skeletal-muscles-of-male-wistar-rats
#16
V Smerdu, M Perše
The cancerogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), widely used in the experimental animal model of carcinogenesis, affects various organs, but its effect on muscle fibres is unknown. To evaluate the effect of 15-week DMH treatment on the fibre size and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, which substantially determine fibre types and their contractile characteristics, pure and hybrid fibre types were immunohistochemically determined according to the MyHC isoform expression in soleus, extensor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis muscles of DMH-treated and control male Wistar rats...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729214/milk-fat-globule-membrane-supplementation-with-voluntary-running-exercise-attenuates-age-related-motor-dysfunction-by-suppressing-neuromuscular-junction-abnormalities-in-mice
#17
Michiko Yano, Yoshihiko Minegishi, Satoshi Sugita, Noriyasu Ota
Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function attenuates physical performance, and maintaining fine muscle innervation is known to play an important role in its prevention. We had previously shown that consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) with habitual exercise improves the muscle mass and motor function in humans and mice. Improvement of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MFGM intake combined with voluntary running (MFGM-VR) on morphological changes of NMJ and motor function in aging mice...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719339/modulation-of-oxidative-and-glycolytic-skeletal-muscle-fibers-na-h-exchanger1-nhe1-and-na-hco3-co-transporter1-nbc1-genes-and-proteins-expression-in-type-2-diabetic-rat-streptozotocin-high-fat-diet-following-long-term-endurance-training
#18
A Monazzami, H Rajabi, R Ghrakhanlou, K Yari, Z Rahimi
Diabetes is known to alter both oxidative and glycolytic pathways in a fiber type-dependent manner. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on muscle NHE1 and NBC1 genes and proteins expression in type 2 diabetic rats. Male wistar rats (n=30), 4 weeks old and 95.7±10.8g, were randomly selected and divided into control, diabetic without training and diabetic with training groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of low dose of streptotozin and feeding with high-fat diet...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709787/technique-of-split-flexor-carpi-ulnaris-opponensplasty
#19
REVIEW
Mohammed M Al-Qattan
The classic donor motor units for opponensplasty are the flexor digitorum superficialis, the extensor indicis proprius, the palmaris longus, and the abductor digiti minimi. Occasionally, all classic donor motor units are not available for the opponensplasty; a review of the literature revealed that the flexor carpi ulnaris opponensplasty has not been previously described. The surgical technique of the split flexor carpi ulnaris opponensplasty is described in the current paper along with a clinical example...
September 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702319/grandpaternal-induced-transgenerational-dietary-reprogramming-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-skeletal-muscle
#20
Petter S Alm, Thais de Castro Barbosa, Romain Barrès, Anna Krook, Juleen R Zierath
OBJECTIVE: Parental nutrition and lifestyle impact the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. We have reported that grandpaternal chronic high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally impairs glucose metabolism in subsequent generations. Here we determined whether grandpaternal diet transgenerationally impacts the transcriptome and lipidome in skeletal muscle. Our aim was to identify tissue-specific pathways involved in transgenerational inheritance of environmental-induced phenotypes. METHODS: F0 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFD or chow for 12 weeks before breeding with chow-fed females to generate the F1 generation...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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