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extensor digitorum longus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719339/modulation-of-oxidative-and-glycolytic-skeletal-muscle-fibers-na-h-exchanger1-nhe1-and-na-hco3-co-transporter1-nbc1-genes-and-proteins-expression-in-type-2-diabetic-rat-streptozotocin-high-fat-diet-following-long-term-endurance-training
#1
A Monazzami, H Rajabi, R Ghrakhanlou, K Yari, Z Rahimi
Diabetes is known to alter both oxidative and glycolytic pathways in a fiber type-dependent manner. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on muscle NHE1 and NBC1 genes and proteins expression in type 2 diabetic rats. Male wistar rats (n=30), 4 weeks old and 95.7±10.8g, were randomly selected and divided into control, diabetic without training and diabetic with training groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of low dose of streptotozin and feeding with high-fat diet...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709787/technique-of-split-flexor-carpi-ulnaris-opponensplasty
#2
REVIEW
Mohammed M Al-Qattan
The classic donor motor units for opponensplasty are the flexor digitorum superficialis, the extensor indicis proprius, the palmaris longus, and the abductor digiti minimi. Occasionally, all classic donor motor units are not available for the opponensplasty; a review of the literature revealed that the flexor carpi ulnaris opponensplasty has not been previously described. The surgical technique of the split flexor carpi ulnaris opponensplasty is described in the current paper along with a clinical example...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702319/grandpaternal-induced-transgenerational-dietary-reprogramming-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-skeletal-muscle
#3
Petter S Alm, Thais de Castro Barbosa, Romain Barrès, Anna Krook, Juleen R Zierath
OBJECTIVE: Parental nutrition and lifestyle impact the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. We have reported that grandpaternal chronic high-fat diet (HFD) transgenerationally impairs glucose metabolism in subsequent generations. Here we determined whether grandpaternal diet transgenerationally impacts the transcriptome and lipidome in skeletal muscle. Our aim was to identify tissue-specific pathways involved in transgenerational inheritance of environmental-induced phenotypes. METHODS: F0 male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFD or chow for 12 weeks before breeding with chow-fed females to generate the F1 generation...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690197/high-fat-diet-induces-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-in-a-fiber-type-dependent-manner-in-rats
#4
Ricardo A Pinho, Diane M Sepa-Kishi, George Bikopoulos, Michelle V Wu, Abinas Uthayakumar, Arta Mohasses, Meghan C Hughes, Christopher G R Perry, Rolando B Ceddia
This study investigated the effects of high-fat (HF) diet on parameters of oxidative stress among muscles with distinct fiber type composition and oxidative capacities. To accomplish that, male Wistar rats were fed either a low-fat standard chow (SC) or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and epitrochlearis muscles were collected and mitochondrial H2O2 (mtH2O2) emission, palmitate oxidation, and gene expression and antioxidant system were measured. Chronic HF feeding enhanced fat oxidation in oxidative and glycolytic muscles...
July 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676916/-correction-of-flexible-lesser-toe-deformity-transfer-of-the-flexor-digitorum-longus-tendon
#5
D Arbab, D Frank, B Bouillon, C Lüring
OBJECTIVE: Realignment and pain relief of toes 2-5 by flexor-to-extensor tendon transfer of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) muscle. INDICATIONS: As an isolated procedure in flexible proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion and/or flexible metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint extension (hammer toe). In combination with a metatarsal osteotomy or PIP joint arthrodesis in case of flexible MTP joint extension. CONTRAINDICATIONS: General medical contraindications to surgical interventions...
July 4, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676556/influence-of-longitudinal-radiation-exposure-from-microcomputed-tomography-scanning-on-skeletal-muscle-function-and-metabolic-activity-in-female-cd-1-mice
#6
John S Mikhaeil, Sandra M Sacco, Caitlin Saint, William Gittings, Jordan Bunda, Cameron R Giles, Val Andrew Fajardo, Rene Vandenboom, Wendy E Ward, Paul J LeBlanc
Microcomputed tomography (μCT) is an imaging technology to assess bone microarchitecture, a determinant of bone strength. When measured in vivo, μCT exposes the skeletal site of interest to a dose of radiation, in addition to nearby skeletal muscles as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of repeated radiation exposure from in vivo μCT on muscle health - specifically, muscle morphometrics, contractile function, and enzyme activity. This study exposed the right hind limb of female mice to either a low (26 cGy) or moderate (46 cGy) dose, at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, while the left hind limb of the same animal was exposed to a single dose at 6 months to serve as a nonirradiated control...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676552/acylated-and-unacylated-ghrelin-do-not-directly-stimulate-glucose-transport-in-isolated-rodent-skeletal-muscle
#7
Daniel T Cervone, David J Dyck
Emerging evidence implicates ghrelin, a gut-derived, orexigenic hormone, as a potential mediator of insulin-responsive peripheral tissue metabolism. However, in vitro and in vivo studies assessing ghrelin's direct influence on metabolism have been controversial, particularly due to confounding factors such as the secondary rise in growth hormone (GH) after ghrelin injection. Skeletal muscle is important in the insulin-stimulated clearance of glucose, and ghrelin's exponential rise prior to a meal could potentially facilitate this...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660607/the-effects-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-on-diabetic-myopathy
#8
D Jurisic-Erzen, G Starcevic-Klasan, D Ivanac, S Peharec, D Girotto, R Jerkovic
PURPOSE: Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense are important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic myopathy. Since diabetes mellitus type 1 decreases muscle regeneration capacity the present study was designed to determine the influence of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent biological antioxidant, on the process of regeneration of diabetic rat skeletal muscles. METHODS: 40 Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 8), untreated diabetic group (n = 16) and ALA treated diabetic group (n = 16)...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645175/perturbation-to-cholesterol-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-confers-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-sensitivity-to-neonatal-mice
#9
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Joseph G Potian, Joseph J McArdle, Padmamalini Baskaran
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) cleaves SNAP25 at the motor nerve terminals (MNT) and inhibits stimulus evoked acetylcholine release (SEAR). This causes skeletal muscle paralysis. However, younger neonatal mice (<P7; less than 7 days old) are resistant to the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. That is, in vivo injection of BoNT/A at the innervations of Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in the hindlimbs inhibited the toe spread reflex within 24 hours following BoNT/A injection in adult mouse and in older (> P7) neonatal mice younger than 7 days-age remained unaffected by BoNT/A injection...
June 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636643/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-prevents-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-in-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rat
#10
Koichi Himori, Daisuke Tatebayashi, Keita Kanzaki, Masanobu Wada, Håkan Westerblad, Johanna T Lanner, Takashi Yamada
Skeletal muscle weakness is a prominent feature in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigated whether neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training protects against skeletal muscle dysfunction in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). AIA was produced by intraarticular injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the knees of Wistar rats. For NMES training, dorsiflexor muscles were stimulated via a surface electrode (0.5 ms pulse, 50 Hz, 2 s on/4 s off). NMES training was performed every other day for three weeks and consisted of three sets produced at three min intervals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#11
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606434/the-relationships-between-surface-measurements-and%C3%A2-underlying-tendon-autograft-length-for-upper%C3%A2-extremity-reconstructive-surgery
#12
Michael T Milone, Mikael Starecki, Omri Ayalon, Michael W Aversano, Anthony Sapienza
PURPOSE: The availability of tendon grafts is an important consideration for successful upper extremity reconstructive surgery, including flexor or extensor tendon reconstructions, tendon transfers, and ligament reconstructions. Graft selection is based on availability, expendability, ease of harvest, and length. Given variations in patient height and extremity length, existing average values may provide suboptimal insight into actual tendon lengths available. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to pursue a method of estimating available donor tendon lengths based on easily measured anatomical surface landmarks...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601553/skeletal-muscle-water-t2-as-a-biomarker-of-disease-status-and-exercise-effects-in-patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#13
Ami Mankodi, Noura Azzabou, Thomas Bulea, Harmen Reyngoudt, Hirity Shimellis, Yupeng Ren, Eunhee Kim, Kenneth H Fischbeck, Pierre G Carlier
The purpose of this study was to examine exercise effects on muscle water T2 in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In 12 DMD subjects and 19 controls, lower leg muscle fat (%) was measured by Dixon and muscle water T2 and R2 (1/T2) by the tri-exponential model. Muscle water R2 was measured again at 3 hours after an ankle dorsiflexion exercise. The muscle fat fraction was higher in DMD participants than in controls (p < .001) except in the tibialis posterior muscle. Muscle water T2 was measured independent of the degree of fatty degeneration in DMD muscle...
April 28, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592916/a-reduction-in-selenoprotein-s-amplifies-the-inflammatory-profile-of-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle-in-the-mdx-dystrophic-mouse
#14
Craig Robert Wright, Giselle Larissa Allsopp, Alex Bernard Addinsall, Natasha Lee McRae, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Nicole Stupka
Excessive inflammation is a hallmark of muscle myopathies, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). There is interest in characterising novel genes that regulate inflammation due to their potential to modify disease progression. Gene polymorphisms in Selenoprotein S (Seps1) are associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines, and in vitro SEPS1 is protective against inflammatory stress. Given that SEPS1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, we investigated whether the genetic reduction of Seps1 exacerbated inflammation in the mdx mouse...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583990/docetaxel-does-not-impair-skeletal-muscle-force-production-in-a-murine-model-of-cancer-chemotherapy
#15
Thomas Chaillou, Ashley McPeek, Johanna T Lanner
Chemotherapy drugs such as docetaxel are commonly used to treat cancer. Cancer patients treated with chemotherapy experience decreased physical fitness, muscle weakness and fatigue. To date, it is unclear whether these symptoms result only from cancer-derived factors or from the combination of cancer disease and cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed at determining the impact of chemotherapy per se on force production of hind limb muscles from healthy mice treated with docetaxel. We hypothesized that docetaxel will decrease maximal force, exacerbate the force decline during repeated contractions and impair recovery after fatiguing stimulations...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556515/musculoskeletal-structure-and-function-in-response-to-the-combined-effect-of-an-obesogenic-diet-and-age-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#16
Kirsten N Bott, William Gittings, Val Andrew Fajardo, Bradley Baranowski, Rene Vandenboom, Paul J LeBlanc, Wendy E Ward, Sandra J Peters
SCOPE: The effects of a long-term high fat and sucrose diet (HFS) superimposed with aging on bone and muscle structure and/or function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J mice (20 weeks of age) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: baseline (BSL, n = 12), or assigned to a control (AGE, n = 12) or HFS (HFS-AGE, n = 11) diet for 13 weeks. Trabecular bone structure, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and body composition, were measured longitudinally at 20, 24, and 32 weeks of age...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543723/neuromuscular-junctions-nmjs-ultrastructural-analysis-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-subunit-mrna-expression-in-offspring-subjected-to-protein-restriction-throughout-pregnancy
#17
Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Ludimila Canuto Faccioni, Patrícia Aline Boer, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
Protein restriction during gestation can alter the skeletal muscle phenotype of offspring; however, little is known with regard to whether this also affects the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), as muscle phenotype maintenance depends upon NMJ functional integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a low protein (6%) intake by dams throughout gestation on male offspring NMJ morphology and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α1, γ and ε subunit expression in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles...
April 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538803/comparative-study-between-standard-and-inside-out-vein-graft-techniques-on-sciatic-nerve-repair-of-rats-muscular-and-functional-analysis
#18
Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza Bueno, Mizael Pereira, Idvaldo Aparecido, Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Antônio de Castro Rodrigues, Geraldo Marco
Purpose: To compare the functional result of standart vein grafts and inside-out vein graft technique on sciatic nerve repair. Methods: We used 24 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control group (CG), standard vein graft group (SVG), Inside-out vein graft group (IOVG) and denervated Group (DG). SVG, IOVG and DG underwent total section of the sciatic nerve, SVG and IOVG however underwent nerve repair surgery using a graft with normal jugular vein and inside-out jugular vein, respectively...
April 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536139/effects-of-leucine-supplementation-and-resistance-training-on-myopathy-of-diabetic-rats
#19
Carlos Eduardo C Martins, Vanessa B de S Lima, Brad J Schoenfeld, Julio Tirapegui
Leucine supplementation and resistance training positively influence the protein translation process and the cell signaling mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway that regulates muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling, and thus may be therapeutic to diabetic myopathy. However, the effect of a combined intervention has not been well studied. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, control (C), diabetic control (D), diabetic + trained (DT), diabetic + L-leucine (DL), diabetic + L-leucine + trained (DLT)...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490391/microrna-499-5p-regulates-porcine-myofiber-specification-by-controlling-sox6-expression
#20
X Y Wang, X L Chen, Z Q Huang, D W Chen, B Yu, J He, J Q Luo, Y H Luo, H Chen, P Zheng, J Yu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and miRNAs have been proven to play vital roles in skeletal muscle development. The miRNA-499-5p has been reported to be negatively related with the expression of Sox6, a critical transcription factor for the maintenance of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. In this study, we amplified a length of 2012-bp mRNA that contains a 1512-bp porcine Sox6 (pSox6) 3'UTR from skeletal muscle of a Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire pig...
May 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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