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extensor digitorum longus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294567/growth-hormone-secretagogues-prevent-dysregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-calcium-homeostasis-in-a-rat-model-of-cisplatin-induced-cachexia
#1
Elena Conte, Giulia Maria Camerino, Antonietta Mele, Michela De Bellis, Sabata Pierno, Francesco Rana, Adriano Fonzino, Roberta Caloiero, Laura Rizzi, Elena Bresciani, Khoubaib Ben Haj Salah, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Arcangela Giustino, Maria Addolorata Mariggiò, Mauro Coluccia, Domenico Tricarico, Marcello Diego Lograno, Annamaria De Luca, Antonio Torsello, Diana Conte, Antonella Liantonio
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281032/mouse-soleus-slow-muscle-shows-greater-intramyocellular-lipid-droplet-accumulation-than-edl-fast-muscle-fiber-type-specific-analysis
#2
Yusuke Komiya, Shoko Sawano, Daisuke Mashima, Riho Ichitsubo, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Wataru Mizunoya
Skeletal muscle is the main tissue of lipid metabolism and accordingly is critical for homeostasis and energy production; however, the determinants of lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle are unknown. Here, we examined whether the soleus muscle (predominantly slow-twitch fibers) has a higher lipid accumulation capacity than that of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, predominantly fast-twitch fibers) muscle in mice. Soleus and EDL muscles were harvested from male C57BL/6J mice. The mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid import and triglyceride synthesis and accumulation were examined in soleus and EDL muscles...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251615/stiffness-mapping-of-lower-leg-muscles-during-passive-dorsiflexion
#3
Guillaume Le Sant, Antoine Nordez, Ricardo Andrade, François Hug, Sandro Freitas, Raphaël Gross
It is challenging to differentiate the mechanical properties of synergist muscles in vivo. Shear wave elastography can be used to quantify the shear modulus (i.e. an index of stiffness) of a specific muscle. This study assessed the passive behavior of lower leg muscles during passive dorsiflexion performed with the knee fully extended (experiment 1, n = 22) or with the knee flexed at 90° (experiment 2, n = 20). The shear modulus measurements were repeated twice during experiment 1 to assess the inter-day reliability...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248222/on-the-rate-of-synthesis-of-individual-proteins-within-and-between-different-striated-muscles-of-the-rat
#4
Stuart Hesketh, Kanchana Srisawat, Hazel Sutherland, Jonathan Jarvis, Jatin Burniston
The turnover of muscle protein is responsive to different (patho)-physiological conditions but little is known about the rate of synthesis at the level of individual proteins or whether this varies between different muscles. We investigated the synthesis rate of eight proteins (actin, albumin, ATP synthase alpha, beta enolase, creatine kinase, myosin essential light chain, myosin regulatory light chain and tropomyosin) in the extensor digitorum longus, diaphragm, heart and soleus of male Wistar rats (352 ± 30 g body weight)...
March 15, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247345/isolation-culture-and-immunostaining-of-skeletal-muscle-myofibers-from-wildtype-and-nestin-gfp-mice-as-a-means-to-analyze-satellite-cell
#5
Pascal Stuelsatz, Paul Keire, Zipora Yablonka-Reuveni
Multinucleated myofibers, the functional contractile units of adult skeletal muscle, harbor mononuclear Pax7(+) myogenic progenitors on their surface between the myofiber basal lamina and plasmalemma. These progenitors, known as satellite cells, are the primary myogenic stem cells in adult muscle. This chapter describes our laboratory protocols for isolating, culturing, and immunostaining intact myofibers from mouse skeletal muscle as a means for studying satellite cell dynamics. The first protocol discusses myofiber isolation from the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246021/influence-of-phospholipasic-inhibition-on-neuromuscular-activity-of-bothrops-fonsecai-snake-venom
#6
Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Rita de Cássia O Collaço, Priscila Randazzo-Moura, Thalita Rocha, José Carlos Cogo, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni
Bothrops fonsecai (B. fonsecai), a pitviper endemic to southeastern Brazil, has a venom mainly composed by snake venom phospholipases (PLA2) and metalloproteases, compounds that could interfere with neuromuscular junction in vitro. In this work, we investigated the role of PLA2 in the myotoxicity and neuromuscular blockade caused by B. fonsecai venom using different procedures frequently associated with PLA2 activity inhibition: 24 °C bath temperature, Ca(2+) - Sr(2+) replacement and chemical modification with p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB)...
February 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222529/progressive-motor-deficit-is-mediated-by-the-denervation-of-neuromuscular-junctions-and-axonal-degeneration-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-mutant-p301s-tau-protein
#7
Zhuoran Yin, Femke Valkenburg, Betty E Hornix, Ietje Mantingh-Otter, Xingdong Zhou, Muriel Mari, Fulvio Reggiori, Debby Van Dam, Bart J L Eggen, Peter P De Deyn, Erik Boddeke
Tauopathies include a variety of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau, resulting in progressive cognitive decline and motor impairment. The underlying mechanism for motor deficits related to tauopathy is not yet fully understood. Here, we use a novel transgenic tau mouse line, Tau 58/4, with enhanced neuron-specific expression of P301S mutant tau to investigate the motor abnormalities in association with the peripheral nervous system. Using stationary beam, gait, and rotarod tests, motor deficits were found in Tau 58/4 mice already 3 months after birth, which deteriorated during aging...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216347/systemic-application-of-carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-3-protects-skeletal-muscle-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Aurelia Bihari, Gediminas Cepinskas, Thomas L Forbes, Richard F Potter, Abdel-Rahman Lawendy
OBJECTIVE: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is a limb- and life-threatening complication of acute limb ischemia and musculoskeletal trauma. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have recently been shown to protect microvascular perfusion and to reduce inflammation and injury in various ischemic animal models. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of water-soluble CORM-3 on the extent of IR-induced muscle injury. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: sham (no ischemia), IR + CORM-3 (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and IR + inactive CORM-3 (iCORM-3; 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214291/segmental-distribution-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-within-single-muscle-fibers
#9
Ming Zhang, Maree Gould
Despite many studies looking at the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms across a transverse section of muscle, knowledge of MHC distribution along the longitudinal axis of a single skeletal muscle fiber has been relatively overlooked. Immunocytochemistry was performed on serial sections of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle to identify MHC types I, IIA, IIX, IIY and IIB. Sixteen fascicles which contained a total of 362 fibers were randomly and systematically sampled from the 3 EDL muscles...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192820/estrogen-maintains-skeletal-muscle-in-septic-rats-associated-with-altering-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-neuropeptides
#10
Chenyan Zhao, Jun Li, Minhua Cheng, Jialing Shi, Juanhong Shen, Tao Gao, Fengchan Xi, Wenkui Yu
Muscle wasting is one of the main contributors to the worse outcomes in sepsis. Whether estrogen could alleviate muscle wasting induced by sepsis remains unclear. This study was designed to test the effect of estrogen on muscle wasting and its relationship with central alteration in sepsis. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, sepsis group, and estrogen treated sepsis group. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) or saline, followed by subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg) or saline...
February 13, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176597/the-risk-of-iatrogenic-injury-to-anterior-tibial-artery-variations-during-tibial-nail-distal-interlocking
#11
Nathan J Fanter, Sandra E Inouye, Christopher W Beiser
INTRODUCTION: Tibial intramedullary nailing remains a common tibial fracture fixation method. Tibial nailing indications continue to expand. Neurovascular complications from tibial nailing have been described; however, the proximity of distal tibial locking bolts to the anterior tibial artery (ATA) variants has not. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 52 cadaveric legs were dissected identifying three common ATA variants. Each ATA variant received an intraluminal wire to facilitate fluoroscopic identification...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174322/4d-microvascular-analysis-reveals-that-regenerative-angiogenesis-in-ischemic-muscle-produces-a-flawed-microcirculation
#12
John-Michael Arpino, Zengxuan Nong, Fuyan Li, Hao Yin, Nour W Ghonaim, Stephanie Milkovich, Brittany Balint, Caroline O'Neil, Graham M Fraser, Daniel Goldman, Christopher G Ellis, J G Pickering
RATIONALE: Angiogenesis occurs following ischemic injury to skeletal muscle and enhancing this response has been a therapeutic goal. However, to appropriately deliver oxygen, a precisely organized and exquisitely responsive microcirculation must form. Whether these network attributes exist in a regenerated microcirculation is unknown and methodologies for answering this have been lacking. OBJECTIVE: To develop 4D methodologies for elucidating microarchitecture and function of the reconstructed microcirculation in skeletal muscle...
February 7, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167917/forced-running-endurance-is-influenced-by-gene-s-on-mouse-chromosome-10
#13
Mindaugas Kvedaras, Petras Minderis, Andrej Fokin, Aivaras Ratkevicius, Tomas Venckunas, Arimantas Lionikas
Phenotypic diversity between laboratory mouse strains provides a model for studying the underlying genetic mechanisms. The A/J strain performs poorly in various endurance exercise models. The aim of the study was to test if endurance capacity and contractility of the fast- and slow-twitch muscles are affected by the genes on mouse chromosome 10. The C57BL/6J (B6) strain and C57BL/6J-Chr 10(A/J)/NaJ (B6.A10) consomic strain which carries the A/J chromosome 10 on a B6 strain background were compared. The B6.A10 mice compared to B6 were larger in body weight (p < 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166887/effects-of-button-position-on-a-soft-keyboard-muscle-activity-touch-time-and-discomfort-in-two-thumb-text-entry
#14
Joonho Chang, Bori Choi, Amir Tjolleng, Kihyo Jung
Intensive use of the thumbs for text entry on smartphones may contribute to discomfort, pain, or musculoskeletal disorders. This study investigated the effect of twenty-five button positions (5 rows × 5 columns) on a soft keyboard for two-thumb entry. Two experiments measured muscle activity, touch time, and discomfort as a function of the button positions. In Phase I, the muscle activities of two intrinsic (abductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interossei) and two extrinsic (abductor pollicis longus and extensor digitorum communis) muscles associated with thumb motions were observed for ten college students (age: 24...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152253/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-human-calf-variation-of-inter-and-intramuscle-specific-diffusion-parameters
#15
Lara Schlaffke, Robert Rehmann, Martijn Froeling, Rudolf Kley, Martin Tegenthoff, Matthias Vorgerd, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
PURPOSE: To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 3T scanner and a 16-channel Torso XL coil. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired to perform fiber tractography and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis for each muscle of both legs...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149727/arthroscopic-taloplasty-for-an-anterolateral-snapping-ankle
#16
Tun Hing Lui
Anterior ankle snapping syndrome is rare. Snapping of the extensor digitorum longus due to attenuated inferior extensor retinaculum and snapping due to hypertrophied or low-lying peroneal tertius muscle have been reported. We reported a new mechanism of anterolateral snapping due to a hypertrophied talar head. Anterolateral snapping ankle can be revealed by active dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the ankle with the foot inverted. Foot inversion will tension the inferior extensor retinaculum and uncover the dorsolateral prominence of the talar head...
December 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144149/can-achilles-tendon-be-used-as-a-new-distal-landmark-for-coronal-tibial-component-alignment-in-total-knee-replacement-surgery-an-observational-mri-study
#17
Uğur Tiftikçi, Sancar Serbest, Veysel Burulday
BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, it is better to use more than one reference point for correct alignment of the components. By measuring the distances of Achilles tendon (AT) and other conventional landmarks from the mechanical axis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the ankle, we aimed to demonstrate that, as a novel landmark which can help for correct alignment in the coronal plane, AT is a better option than other landmarks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was done on 53 ankle MRIs that met the criteria for inclusion to the study among 158 ankle MRIs...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095499/treatment-with-riluzole-restores-normal-control-of-soleus-and-extensor-digitorum-longus-muscles-during-locomotion-in-adult-rats-after-sciatic-nerve-crush-at-birth
#18
Wojciech Zmysłowski, Anna M Cabaj, Urszula Sławińska
The effects of sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and treatment with Riluzole on muscle activity during unrestrained locomotion were identified in an animal model by analysis of the EMG activity recorded from soleus (Sol) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of both hindlimbs; in intact rats (IN) and in groups of rats treated for 14 days with saline (S) or Riluzole (R) after right limb nerve crush at the 1st (1S and 1R) or 2nd (2S and 2R) day after birth. Changes in the locomotor pattern of EMG activity were correlated with the numbers of survived motor units (MUs) identified in investigated muscles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093090/potential-involvement-of-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-impairment-of-skeletal-muscle-growth-and-muscle-contractile-function-in-mice
#19
Tatsuro Egawa, Satoshi Tsuda, Ayumi Goto, Yoshitaka Ohno, Shingo Yokoyama, Katsumasa Goto, Tatsuya Hayashi
Diets enriched with advanced glycation end products (AGE) have recently been related to muscle dysfunction processes. However, it remains unclear whether long-term exposure to an AGE-enriched diet impacts physiological characteristics of skeletal muscles. Therefore, we explored the differences in skeletal muscle mass, contractile function and molecular responses between mice receiving a diet high in AGE (H-AGE) and low in AGE (L-AGE) for 16 weeks. There were no significant differences between L-AGE and H-AGE mice with regard to body weight, food intake or epididymal fat pad weight...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076365/gene-expression-profiling-in-slow-type-calf-soleus-muscle-of-30-days-space-flown-mice
#20
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus)...
2017: PloS One
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