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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434101/predicting-dream-recall-eeg-activation-during-nrem-sleep-or-shared-mechanisms-with-wakefulness
#1
Serena Scarpelli, Aurora D'Atri, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Cristina Marzano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Cinzia Schiappa, Michele Ferrara, Luigi De Gennaro
The common knowledge of a uniqueness of REM sleep as a privileged scenario of dreaming still persists, although consolidated empirical evidence shows that the assumption that dreaming is just an epiphenomenon of REM sleep is no longer tenable. However, the brain mechanisms underlying dream generation and its encoding in memory during NREM sleep are still mostly unknown. In fact, only few studies have investigated on the mechanisms of dream phenomenology related to NREM sleep. For this reason, our study is specifically aimed to elucidate the electrophysiological (EEG) correlates of dream recall (DR) upon NREM sleep awakenings...
April 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433628/ca-2-dependent-hyperpolarization-hypothesis-for-mammalian-sleep
#2
REVIEW
Fumiya Tatsuki, Koji L Ode, Hiroki R Ueda
The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep/wake cycles in mammals are elusive. In this regulation, at least two mechanisms with fast and slow time scales are involved. In the faster time scale, a state of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep can be microscopically characterized by the millisecond-to-second-order electrical behavior of neurons, namely slow-wave oscillations described by electrophysiology. In the slower time scale, the total duration of NREM sleep is homeostatically regulated by sleep pressure (the need for sleep), which is usually sustained for hours or even days and can be macroscopically described by electroencephalogram (EEG)...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432269/altered-sleep-patterns-in-patients-with-non-functional-ghrh-receptor
#3
Francielle T Oliveira, Roberto Salvatori, Jose' Marcondes, Larissa B Macena, Alecia A Oliveira-Santos, Augusto Cn Faro, Viviane C Campos, Carla R Oliveira, Ursula Mm Costa, Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: GH releasing hormone (GHRH) exerts hypnotic actions increasing non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Conversely, GH stimulates REM sleep. GH deficiency (GHD) often leads to sleep problems, daytime fatigue, and reduced quality of life (QoL). GHD may be due to lack of hypothalamic GHRH or destruction of somatotroph cells. We have described a cohort with isolated GHD (IGHD) due to GHRH resistance caused by a homozygous null mutation in the GHRH receptor gene. They have normal QoL and no obvious complaints of chronic tiredness...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425172/the-homeostatic-and-circadian-sleep-recovery-responses-after-total-sleep-deprivation-in-mice
#4
Garance Dispersyn, Fabien Sauvet, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Sylvain Ciret, Catherine Drogou, Damien Leger, Thierry Gallopin, Mounir Chennaoui
Many studies on sleep deprivation effects lack data regarding the recovery period. We investigated the 2-day homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery response to 24 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) induced by brief rotation of an activity wheel. Eight mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters (DSI F40-EET) that recorded simultaneously their electroencephalography (EEG), locomotor activity and temperature during 24 h of baseline (BSL), TSD and 2 days of recovery (D1 and D2). In a second experiment, two groups of five non-implanted mice underwent TSD or ad libitum sleep, after which they were killed, adrenal glands were weighed and blood was collected for analysis of corticosterone concentration...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424466/the-role-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue-in-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-induced-sleep-metabolic-and-feeding-responses
#5
Éva Szentirmai, Levente Kapás
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414209/polypharmacological-in-silico-bioactivity-profiling-and-experimental-validation-uncovers-sedative-hypnotic-effects-of-approved-and-experimental-drugs-in-rat
#6
Georgios Drakakis, Keith A Wafford, Suzanne C Brewerton, Michael J Bodkin, David A Evans, Andreas Bender
In this work, we describe the computational ('in silico') mode-of-action analysis of CNS-active drugs, which is taking both multiple simultaneous hypotheses as well as sets of protein targets for each mode-of-action into account, and which was followed by successful prospective in vitro and in vivo validation. Using sleep-related phenotypic readouts describing both efficacy and side-effects for 491 compounds tested in rat, we defined an 'optimal' (desirable) sleeping pattern. Compounds were subjected to in silico target prediction (which was experimentally confirmed for 21 out of 28 cases, corresponding to 75%), followed by the utilization of decision trees for deriving polypharmacological bioactivity profiles...
April 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408635/cardiac-autonomic-control-and-complexity-during-sleep-are-preserved-after-chronic-sleep-restriction-in-healthy-subjects
#7
Eleonora Tobaldini, Naima Covassin, Andrew Calvin, Prachi Singh, Jan Bukartyk, Shiang Wang, Nicola Montano, Virend K Somers
Acute sleep deprivation (SD) alters cardiovascular autonomic control (CAC) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the effects of partial SD on CAC are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of partial SD on CAC during sleep. We randomized seventeen healthy subjects to a restriction group (RES, n = 8, subjects slept two-thirds of normal sleep time based on individual habitual sleep duration for 8 days and 8 nights) or a Control group (CON, n = 9, subjects were allowed to sleep their usual sleep time)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401950/auditory-conditioned-stimulus-presentation-during-nrem-sleep-impairs-fear-memory-in-mice
#8
Ross J Purple, Takeshi Sakurai, Masanori Sakaguchi
Externally manipulating memories by presenting conditioned stimuli (CS) during sleep is a new approach to investigating memory processing during sleep. However, whether presenting a CS during REM or NREM sleep enhances or extinguishes fear memory has not been clearly delineated. In this study, mice underwent trace fear conditioning consisting of an auditory CS paired with a foot shock, and the auditory CS was re-presented during subsequent REM or NREM sleep. Mice that received auditory cueing during NREM but not REM sleep showed impaired fear memory upon later presentation of the auditory CS...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401614/suppression-of-interictal-spikes-during-phasic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-a-quantitative-stereo-electroencephalography-study
#9
C Campana, F Zubler, S Gibbs, F de Carli, P Proserpio, A Rubino, M Cossu, L Tassi, K Schindler, L Nobili
Tonic and phasic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep seem to represent two different brain states exerting different effects on epileptic activity. In particular, interictal spikes are suppressed strongly during phasic REM sleep. The reason for this effect is not understood completely. A different level of synchronization in phasic and tonic REM sleep has been postulated, yet never measured directly. Here we assessed the interictal spike rate across non-REM (NREM) sleep, phasic and tonic REM sleep in nine patients affected by drug resistant focal epilepsy: five with type II focal cortical dysplasia and four with hippocampal sclerosis...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399441/sleep-architecture-in-insomniacs-with-severe-benzodiazepine-abuse
#10
Mauro Manconi, Raffaele Ferri, Silvia Miano, Michelangelo Maestri, Valentina Bottasini, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most commonly prescribed compounds in insomnia. A long-term of BZDs use may cause dependence and abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep architecture and microstructure (in terms of cyclic alternating pattern - CAP - analysis and of sleep EEG power spectral analysis) in a group of long-term users of high doses of BZDs for their primary chronic insomnia. METHODS: Twenty patients consecutively admitted at the Sleep Centre for drug discontinuation and 13 matched healthy controls underwent a full nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording, after one adaptation night...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397310/creatine-supplementation-reduces-sleep-need-and-homeostatic-sleep-pressure-in-rats
#11
Markus Dworak, Tae Kim, Robert W Mccarley, Radhika Basheer
Sleep has been postulated to promote brain energy restoration. It is as yet unknown if increasing the energy availability within the brain reduces sleep need. The guanidine amino acid creatine (Cr) is a well-known energy booster in cellular energy homeostasis. Oral Cr-monohydrate supplementation (CS) increases exercise performance and has been shown to have substantial effects on cognitive performance, neuroprotection and circadian rhythms. The effect of CS on cellular high-energy molecules and sleep-wake behaviour is unclear...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394322/the-neural-correlates-of-dreaming
#12
Francesca Siclari, Benjamin Baird, Lampros Perogamvros, Giulio Bernardi, Joshua J LaRocque, Brady Riedner, Melanie Boly, Bradley R Postle, Giulio Tononi
Consciousness never fades during waking. However, when awakened from sleep, we sometimes recall dreams and sometimes recall no experiences. Traditionally, dreaming has been identified with rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, characterized by wake-like, globally 'activated', high-frequency electroencephalographic activity. However, dreaming also occurs in non-REM (NREM) sleep, characterized by prominent low-frequency activity. This challenges our understanding of the neural correlates of conscious experiences in sleep...
April 10, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387543/effect-of-4-aminopyridine-on-genioglossus-muscle-activity-during-sleep-in-healthy-adults
#13
Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Scott A Sands, Ali Azarbarzin, Melania Marques, Camila M de Melo, Bradley A Edwards, Danny J Eckert, Ludovico Messineo, David P White, Andrew Wellman
RATIONALE: The reduction in upper airway muscle activity from wakefulness to sleep plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea. Potassium (K+) channels have been recently identified as the downstream mechanisms through which hypoglossal motoneuron membrane excitability is reduced both in non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep. In animal models, the administration of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a voltage-gated K+ channel blocker, increased genioglossus activity during wakefulness and across all sleep stages...
April 7, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386207/activation-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-increased-wakefulness-in-mice
#14
Huan-Xin Sun, Dian-Ru Wang, Chen-Bo Ye, Zhen-Zhen Hu, Chen-Yao Wang, Zhi-Li Huang, Su-Rong Yang
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is crucial for brain functions, such as voluntary movement and cognition; however, the role of VTA in sleep-wake regulation when directly activated or inhibited remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of activation or inhibition of VTA neurons on sleep-wake behavior using the pharmacogenetic "designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD)" approach. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to confirm the microinjection sites, and combined with electrophysiological experiments, to determine whether the VTA neurons were activated or inhibited...
2017: Sleep and Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378384/short-interval-leg-movements-during-sleep-entail-greater-cardiac-activation-than-periodic-leg-movements-during-sleep-in-restless-legs-syndrome-patients
#15
Raffaele Ferri, Francesco Rundo, Alessandro Silvani, Marco Zucconi, Debora Aricò, Oliviero Bruni, Bartolo Lanuzza, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Mauro Manconi
Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are sequences of ≥4 motor events with intermovement intervals (IMI) of 10-90 s. PLMS are a supportive diagnostic criterion for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and entail cardiac activation, particularly when associated with arousal. RLS patients also over-express short-interval leg movements during sleep (SILMS), which have IMI <10 s and are organized mainly in sequences of two movements (doublets). We tested whether the cardiac activation associated with SILMS doublets differs from that associated with PLMS in a sample of 25 RLS patients...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364590/hyperarousal-during-sleep-in-untreated-primary-insomnia-sufferers-a-polysomnographic-study
#16
Matthieu Hein, Christelle Senterre, Jean-Pol Lanquart, Xavier Montana, Gwénolé Loas, Paul Linkowski, Philippe Hubain
Because some evidence favors the hyperarousal model of insomnia, we sought to learn more about the dynamics of this phenomenon during sleep. Polysomnographic data from 30 normative subjects and 86 untreated primary insomnia sufferers recruited from the database of the sleep laboratory were studied for whole nights and in terms of thirds of the night. Untreated primary insomnia sufferers had an increased sleep latency and excess of WASO, together with a deficit in REM and NREM sleep during the entire night. In terms of thirds of the night, they presented a major excess of WASO during the first and last thirds of the night but an excess of lesser importance during the middle third...
March 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364465/coordination-of-slow-waves-with-sleep-spindles-predicts-sleep-dependent-memory-consolidation-in-schizophrenia
#17
Charmaine Demanuele, Ullrich Bartsch, Bengi Baran, Sheraz Khan, Mark G Vangel, Roy Cox, Matti Hämäläinen, Matthew W Jones, Robert Stickgold, Dara S Manoach
Study Objectives: Schizophrenia patients have correlated deficits in sleep spindle density and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. In addition to spindle density, memory consolidation is thought to rely on the precise temporal coordination of spindles with slow waves (SWs). We investigated whether this coordination is intact in schizophrenia and its relation to motor procedural memory consolidation. Methods: Twenty-one chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent two nights of polysomnography, with training on the finger tapping motor sequence task (MST) on the second night and testing the following morning...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364460/estimation-of-pharyngeal-collapsibility-during-sleep-by-peak-inspiratory-airflow
#18
Ali Azarbarzin, Scott A Sands, Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Melania D Oliveira Marques, Pedro R Genta, Bradley A Edwards, James Butler, David P White, Andrew Wellman
Objectives: Pharyngeal critical closing pressure (Pcrit) or collapsibility is a major determinant of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may be used to predict the success/failure of non-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapies. Since its assessment involves overnight manipulation of CPAP, we sought to validate the peak inspiratory flow during natural sleep (without CPAP) as a simple surrogate measurement of collapsibility. Methods: Fourteen patients with OSA attended overnight polysomnography with pneumotachograph airflow...
January 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364421/development-of-circadian-sleep-regulation-in-the-rat-a-longitudinal-study-under-constant-conditions
#19
Marcos G Frank, Norman F Ruby, Horace Craig Heller, Paul Franken
Study Objectives: To better understand the development of sleep, we characterized the development of circadian rhythms in sleep and wakefulness in the artificially-reared, isolated rat pup using an experimental design that minimized the effects of maternal separation. Methods: Neonatal rats were reared in constant conditions (dim red light) while electroencephalographic and electromyographic signals were continuously recorded for up to 3 weeks. This time period spanned the preweaned and weaned ages...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364418/the-benefit-of-directed-forgetting-persists-after-a-daytime-nap-the-role-of-spindles-and-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-in-the-consolidation-of-relevant-memories
#20
Borbála Blaskovich, Ágnes Szollosi, Ferenc Gombos, Mihály Racsmány, Péter Simor
Study Objectives: We aimed to investigate the effect of directed forgetting instruction on memory retention after a 2-hour delay involving a daytime nap or an equivalent amount of time spent awake. We examined the associations between sleep-specific oscillations and the retention of relevant and irrelevant study materials. Methods: We applied a list-method directed forgetting paradigm manipulating the perceived relevance of previously encoded lists of words. Participants were randomly assigned to either a nap or an awake group, and to a remember or a forget subgroup...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
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