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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675276/effect-of-olanzapine-on-clinical-and-polysomnography-profiles-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#1
Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu, Sukanto Sarkar, S Haque Nizamie
Acute and short-term administration of olanzapine has a favorable effect on sleep in schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to clarify the effect of olanzapine on polysomnographic profiles of schizophrenia patients during the acute phase of illness after controlling for previous drug exposure. Twenty-five drug-naïve or drug-free schizophrenia patients were assessed at baseline and after six weeks of olanzapine treatment on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) side-effect rating scale and a whole-night polysomnography; fifteen patients completed the study...
2018: Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652904/first-night-effect-on-sleep-time-in-dairy-cows
#2
Emma Ternman, Matti Pastell, Laura Hänninen, Sigrid Agenäs, Per P Nielsen
In human sleep studies, the probability of discomfort from the electrodes and the change in environment usually results in first-night recordings being discarded. Sleep recordings from the first night in human subjects often differ in amount of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and the overall sleep architecture. This study investigated whether recordings of sleep states in dairy cows also show a first-night effect. Non-invasive electrophysiological recordings were carried out on nine cows of the Swedish Red breed during three consecutive 24-hour periods (recording days 1-3)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652889/the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-is-essential-for-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#3
Su-Rong Yang, Zhen-Zhen Hu, Yan-Jia Luo, Ya-Nan Zhao, Huan-Xin Sun, Dou Yin, Chen-Yao Wang, Yu-Dong Yan, Dian-Ru Wang, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Chen-Bo Ye, Wei Guo, Wei-Min Qu, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Yu-Qiang Ding, Zhi-Li Huang
The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), also called the GABAergic tail of the ventral tegmental area, projects to the midbrain dopaminergic system, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and other regions. Whether the RMTg is involved in sleep-wake regulation is unknown. In the present study, pharmacogenetic activation of rat RMTg neurons promoted non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with increased slow-wave activity (SWA). Conversely, rats after neurotoxic lesions of 8 or 16 days showed decreased NREM sleep with reduced SWA at lights on, which persisted until after lesions of 25 days...
April 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648642/a-novel-forehead-temperature-regulating-device-for-insomnia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Thomas Roth, David Mayleben, Neil Feldman, Alan Lankford, Timothy Grant, Eric Nofzinger
Study Objectives: Insomnia is one of the most common disorders in the general population. Hypnotic medications are efficacious, but their use is limited by adverse events (AEs). This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel forehead temperature-regulating device that delivers frontal cerebral thermal therapy (maintained at 14-16°C, equivalent to 57-61°F) for the treatment of insomnia. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial involving two nights of therapy in 106 adults diagnosed with insomnia...
April 10, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620019/a-comparison-of-probabilistic-classifiers-for-sleep-stage-classification
#5
Pedro Fonseca, Niek den Teuling, Xi Long, Ronald M Aarts
To compare conditional random fields (CRF), hidden Markov models (HMMs) and Bayesian linear discriminants (LDs) for cardiorespiratory sleep stage classification on a five-class sleep staging task (Wake/N1/N2/N3/REM), to explore the benefit of incorporating time information in the classification and to evaluate the feasibility of sleep staging on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients.
 Approach: The classifiers with and without time information were evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation on five-, four- (Wake/N1+N2/N3/REM) and three-class (Wake/NREM/REM) classification tasks using a data set comprising 443 night-time polysomnography (PSG) recordings of 231 participants (180 healthy participants, 100 of which with a 'regular' sleep architecture, and 51 participants previously diagnosed with OSA)...
April 5, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617218/computational-model-of-brainstem-circuit-for-state-dependent-control-of-hypoglossal-motoneurons
#6
Mohsen Naji, Maxim Komarov, Giri P Krishnan, Atul Malhotra, Frank L Powell, Irma Rukhadze, Victor B Fenik, Maxim Bazhenov
In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) the pharyngeal muscles become relaxed during sleep, which leads to a partial or complete closure of upper airway. Experimental studies suggest that withdrawal of noradrenergic and serotonergic drives importantly contribute to depression of hypoglossal motoneurons and, therefore, may contribute to OSA pathophysiology; however, specific cellular and synaptic mechanisms remain unknown. In this new study, we developed a biophysical network model to test the hypothesis that, in order to explain experimental observations, the neuronal network for monoaminergic control of excitability of hypoglossal motoneurons needs to include excitatory and inhibitory perihypoglossal interneurons that mediate noradrenergic and serotonergic drives to hypoglossal motoneurons...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616880/is-adenosine-action-common-ground-for-nrem-sleep-torpor-and-other-hypometabolic-states
#7
Alessandro Silvani, Matteo Cerri, Giovanna Zoccoli, Steven J Swoap
This review compares two states that lower energy expenditure: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and torpor. Knowledge on mechanisms common to these states, and particularly on the role of adenosine in NREM sleep, may ultimately open the possibility of inducing a synthetic torpor-like state in humans for medical applications and long-term space travel. To achieve this goal, it will be important, in perspective, to extend the study to other hypometabolic states, which, unlike torpor, can also be experienced by humans...
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581380/effects-of-ageing-on-cortical-neural-dynamics-and-local-sleep-homeostasis-in-mice
#8
Laura E McKillop, Simon P Fisher, Nanyi Cui, Stuart N Peirson, Russell G Foster, Keith A Wafford, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy
Healthy ageing is associated with marked effects on sleep, including its daily amount and architecture, as well as the specific electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations. Neither the neurophysiological underpinnings, nor the biological significance of these changes are understood, and crucially the question remains whether ageing is associated with reduced sleep need or a diminished capacity to generate sufficient sleep. Here we tested the hypothesis that ageing may affect local cortical networks, disrupting the capacity to generate and sustain sleep oscillations, and with it the local homeostatic response to sleep loss...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526594/memory-consolidation-is-linked-to-spindle-mediated-information-processing-during-sleep
#9
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506060/social-motor-and-cognitive-development-through-the-lens-of-sleep-network-dynamics-in-infants-and-toddlers-between-12-and-30-months-of-age
#10
Jessica Page, Caroline Lustenberger, Flavio Fr Hlich
Widespread change in behavior and the underlying brain network substrate is a hallmark of early development. Sleep plays a fundamental role in this process. Both slow waves and spindles are key features of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) that exhibit pronounced developmental trajectories from infancy to adulthood. Yet, these prominent features of NREM sleep are poorly understood in infants and toddlers in the age range of 12 to 30 months. Moreover, it is unknown how network dynamics of NREM sleep are associated with outcomes of early development...
February 2, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501756/antagonism-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-of-resilient-and-vulnerable-rats-effects-on-fear-conditioned-sleep-temperature-and-freezing
#11
Laurie L Wellman, Mairen E Fitzpatrick, Amy M Sutton, Brook L Williams, Mayumi Machida, Larry D Sanford
The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) plays a significant role in mediating individual differences in the effects of fear memory on sleep. Here, we assessed the effects of antagonizing corticotropin releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) after shock training (ST) on fear-conditioned behaviors and sleep. Outbred Wistar rats were surgically implanted with electrodes for recording EEG and EMG and with bilateral guide cannulae directed at BLA. Data loggers were placed intraperitoneally to record core body temperature...
March 1, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497948/the-effect-of-unilateral-forced-nostril-breathing-on-sleep-in-healthy-right-handed-men-a-preliminary-report
#12
Deniz Ozturk, Omer Araz, Elif Yilmazel Ucar, Metin Akgun
PURPOSE: Although we spend about one-third of our lives in sleep and recognize its necessity for good health, sleep has only been partially elucidated in the last century. The nasal cycle of congestion and decongestion during sleep has various effects on human physiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of unilateral forced nostril breathing on sleep. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy male volunteers aged 18-24 years were included in the study...
March 1, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486001/comparison-of-nrem-sleep-and-intravenous-sedation-through-local-information-processing-and-whole-brain-network-to-explore-the-mechanism-of-general-anesthesia
#13
Yun Li, Shengpei Wang, Chuxiong Pan, Fushan Xue, Junfang Xian, Yaqi Huang, Xiaoyi Wang, Tianzuo Li, Huiguang He
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of general anesthesia (GA) has been explored for hundreds of years, but unclear. Previous studies indicated a possible correlation between NREM sleep and GA. The purpose of this study is to compare them by in vivo human brain function to probe the neuromechanism of consciousness, so as to find out a clue to GA mechanism. METHODS: 24 healthy participants were equally assigned to sleep or propofol sedation group by sleeping ability. EEG and Ramsay Sedation Scale were applied to determine sleep stage and sedation depth respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478915/a-hypothalamic-switch-for-rem-and-non-rem-sleep
#14
Kai-Siang Chen, Min Xu, Zhe Zhang, Wei-Cheng Chang, Thomas Gaj, David V Schaffer, Yang Dan
Rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep are controlled by specific neuronal circuits. Here we show that galanin-expressing GABAergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) comprise separate subpopulations with opposing effects on REM versus NREM sleep. Microendoscopic calcium imaging revealed diverse sleep-wake activity of DMH GABAergic neurons, but the galanin-expressing subset falls into two distinct groups, either selectively activated (REM-on) or suppressed (REM-off) during REM sleep. Retrogradely labeled, preoptic area (POA)-projecting galaninergic neurons are REM-off, whereas the raphe pallidus (RPA)-projecting neurons are primarily REM-on...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477593/sleep-spindle-activity-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-as-a-marker-of-neurocognitive-performance-a-pilot-study
#15
Pablo E Brockmann, Felipe Damiani, Eduardo Pincheira, Francisca Daiber, Sergio Ruiz, Francisco Aboitiz, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess spindle activity as possible markers for neurocognitive consequences in children with mild obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Children aged 6-11 years diagnosed with mild OSA (i.e., an apnea hypopnea index <5.0) were recruited and compared with age and gender-matched healthy controls. Polysomnographic recordings were analyzed for sleep microstructure and spindle activity. All children completed also an intelligence test battery (i.e...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476649/efficacy-of-slow-oscillatory-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-eeg-and-memory-contribution-of-an-inter-individual-factor
#16
Ping Chai Koo, Matthias Moelle, Lisa Marshall
Despite many reports on beneficial effects of anodal slow oscillatory-transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep on memory consolidation, frequent negative outcomes have also been observed. Our working hypothesis is that so-tDCS efficacy is strongly dependent upon the susceptibility of the underlying network. One component determining susceptibility of the network is hypothesized to be reflected in learning or 'task-induced' plastic changes. Another component is hypothesized to represent inter-individual confounds...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467633/closed-loop-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep-improves-spatial-navigation
#17
Renee E Shimizu, Patrick M Connolly, Nicola Cellini, Diana M Armstrong, Lexus T Hernandez, Rolando Estrada, Mario Aguilar, Michael P Weisend, Sara C Mednick, Stephen B Simons
Sounds associated with newly learned information that are replayed during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep can improve recall in simple tasks. The mechanism for this improvement is presumed to be reactivation of the newly learned memory during sleep when consolidation takes place. We have developed an EEG-based closed-loop system to precisely deliver sensory stimulation at the time of down-state to up-state transitions during NREM sleep. Here, we demonstrate that applying this technology to participants performing a realistic navigation task in virtual reality results in a significant improvement in navigation efficiency after sleep that is accompanied by increases in the spectral power especially in the fast (12-15 Hz) sleep spindle band...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462275/excitation-of-cortical-nnos-nk1r-neurons-by-hypocretin-1-is-independent-of-sleep-homeostasis
#18
Rhîannan H Williams, Sarah W Black, Alexia M Thomas, Juliette Piquet, Bruno Cauli, Thomas S Kilduff
We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Hcrt neuron stimulation affects cingulate cortex nNOS/NK1R neurons. Bath application of HCRT1/orexin-A evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization in most nNOS/NK1R cells which persisted in tetrodotoxin; optogenetic stimulation of Hcrt terminals expressing channelrhodopsin-2 confirmed these results, and pharmacological studies determined that HCRTR1 mediated these responses...
February 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458750/different-maturational-changes-of-fast-and-slow-sleep-spindles-in-the-first-four-years-of-life
#19
Aurora D'Atri, Luana Novelli, Michele Ferrara, Oliviero Bruni, Luigi De Gennaro
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Massive changes in brain morphology and function in the first years of life reveal a postero-anterior trajectory of cortical maturation accompanied by regional modifications of NREM sleep. One of the most sensible marker of this maturation process is represented by electroencephalographic (EEG) activity within the frequency range of sleep spindles. However, direct evidence that these changes actually reflect maturational modifications of fast and slow spindles still lacks...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458742/preserved-sleep-microstructure-in-blind-individuals
#20
Sébrina Aubin, Julie A E Christensen, Poul Jennum, Tore Nielsen, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito
The loss of vision, particularly when it occurs early in life, is associated with compensatory cortical plasticity not only in the visual cortical areas, but throughout the entire brain. The absence of visual input to the retina can also induce changes in entrainment of the circadian rhythm, as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
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