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extensor digitorum longus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095499/treatment-with-riluzole-restores-normal-control-of-soleus-and-extensor-digitorum-longus-muscles-during-locomotion-in-adult-rats-after-sciatic-nerve-crush-at-birth
#1
Wojciech Zmysłowski, Anna M Cabaj, Urszula Sławińska
The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093090/potential-involvement-of-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-muscle-contractile-function-in-mice
#2
Tatsuro Egawa, Satoshi Tsuda, Ayumi Goto, Yoshitaka Ohno, Shingo Yokoyama, Katsumasa Goto, Tatsuya Hayashi
Diets enriched with advanced glycation end products (AGE) have recently been related to muscle dysfunction processes. However, it remains unclear whether long-term exposure to an AGE-enriched diet impacts physiological characteristics of skeletal muscles. Therefore, we explored the differences in skeletal muscle mass, contractile function and molecular responses between mice receiving a diet high in AGE (H-AGE) and low in AGE (L-AGE) for 16 weeks. There were no significant differences between L-AGE and H-AGE mice with regard to body weight, food intake or epididymal fat pad weight...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076365/gene-expression-profiling-in-slow-type-calf-soleus-muscle-of-30-days-space-flown-mice
#3
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071962/the-feasibility-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-to-improve-upper-extremity-function-in-a-two-year-old-child-with-perinatal-stroke-a-case-report
#4
Kristin E Musselman, Patricia Manns, Jaclyn Dawe, Rhina Delgado, Jaynie F Yang
AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility (i.e. tolerability, adherence) of functional electrical stimulation (FES) for the upper extremity (UE) in a two-year-old child with perinatal stroke. METHODS: Forty hours of FES over eight weeks was prescribed. FES to the hemiplegic triceps, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum was timed with reaching during play. Assessments were performed before, during, and two months post-intervention...
January 10, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057817/contractile-efficiency-of-dystrophic-mdx-mouse-muscle-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-assessment-of-adaptation-to-exercise-of-functional-end-points
#5
Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Paola Mantuano, Anna Cozzoli, Francesca Sanarica, Ada Maria Massari, Elena Conte, Adriano Fonzino, Arcangela Giustino, Jean-Francois Rolland, Angelo Quaranta, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Robert W Grange, Annamaria De Luca
Progressive weakness is a typical feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and is exacerbated in the benign mdx mouse model by in vivo treadmill exercise. We hypothesized a different threshold for functional adaptation of mdx muscles in response to the duration of the exercise protocol. In vivo weakness was confirmed by grip strength after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise in mdx mice. Torque measurements revealed that exercise-related weakness in mdx mice correlated with the duration of the protocol, while wild-type (wt) mice were stronger...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052373/best-time-window-for-the-use-of-calcium-modulating-agents-to-improve-functional-recovery-in-injured-peripheral-nerves-an-experiment-in-rats
#6
Yuhui Yan, Feng-Yi Shen, Michael Agresti, Lin-Ling Zhang, Hani S Matloub, John A LoGiudice, Robert Havlik, Jifeng Li, Yu-Dong Gu, Ji-Geng Yan
Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating effect on daily life. Calcium concentrations in nerve fibers drastically increase after nerve injury, and this activates downstream processes leading to neuron death. Our previous studies showed that calcium-modulating agents decrease calcium accumulation, which aids in regeneration of injured peripheral nerves; however, the optimal therapeutic window for this application has not yet been identified. In this study, we show that calcium clearance after nerve injury is positively correlated with functional recovery in rats suffering from a crushed sciatic nerve injury...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041995/osteoprotegerin-and-%C3%AE-2-agonists-mitigate-muscular-dystrophy-in-slow-and-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscles
#7
Sébastien S Dufresne, Antoine Boulanger-Piette, Jérôme Frenette
Our recent work showed that daily injections of osteoprotegerin (OPG)-immunoglobulin fragment complex (OPG-Fc) completely restore the function of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscles in dystrophic mdx mice, a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. However, despite marked improvements, OPG-Fc was not as effective in preventing the loss of function of slow-twitch soleus and diaphragm muscles. Because β2-agonists enhance the function of slow- and fast-twitch dystrophic muscles and because their use is limited by their adverse effects on bone and cardiac tissues, we hypothesized that OPG-Fc, a bone and skeletal muscle protector, acts synergistically with β2-agonists and potentiates their positive effects on skeletal muscles...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039445/aromatase-inhibitor-induced-bone-loss-increases-the-progression-of-estrogen-receptor-negative-breast-cancer-in-bone-and-exacerbates-muscle-weakness-in-vivo
#8
Laura E Wright, Ahmed A Harhash, Wende M Kozlow, David L Waning, Jenna N Regan, Yun She, Sutha K John, Sreemala Murthy, Maryla Niewolna, Andrew R Marks, Khalid S Mohammad, Theresa A Guise
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) cause muscle weakness, bone loss, and joint pain in up to half of cancer patients. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that increased osteoclastic bone resorption can impair muscle contractility and prime the bone microenvironment to accelerate metastatic growth. We hypothesized that AI-induced bone loss could increase breast cancer progression in bone and exacerbate muscle weakness associated with bone metastases. Female athymic nude mice underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery and were treated with vehicle or AI (letrozole; Let)...
December 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035013/alterations-to-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-use-in-skeletal-muscle-after-chronic-exposure-to-hypoxia-depend-on-metabolic-phenotype
#9
Alexandra Malgoyre, Clovis Chabert, Julia Tonini, Nathalie Koulmann, Xavier Bigard, Hervé Sanchez
We investigated the effects of chronic hypoxia on the maximal use of and sensitivity of mitochondrial to different substrates in rat slow-oxidative (soleus, SOL) and fast-glycolytic (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) muscles. We studied mitochondrial respiration in situ in permeabilized myofibers, using pyruvate, octanoate, palmitoyl-carnitine (PC) or palmitoyl-coenzyme A (PCoA). The hypophagia induced by hypoxia may also alter metabolism. We therefore used a group of pair-fed rats (reproducing the same caloric restriction as observed in hypoxic animals) in addition to the normoxic control fed ad libitum...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018233/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-is-expressed-in-mouse-skeletal-muscles-independent-of-fiber-type-specific-myofilament-protein-isoforms-and-plays-a-role-in-fatigue-resistance
#10
Han-Zhong Feng, J-P Jin
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a metabolic enzyme and a regulator for intracellular pH. CAIII has been reported with high level expression in slow twitch skeletal muscles. Here we demonstrate that CAIII is expressed in multiple slow and fast twitch muscles of adult mouse independent of the expression of myosin isoforms. Expressing similar fast type of myofilament proteins, CAIII-positive tibial anterior (TA) muscle exhibits higher tolerance to fatigue than that of CAIII-negative fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in in situ contractility studies...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009790/exercise-training-reverses-extrapulmonary-impairments-in-smoke-exposed-mice
#11
T Scott Bowen, Lars Aakerøy, Sophia Eisenkolb, Patricia Kunth, Fredrik Bakkerud, Martin Wohlwend, Anne Marie Ormbostad, Tina Fischer, Ulrik Wisloff, Gerhard Schuler, Sigurd Steinshamn, Volker Adams, Eivind Bronstad
PURPOSE: Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on non-pharmacological treatments such as exercise training. METHODS: Three groups of mice including control (n=10), smoking (n=10), and smoking with 6 weeks of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n=11) were exposed to 20 weeks of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke...
December 22, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003562/a-novel-diffusion-tensor-mri-approach-for-skeletal-muscle-fascicle-length-measurements
#12
Jos Oudeman, Valentina Mazzoli, Marco A Marra, Klaas Nicolay, Mario Maas, Nico Verdonschot, Andre M Sprengers, Aart J Nederveen, Gustav J Strijkers, Martijn Froeling
Musculoskeletal (dys-)function relies for a large part on muscle architecture which can be obtained using Diffusion-Tensor MRI (DT-MRI) and fiber tractography. However, reconstructed tracts often continue along the tendon or aponeurosis when using conventional methods, thus overestimating fascicle lengths. In this study, we propose a new method for semiautomatic segmentation of tendinous tissue using tract density (TD). We investigated the feasibility and repeatability of this method to quantify the mean fascicle length per muscle...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997073/effects-of-growth-on-muscle-tendon-and-aponeurosis-tissues-in-rabbit-shank-musculature
#13
Markus Böl, Kay Leichsenring, Tobias Siebert
There exist several studies using morphological analyses of skeletal muscles to obtain a better understanding of muscle structure. The structural information obtained are primarily determined from single muscle components using individual animals of discrete ages. Further, little is known about changing dimensions of the aponeurosis, which is an important load-transferring interface in muscle mechanics. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine how the muscle, tendon, and particularly the aponeurosis geometry of the rabbit shank musculature (M...
December 20, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991963/iron-restriction-increases-myoglobin-gene-and-protein-expression-in-soleus-muscle-of-rats
#14
Janaina S DE Souza, Erika L Brunetto, Maria Tereza Nunes
Iron is an important trace element for proper cell functioning. It is present in cytochromes, hemoglobin and myoglobin (Mb), where it binds to oxygen. It is also an electron acceptor in the respiratory chain. Mb is an 18 kDa heme-protein, highly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart. The expression of several genes involved in the metabolism of iron is post-transcriptionally regulated by this element. Iron was shown to interfere with the polyadenylation step, modifying their poly (A) tail length and, as a consequence, their stability and translation rate...
October 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980238/glucose-deprivation-attenuates-sortilin-levels-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#15
Miyako Ariga, Yosuke Yoneyama, Toshiaki Fukushima, Yuri Ishiuchi, Takayuki Ishii, Hitoshi Sato, Fumihiko Hakuno, Taku Nedachi, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi
In skeletal muscle, sortilin plays a predominant role in the sorting of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), thereby controlling glucose uptake. Moreover, our previous study suggested that the sortilin expression levels are also implicated in myogenesis. Despite the importance of sortilin in skeletal muscle, however, the regulation of sortilin expression has not been completely understood. In the present study, we analyzed if the sortilin expression is regulated by glucose in C2C12 myocytes and rat skeletal muscles in vivo...
December 13, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979982/role-of-calpain-in-eccentric-contraction-induced-proteolysis-of-ca2-regulatory-proteins-and-force-depression-in-rat-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle
#16
Keita Kanzaki, Daiki Watanabe, Mai Kuratani, Takashi Yamada, Satoshi Matsunaga, Masanobu Wada
The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo effects of eccentric contraction (ECC) on calpain-dependent proteolysis of Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins and force production in fast-twitch skeletal muscles. Rat extensor digitorum longus muscles were exposed to 200-repeated ECC in situ and excised immediately (recovery 0) or 3 days (recovery 3) after cessation of ECC. Calpain inhibitor (CI)-treated rats were intraperitoneally injected with MDL-28170 before ECC and during 3 days of recovery. Tetanic force was markedly reduced at recovery 0 and remained reduced at recovery 3...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932681/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-in-rats-activates-muscle-proteolytic-pathways-through-a-glucocorticoid-dependent-mechanism
#17
Franciele Przygodda, Leandro Henrique Manfredi, Juliano Machado, Dawit A P Gonçalves, Neusa Maria Zanon, Leni G H Bonagamba, Benedito H Machado, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut, Luiz C C Navegantes
Although it is well known that chronic hypoxia induces muscle wasting, the effects of intermit-tent hypoxia on skeletal muscle protein metabolism remains unclear. We hypothesized that acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), a challenge that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, would alter muscle protein homeostasis through a glucocorticoid-dependent mechanism. Three-week-old rats were submitted to adrenalectomy (ADX) and exposed to 8 h of AIH (6% O2 for 40s at 9 min intervals). Animals were sacrificed and the soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were harvested and incubated in vitro for measurements of protein turn-over...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921261/attempting-to-compensate-for-reduced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-with-nitrate-supplementation-cannot-overcome-metabolic-dysfunction-but-rather-has-detrimental-effects-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-muscle
#18
Cara A Timpani, Adam J Trewin, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ainsley Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Kulmira Nurgali, Andrew C Betik, Nigel Stepto, Alan Hayes, Glenn K McConell, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from the loss of dystrophin and is characterized by calcium dysregulation, muscular atrophy, and metabolic dysfunction. The secondary reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma reduces NO production and bioavailability. As NO modulates glucose uptake, metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics, we investigated whether an 8-week nitrate supplementation regimen could overcome metabolic dysfunction in the mdx mouse. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate (85 mg/l) in drinking water...
December 5, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906079/muscle-specific-loss-of-bmal1-leads-to-disrupted-tissue-glucose-metabolism-and-systemic-glucose-homeostasis
#19
Brianna D Harfmann, Elizabeth A Schroder, Maureen T Kachman, Brian A Hodge, Xiping Zhang, Karyn A Esser
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the USA, and disruption of circadian rhythms is gaining recognition as a contributing factor to disease prevalence. This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and symptoms caused by failure to produce and/or respond to insulin. The skeletal muscle is a key insulin-sensitive metabolic tissue, taking up ~80 % of postprandial glucose. To address the role of the skeletal muscle molecular clock to insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, we generated an inducible skeletal muscle-specific Bmal1 (-/-) mouse (iMSBmal1 (-/-))...
March 30, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890461/muscle-weakness-in-respiratory-and-peripheral-skeletal-muscles-in-a-mouse-model-for-nebulin-based-nemaline-myopathy
#20
Barbara Joureau, Josine M de Winter, Kelly Stam, Henk Granzier, Coen A C Ottenheijm
Nemaline myopathy is among the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathies, and is characterized by the presence of nemaline rods in skeletal muscles fibers, general muscle weakness, and hypotonia. Although respiratory failure is the main cause of death in nemaline myopathy, only little is known regarding the contractile strength of the diaphragm, the main muscle of inspiration. To investigate diaphragm contractility, in the present study we took advantage of a mouse model for nebulin-based nemaline myopathy that we recently developed...
October 25, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
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