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Astronaut sleep

Paul T Bartone, Gerald P Krueger, Jocelyn V Bartone
INTRODUCTION: Future deep space missions will expose astronauts to more intense stressors than previously encountered. Isolation will be greater and more prolonged, living and work areas more confined, and communications and resupply channels to Earth longer and less reliable. Astronauts will need to function more autonomously, with less guidance and support from Earth. Thus, it is important to select and train astronauts who can adapt and function effectively under extreme and variable conditions...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Alain A Gonfalone
What is known about sleep results from years of observation at the surface of the Earth. Since a few decade man has been able to reach space, escape from the earth attraction and spend days and nights in a weightless condition. Some major physiological changes have been observed during long stays and in particular the sleep duration in space is shorter than on ground. This paper reviews a novel hypothesis proposing that sleep is partly due to gravity. Gravity is a fundamental part of our environment, but is elusive and difficult to apprehend...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Marco Di Rienzo, Emanuele Vaini, Prospero Lombardi
Seismocardiogram, SCG, is the measure of precordial vibrations produced by the beating heart, from which cardiac mechanics may be explored on a beat-to-beat basis. We recently collected a large amount of SCG data (>69 recording hours) from an astronaut to investigate cardiac mechanics during sleep aboard the International Space Station and on Earth. SCG sleep recordings are characterized by a prolonged duration and wide heart rate swings, thus a specific algorithm was developed for their analysis. In this article we describe the new algorithm and its performance...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Johannes Kast, Yichao Yu, Christoph N Seubert, Virginia E Wotring, Hartmut Derendorf
Space agencies are working intensely to push the current boundaries of human spaceflight by sending astronauts deeper into space than ever before, including missions to Mars and asteroids. Spaceflight alters human physiology due to fluid shifts, muscle and bone loss, immune system dysregulation, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic enzymes. These alterations may change the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of medications used by astronauts and subsequently might impact drug efficacy and safety...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
George C Brainard, Laura K Barger, Robert R Soler, John P Hanifin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review addresses the development of a new solid-state lighting system for the International Space Station (ISS) that is intended to enhance the illumination of the working and living environment of astronauts and to improve sleep, circadian entrainment, and daytime alertness. RECENT FINDINGS: Spaceflight missions often expose astronauts and mission support ground crews to atypical sleep-wake cycles and work schedules. A recent, extensive study describes the sleep characteristics and use of sleep-promoting pharmaceuticals in astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Koh Mizuno, Akiko Matsumoto, Tatsuya Aiba, Takashi Abe, Hiroshi Ohshima, Masaya Takahashi, Yuichi Inoue
BACKGROUND: Flight controllers of the International Space Station (ISS) are engaged in shift work to provide 24-h coverage to support ISS systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) among Japanese ISS flight controllers. METHODS: A questionnaire study was conducted using the Standard Shiftwork Index to evaluate sleep-related problems and possible associated variables. Among 52 respondents out of 73 flight controllers, 30 subjects were identified as night shift workers who worked 3 or more night shifts per month...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Alain A Gonfalone
Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man's adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man's most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth...
January 2016: Sleep Science
Qing Liu, Renlai Zhou, Lei Liu, Xin Zhao
BACKGROUND: To provide evidence for better understanding stressful situations, the present study was designed to investigate the specific physiological and psychological responses under stressful situations like social isolation and sleep deprivation. METHODS: Twelve healthy male adults (age: 18-30years old) who participated in our study were randomized to the 72hours of social isolation and 72hours of sleep deprivation experimental conditions. Performances (event-related potentials and physiological activities) on the Go/Nogo task which reflected the executive functions were accessed at baseline (pretest) and after 72-hour of the experiment (posttest)...
August 2015: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Jin-Hu Guo, Wei-Min Qu, Shan-Guang Chen, Xiao-Ping Chen, Ke Lv, Zhi-Li Huang, Yi-Lan Wu
The circadian clock and sleep are essential for human physiology and behavior; deregulation of circadian rhythms impairs health and performance. Circadian clocks and sleep evolved to adapt to Earth's environment, which is characterized by a 24-hour light-dark cycle. Changes in gravity load, lighting and work schedules during spaceflight missions can impact circadian clocks and disrupt sleep, in turn jeopardizing the mood, cognition and performance of orbiting astronauts. In this review, we summarize our understanding of both the influence of the space environment on the circadian timing system and sleep and the impact of these changes on astronaut physiology and performance...
2014: Military Medical Research
Sylvia A Pamboukian
The film Apollo 13 depicts denial of illness and refusal of health care as key components of American masculinity. In the film, male astronauts and mission controllers deny vulnerability to measles and to urinary infections, as well as the need to sleep, to prove their manliness. This is symbolized by their ridicule of flight surgeon Dr. Chuck. Conversely, the astronauts' wives are depicted admitting vulnerability, especially insomnia. Thus, the film exploits and reinforces existing strands of American culture that view admission of illness and help-seeking as appropriate for women but not men, reinforcing denial and noncompliance as desirable male behaviors...
March 2016: Journal of Medical Humanities
Naomune Yamamoto, Kuniaki Otsuka, Yutaka Kubo, Mitsutoshi Hayashi, Koh Mizuno, Hiroshi Ohshima, Chiaki Mukai
We evaluated their circadian rhythms using data from electrocardiographic records and examined the change in circadian period related to normal RR intervals for astronauts who completed a long-term (≥6-month) mission in space. The examinees were seven astronauts, five men and two women, from 2009 to 2010. Their mean ± SD age was 52.0 ± 4.2 years (47-59 yr). Each stayed in space for more than 160 days; their average length of stay was 172.6 ± 14.6 days (163-199 days). We conducted a 24-h Holter electrocardiography before launch (Pre), at one month after launch (DF1), at two months after launch (DF2), at two weeks before return (DF3), and at three months after landing (Post), comparing each index of frequency-domain analysis and 24-h biological rhythms of the NN intervals (normal RR intervals)...
April 2015: Chronobiology International
Namni Goel, Tracy L Bale, C Neill Epperson, Susan G Kornstein, Gloria R Leon, Lawrence A Palinkas, Jack W Stuster, David F Dinges
This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight...
November 2014: Journal of Women's Health
Mathias Basner, David F Dinges
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Lancet Neurology
Laura K Barger, Erin E Flynn-Evans, Alan Kubey, Lorcan Walsh, Joseph M Ronda, Wei Wang, Kenneth P Wright, Charles A Czeisler
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation and fatigue are common subjective complaints among astronauts. Previous studies of sleep and hypnotic drug use in space have been limited to post-flight subjective survey data or in-flight objective data collection from a small number of crew members. We aimed to characterise representative sleep patterns of astronauts on both short-duration and long-duration spaceflight missions. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited crew members assigned to Space Transportation System shuttle flights with in-flight experiments between July 12, 2001, and July 21, 2011, or assigned to International Space Station (ISS) expeditions between Sept 18, 2006, and March 16, 2011...
September 2014: Lancet Neurology
Amit Ranjan, Jitendra Behari, Birendra N Mallick
Microgravity and sleep loss lead to cognitive and learning deficits. These behavioral alterations are likely to be associated with cytomorphological changes and loss of neurons. To understand the phenomenon, we exposed rats (225-275 g) to 14 days simulated microgravity (SMg) and compared its effects on CA1 hippocampal neuronal plasticity, with that of normal cage control rats. We observed that the mean area, perimeter, synaptic cleft, and length of active zone of CA1 hippocampal neurons significantly decreased while dendritic arborization and number of spines significantly increased in SMg group as compared with controls...
2014: Frontiers in Neurology
Mathias Basner, David F Dinges, Daniel J Mollicone, Igor Savelev, Adrian J Ecker, Adrian Di Antonio, Christopher W Jones, Eric C Hyder, Kevin Kan, Boris V Morukov, Jeffrey P Sutton
Behavioral health risks are among the most serious and difficult to mitigate risks of confinement in space craft during long-duration space exploration missions. We report on behavioral and psychological reactions of a multinational crew of 6 healthy males confined in a 550 m(3) chamber for 520 days during the first Earth-based, high-fidelity simulated mission to Mars. Rest-activity of crewmembers was objectively measured throughout the mission with wrist-worn actigraphs. Once weekly throughout the mission crewmembers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Profile of Moods State short form (POMS), conflict questionnaire, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT-B), and series of visual analogue scales on stress and fatigue...
2014: PloS One
Javed Iqbal, Wang Li, Murtaza Hasan, Yu Juan Li, Kaleem Ullah, Wang Yun, Umer Awan, Hong Qing, Yulin Deng
Microgravity generates oxidative stress in central nervous system, causing distortion of various vital signaling cascades involved in many homeostatic functions. Here, we performed comparative (16) O/(18) O labeled integrated proteomic strategy to observe the differential expression of signaling proteins involved in homeostasis. In this study, rat-tail suspension model is employed to induce simulated microgravity in CNS. By wide proteomic analysis, total of 35 and 97 significantly differentially expressed proteins were found by HPLC/ESI-TOF and HPLC-Q-TOF analysis, respectively...
February 2014: Proteomics
D Xu, J K Shoemaker, A P Blaber, P Arbeille, K Fraser, R L Hughson
Limited data are available to describe the regulation of heart rate (HR) during sleep in spaceflight. Sleep provides a stable supine baseline during preflight Earth recordings for comparison of heart rate variability (HRV) over a wide range of frequencies using both linear, complexity, and fractal indicators. The current study investigated the effect of long-duration spaceflight on HR and HRV during sleep in seven astronauts aboard the International Space Station up to 6 mo. Measurements included electrocardiographic waveforms from Holter monitors and simultaneous movement records from accelerometers before, during, and after the flights...
July 15, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Namni Goel, David F Dinges
Several laboratories have found large, highly reliable individual differences in the magnitude of cognitive performance, fatigue and sleepiness, and sleep homeostatic vulnerability to acute total sleep deprivation and to chronic sleep restriction in healthy adults. Such individual differences in neurobehavioral performance are also observed in space flight as a result of sleep loss. The reasons for these stable phenotypic differential vulnerabilities are unknown: such differences are not yet accounted for by demographic factors, IQ or sleep need, and moreover, psychometric scales do not predict those individuals cognitively vulnerable to sleep loss...
August 2012: Acta Astronautica
S I Stepanova, V A Galichiĭ, V F Nesterov, I F Saraev
Intensity of the rest and work cycle (WRC) of the ISS cosmonauts was examined in terms of overplanning, as well as frequency of sleep shifting and incidence of crew overstrain evidenced from the weekly reports of MCC-M medical operators. Level of WRC intensity in the recent ISS missions was compared with the WRC chronicles of early missions made by three crewmembers including one cosmonaut, and subsequent missions by six crewmembers including 2 or 3 cosmonauts. Though weak, a trend toward a WRC reduction in the period of 2010-2011 was achieved through a more realistic task planning for an average cosmonaut...
November 2012: Aviakosmicheskaia i Ekologicheskaia Meditsina, Aerospace and Environmental Medicine
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