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Hyperkalemia hypokalemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806047/electrolytes-potassium-disorders
#1
Taiwona L Elliott
Hypokalemia (ie, potassium levels less than 3.5 mEq/L) occurs in fewer than 1% of healthy individuals, but is present in up to 20% of hospitalized patients, 40% of patients taking diuretics, and 17% of patients with cardiovascular conditions. Hypokalemia often is asymptomatic; symptoms are more common in older adults. Common symptoms are cardiac arrhythmias and muscle weakness or pain. Management consists of intravenous potassium replacement during cardiac monitoring for patients with marked symptoms, echocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities, or severe hypokalemia (ie, level less than 3...
August 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803654/temporal-pattern-and-prognostic-significance-of-hypokalemia-in-patients-undergoing-targeted-temperature-management-following-cardiac-arrest
#2
Arash Nayeri, Hannah Gluck, Eric Farber-Eger, Srikanth Krishnan, Kamran Shamsa, Michael Lee, Quinn S Wells, John A McPherson
Hypokalemia has been consistently reported as a common occurrence during targeted temperature management (TTM) in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. We sought to better describe changes in serum potassium throughout the different stages of TTM and to assess for any prognostic significance. We analyzed a prospectively collected cohort of 240 patients treated with TTM following cardiac arrest at a tertiary care hospital between 2007 and 2014. The primary outcome was poor neurologic outcome at hospital discharge, defined as a Cerebral Performance Category score >2...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745843/evidence-based-management-of-potassium-disorders-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#3
John Ashurst, Shane R Sergent, Benjamin J Wagner, Jeremy Kim
Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are the most common electrolyte disorders managed in the emergency department. The diagnosis of these potentially life-threatening disorders is challenging due to the often vague symptomatology a patient may express, and treatment options may be based upon very little data due to the time it may take for laboratory values to return. This review examines the most current evidence with regard to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of potassium disorders. In this review, classic paradigms, such as the use of sodium polystyrene and the routine measurement of serum magnesium, are tested, and an algorithm for the treatment of potassium disorders is discussed...
November 22, 2016: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735756/incidence-and-determinants-of-hyperkalemia-and-hypokalemia-in-a-large-healthcare-system
#4
Erik Nilsson, Alessandro Gasparini, Johan Ärnlöv, Hairong Xu, Karin M Henriksson, Josef Coresh, Morgan E Grams, Juan Jesus Carrero
BACKGROUND: Hypo- and hyperkalemia in clinical settings are insufficiently characterized and large-scale data from Europe lacking. We studied incidence and determinants of these abnormalities in a large Swedish healthcare system. METHODS: Observational study from the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements project, including adult individuals from Stockholm accessing healthcare in 2009 (n=364,955). Over 3-years, we estimated the incidence of hypokalemia, defined as potassium<3...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717776/a-retrospective-study-of-emergency-department-potassium-disturbances-severity-treatment-and-outcomes
#5
Adam J Singer, Henry C Thode, W Frank Peacock
OBJECTIVE: Disturbances in potassium (K) levels are relatively common and may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, treatments vary. Our purpose was to determine the incidence, treatments, and outcomes associated with hyperkalemia and hypokalemia in emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS: We performed a structured, retrospective review of electronic medical records of consecutive adult ED patients with K measured while in the ED. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data as well as treatments, disposition, and in-hospital complications were collected...
June 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697495/electrolyte-and-acid-base-abnormalities-in-infants-with-community-acquired-acute-pyelonephritis-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#6
Gregorio P Milani, Angela Grava, Mario G Bianchetti, Sebastiano A G Lava, Laura Dell'Era, Thomas Teatini, Emilio F Fossali
BACKGROUND: Retrospective case series suggest that abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis may occur among infants with a febrile urinary tract infection. Potentially inaccurate laboratory methods of sodium testing have often been used. METHODS: Between January 2009 and June 2016, we managed 80 previously healthy infants (52 males and 28 females) ≥4 weeks to ≤24 months of age with their first episode of acute pyelonephritis. Ionized sodium, ionized potassium and ionized chloride were determined by direct potentiometry, as recommended by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry...
July 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608260/water-electrolyte-acid-base-and-trace-elements-alterations-in-cirrhotic-patients
#7
REVIEW
Carlos G Musso, Rossina Juarez, Richard J Glassock
Chronic hepatic patients, and particularly those suffering from cirrhosis, are predisposed to different sort of water, electrolyte, acid-base, and trace elements disorders due to their altered liver function, and also to their exposition to infectious, inflammatory, oncologic, and pharmacologic variables whose combination undermines their homeostatic capability. Hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, metabolic acidosis, respiratory, and metabolic alkalosis are the main internal milieu alterations in this group...
June 12, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577687/true-rate-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-related-hyperkalemia-in-placebo-controlled-trials-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Davor Vukadinović, Daniel Lavall, Aleksandra Nikolovska Vukadinović, Bertram Pitt, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Michael Böhm
BACKGROUND: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) improve survival in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction but are often underused, mostly due to concerns of hyperkalemia. Because hyperkalemia occurs also on placebo, we aimed to determine the truly MRA-related rate of hyperkalemia. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis including randomized, placebo-controlled trials reporting hyperkalemia on MRAs in patients after myocardial infarction or with chronic heart failure...
June 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497085/evaluation-of-water-and-electrolytes-disorders-in-severe-acute-diarrhea-patients-treated-by-who-protocol-in-eight-large-hospitals-in-tehran-a-nephrology-viewpoint
#9
Alireza Soleimani, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Mohammad Reza Tamadon
Introduction: The most common cause of death from diarrhea is the shock caused by dehydration, electrolytes and acid-base disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate water and electrolytes disorders in diarrhea patients after treating severe acute diarrhea. Patients and Methods: In this study we used a historical cohort and studied patients who were hospitalized due to acute diarrhea and were similarly treated for dehydration and water and electrolyte disorders as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline...
2017: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458337/outcomes-analysis-of-surgical-and-medical-treatments-for-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism
#10
Kyeong Seon Park, Jung Hee Kim, Ye Seul Yang, A Ram Hong, Dong-Hwa Lee, Min Kyong Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Chan Soo Shin, Sang Wan Kim, Seong Yeon Kim
Patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas are treated using surgery, and patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism receive medical treatment using mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs). However, the outcomes of surgical and medical treatment for primary aldosteronism (PA) remain unclear. Therefore, we compared the outcomes of surgical and medical treatment for PA and aimed to identify a specific subgroup that might benefit from medical treatment. We identified 269 patients who were treated for PA (unilateral excess: 221 cases; bilateral excess: 48 cases) during 2000-2015 at the Seoul National University Hospital and two other tertiary centers...
April 29, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432604/phosphate-imbalance-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#11
REVIEW
E C Christopoulou, T D Filippatos, E Megapanou, M S Elisaf, G Liamis
Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Hypophosphatemia in patients with heart failure may be the result of co-existing electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, pharmacological treatments, decreased intestinal absorption or secondary to sympathetic nervous system activation and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus or heavy alcohol consumption...
May 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402156/efficacy-and-safety-of-patiromer-in-hyperkalemia
#12
Saibal Das, Jayanta Kumar Dey, Sumalya Sen, Rishav Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Patients at the highest risk of hyperkalemia are those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 and 4. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of patiromer in hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure or CKD. METHODS: The Cochrane Renal Group's Specialized Register was searched through contact with the Trials' Search Coordinator. We aimed at including randomized controlled trials with patiromer in patients with developed or risks of developing hyperkalemia, comparing against an active comparator or placebo...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395912/dobutamine-stress-echocardiography-impact-of-abnormal-blood-potassium-levels-on-cardiac-arrhythmias
#13
Jared G Bird, Robert B McCully, Patricia A Pellikka, Garvan C Kane
BACKGROUND: Guidelines suggest that an abnormal blood potassium level is a relative contraindication to performing dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). However, this has not been previously studied. METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of patients who had potassium testing within 48 hours of undergoing DSE for the evaluation of myocardial ischemia over a 10-year period (N = 13,198). Normal potassium range in our laboratory is 3.6-5.2 mmol/L. Hemolyzed samples were not included...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382621/spironolactone-effect-on-potassium-supplementation-in-paediatric-cardiac-intensive-care-patients
#14
B S Moffett, T E Haworth, Y Wang, N Afonso, P A Checchia
WHAT IS KNOWN: Spironolactone is used in paediatric patients with heart disease, yet few data are available regarding the impact on potassium supplementation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effect of spironolactone on potassium supplementation in paediatric cardiac intensive care patients. METHODS: A retrospective, propensity matched cohort study was designed. Patients were included in the study if they received furosemide therapy in the cardiac intensive care unit at our institution...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346526/plasma-potassium-diuretic-use-and-risk-of-developing-chronic-kidney-disease-in-a-predominantly-white-population
#15
Lyanne M Kieneker, Michele F Eisenga, Michel M Joosten, Rudolf A de Boer, Ron T Gansevoort, Jenny E Kootstra-Ros, Gerjan Navis, Stephan J L Bakker
OBJECTIVE: Both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia are associated with disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is unclear whether similar associations are present in the general population. Our aim was to examine the association of plasma potassium with risk of developing CKD and the role of diuretics in this association in a population-based cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 5,130 subjects free of CKD at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study, a prospective, population-based cohort of Dutch men and women aged 28-75 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314851/electrophysiology-of-hypokalemia-and-hyperkalemia
#16
James N Weiss, Zhilin Qu, Kalyanam Shivkumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286812/20-day-trend-of-serum-potassium-changes-in-bam-earthquake-victims-with-crush-syndrome-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Saeed Safari, Iraj Najafi, Mostafa Hosseini, Alireza Baratloo, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Hamidreza Mohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Many of those who survive following an earthquake die in the next phase due to preventable and treatable medical conditions such as hyperkalemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the trend of potassium changes in crush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which were developed by Iranian Society of Nephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 20-day trend of potassium changes in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264031/lower-serum-potassium-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-dialysis-patients-a-nationwide-prospective-observational-cohort-study-in-korea
#18
Sunhwa Lee, Eunjeong Kang, Kyung Don Yoo, Yunhee Choi, Dong Ki Kim, Kwon Wook Joo, Seung Hee Yang, Yong-Lim Kim, Shin-Wook Kang, Chul Woo Yang, Nam Ho Kim, Yon Su Kim, Hajeong Lee
BACKGROUND: Abnormal serum potassium concentration has been suggested as a risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing dialysis patients. We investigated the impact of serum potassium levels on survival according to dialysis modality. METHODS: A nationwide, prospective, observational cohort study for end stage renal disease patients has been ongoing in Korea since August 2008. Our analysis included patients whose records contained data regarding serum potassium levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213863/hyperkalemia-is-associated-with-increased-30-day-mortality-in-hip-fracture-patients
#19
Debbie Norring-Agerskov, Christian Medom Madsen, Bo Abrahamsen, Troels Riis, Ole B Pedersen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Lise Bathum, Jes Bruun Lauritzen, Henrik L Jørgensen
Abnormal plasma concentrations of potassium in the form of hyper- and hypokalemia are frequent among hospitalized patients and have been linked to poor outcomes. In this study, we examined the prevalence of hypo- and hyperkalemia in patients admitted with a fractured hip as well as the association with 30-day mortality in these patients. A total of 7293 hip fracture patients (aged 60 years or above) with admission plasma potassium measurements were included. Data on comorbidity, medication, and death was retrieved from national registries...
February 17, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182346/correction-equation-for-estimation-of-actual-potassium-concentration-in-hemolyzed-specimen
#20
Tae Sic Lee, Juwon Kim, Young Uh, Yon Chul Park, Gil Sung Yoo, Kap Jun Yoon
BACKGROUND: A spuriously elevated serum potassium value could possibly cause medical decision errors because it leads to masked hypokalemia or pseudohyperkalemia. The aim of this study was to develop a correction equation for falsely elevated potassium level caused by hemolysis. METHODS: A total of 988 samples with a hemolysis index (HI) value greater than the potassium alert HI value were recollected within two hours from initial collection. We divided 988 paired samples into 3 groups: hypokalemia, normal, and hyperkalemia...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
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