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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034238/exploring-the-abnormal-modulation-of-the-autonomic-systems-during-nasal-flow-limitation-in-upper-airway-resistance-syndrome-by-hilbert-huang-transform
#1
Chen Lin, Men-Tzung Lo, Christian Guilleminault
Patients with nasal flow limitation and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) during sleep can present with low blood pressure and disturbing symptoms associated with hypervagotony. We hypothesized that the dynamic changes of the autonomic system related to inspiratory flow limitation can be quantified by the developed analytic technique applied on beat-to-beat heart rate (RR intervals) and finger photoplethysmography (PPG). METHOD: A breath-by-breath investigation based on the Hilbert-Huang transform was performed to explore autonomic nervous system changes observed during inspiratory flow limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031752/sleep-and-slow-wave-activity-in-depressed-adolescent-boys-a-preliminary-study
#2
Olena Santangeli, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Jussi Virkkala, Anu E Castaneda, Mauri Marttunen, Tiina Paunio, Anna S Urrila
OBJECTIVE: Adolescence is a vulnerable period of life that is characterized by increasing incidence of depression. Sleep disturbance is one of the diagnostic symptoms of depressive disorder. Adolescence is also characterized by dramatic maturational changes in sleep and its regulation. The goal of this study was to assess sleep macroarchitecture and slow-wave activity (SWA) in depressed adolescent boys. METHODS: Eight non-medicated adolescent boys meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for depressive disorder and 10 age-matched healthy controls (average age 16...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031741/further-evidences-for-sleep-instability-and-impaired-spindle-delta-dynamics-in-schizophrenia-a-whole-night-polysomnography-study-with-neuroloop-gain-and-sleep-cycle-analysis
#3
Arun Sasidharan, Sunil Kumar, Ajay Kumar Nair, Ammu Lukose, Vrinda Marigowda, John P John, Bindu M Kutty
OBJECTIVE: Sleep offers a unique window into the brain dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Many past sleep studies have reported abnormalities in both macro-sleep architecture (like increased awakenings) as well as micro-sleep-architecture (like spindle deficits) in patients with schizophrenia (PSZ). The present study attempts to replicate previous reports of macro- and micro-sleep-architectural abnormalities in schizophrenia. In addition, the study also examined sleep-stage changes and spindle-delta dynamics across sleep-cycles to provide further evidence in support of the dysfunctional thalamocortical mechanisms causing sleep instability and poor sleep maintenance associated with schizophrenia pathophysiology...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029348/dysregulation-of-sleep-behavioral-states-in-narcolepsy
#4
Sarah F Schoch, Esther Werth, Rositsa Poryazova, Thomas E Scammell, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
Study Objectives: Patients with narcolepsy suffer from poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented night sleep, but the underlying mechanism of sleep boundary dysregulation remains little understood. The goal of this study was to quantify abnormal sleep-wake regulation in narcolepsy patients. Methods: Using a model-based approach (state space analysis), we analyzed overnight EEG recordings in ten patients with narcolepsy type 1 and age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029313/subjective-objective-sleep-discrepancy-is-associated-with-alterations-in-regional-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-insomnia-and-good-sleeper-controls
#5
Daniel B Kay, Helmet T Karim, Adriane M Soehner, Brant P Hasler, Jeffrey A James, Anne Germain, Martica H Hall, Peter L Franzen, Julie C Price, Eric A Nofzinger, Daniel J Buysse
Objectives: Sleep discrepancies are common in primary insomnia (PI), and include reports of longer sleep onset latency (SOL) than measured by polysomnography (PSG), or "negative SOL discrepancy." We hypothesized that negative SOL discrepancy in PI would be associated with higher relative glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in brain networks involved in conscious awareness, including the salience, left executive control, and default mode networks. Methods: PI (n=32) and good sleeper controls (GS; n=30) completed [ 18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans during NREM sleep and relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) was measured...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029302/acute-kynurenine-challenge-disrupts-sleep-wake-architecture-and-impairs-contextual-memory-in-adult-rats
#6
Ana Pocivavsek, Annalisa M Baratta, Jessica A Mong, Shaun S Viechweg
Study Objectives: Tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway may represent a key molecular link between sleep loss and cognitive dysfunction. Modest increases in the kynurenine pathway metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA), which acts as an antagonist at N-methyl-d-aspartate and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, result in cognitive impairments. As glutamatergic and cholinergic neurotransmissions are critically involved in modulation of sleep, our current experiments tested the hypothesis that elevated KYNA adversely impacts sleep quality...
September 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029284/the-influence-of-co2-on-genioglossus-muscle-after-discharge-following-arousal-from-sleep-hypocapnia-and-genioglossus-muscle-after-discharge
#7
Jennifer M Cori, Peter D Rochford, Fergal J O'Donoghue, John Trinder, Amy S Jordan
Objectives: Ventilatory after-discharge (sustained elevation of ventilation following stimulus removal), occurs during sleep but not when hypocapnia is present. Genioglossus after-discharge also occurs during sleep, but CO2 effects have not been assessed. The relevance is that post-arousal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse. This study aimed to determine whether arousal elicits genioglossus after-discharge that persists into sleep, and whether it is influenced by CO2...
October 6, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025898/aging-is-associated-with-increased-propensity-for-central-apnea-during-nrem-sleep
#8
Susmita Chowdhuri, Sukanya Pranathiageswaran, Hillary Loomis-King, Anan Salloum, M Safwan Badr
The reason for increased sleep disordered breathing with predominance of central apneas in the elderly is unknown. We hypothesized that the propensity to central apneas is increased in older adults, manifested by a reduced carbon-dioxide (CO2) reserve in older compared to young adults during non-REM (NREM) sleep. METHODS: 10 elderly and 15 young healthy adults underwent multiple brief trials of nasal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation during stable NREM sleep. Cessation of mechanical ventilation (MV) resulted in hypocapnic central apnea or hypopnea...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022877/striatal-adenosine-a2a-receptor-neurons-control-active-period-sleep-via-parvalbumin-neurons-in-external-globus-pallidus
#9
Xiang-Shan Yuan, Lu Wang, Hui Dong, Wei-Min Qu, Su-Rong Yang, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Serge N Schiffmann, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Rui-Xi Li, Zhi-Li Huang
Dysfunction of the striatum is frequently associated with sleep disturbances. However, its role in sleep-wake regulation has been paid little attention even though the striatum densely expresses adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs), which are essential for adenosine-induced sleep. Here we showed that chemogenetic activation of A2AR neurons in specific subregions of the striatum induced a remarkable increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Anatomical mapping and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that striatal A2AR neurons innervated the external globus pallidus (GPe) in a topographically organized manner and preferentially formed inhibitory synapses with GPe parvalbumin (PV) neurons...
October 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978989/adenosine-a2a-receptor-mediates-hypnotic-effects-of-ethanol-in-mice
#10
Teng Fang, Hui Dong, Xin-Hong Xu, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Ze-Ka Chen, Jiang-Fan Chen, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Ethanol has extensive effects on sleep and daytime alertness, causing premature disability and death. Adenosine, as a potent sleep-promoting substance, is involved in many cellular and behavioral responses to ethanol. However, the mechanisms of hypnotic effects of ethanol remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of adenosine in ethanol-induced sleep using C57BL/6Slac mice, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) knockout mice, and their wild-type littermates. The results showed that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (3...
October 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966745/heart-rate-variability-in-restless-legs-syndrome-and-periodic-limb-movements-of-sleep
#11
Daniel A Barone, Matthew R Ebben, Miles DeGrazia, David Mortara, Ana C Krieger
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between the autonomic nervous system and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS) consists of varied and somewhat conflicting reports. In order to further elucidate these complexities, a retrospective analysis of polysomnography (PSG) records and clinical data was performed. METHODS: Records from 233 adult subjects were randomly selected and organized into one of four groups ("non-RLS/PLMS" [n=61], "RLS" [n=60], "PLMS" [n=58], and "RLS/PLMS" [n=54])...
April 2017: Sleep Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960278/remission-of-encephalopathy-with-status-epilepticus-eses-during-sleep-renormalizes-regulation-of-slow-wave-sleep
#12
Bigna K Bölsterli, Elena Gardella, Elena Pavlidis, Flavia M Wehrle, Carlo A Tassinari, Reto Huber, Guido Rubboli
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies, we showed an altered overnight decrease of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep slow waves in children with encephalopathy related to status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Here, we test the hypothesis that these alterations renormalize after remission of ESES. Because overnight decrease of slow waves has been linked to brain recovery and cognition, we investigate whether cognitive outcome is related to overnight changes of slow waves. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of longitudinal overnight electroencephalography (EEG) in 10 patients with idiopathic ESES...
September 27, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958035/sleep-wake-physiology-and-quantitative-eeg-analysis-of-the-neuroligin-3-knockout-rat-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Alexia M Thomas, Michael D Schwartz, Michael D Saxe, Thomas S Kilduff
Study Objectives: Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is one of many genes associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sleep dysfunction is highly prevalent in ASD, but has not been rigorously examined in ASD models. Here, we evaluated sleep/wake physiology and behavioral phenotypes of rats with genetic ablation of Nlgn3. Methods: Male Nlgn3 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) rats were assessed using a test battery for ASD-related behaviors and also implanted with telemeters to record the electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), body temperature, and locomotor activity...
August 31, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947577/the-interplay-between-long-and-short-range-temporal-correlations-shapes-cortex-dynamics-across-vigilance-states
#14
Christian Meisel, Andreas Klaus, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Dietmar Plenz
Increasing evidence suggests that cortical dynamics during wake exhibits long-range temporal correlations suitable to integrate inputs over extended periods of time to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in decision-making and working memory tasks. Accordingly, sleep has been suggested as a state characterized by a breakdown of long-range correlations; detailed measurements of neuronal timescales that support this view, however, have so far been lacking. Here we show that the cortical timescales measured at the individual neuron-level in freely-behaving, male rats change as a function of vigilance state and time awake...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935698/polysomnographic-phenotypes-and-their-cardiovascular-implications-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#15
Andrey V Zinchuk, Sangchoon Jeon, Brian B Koo, Xiting Yan, Dawn M Bravata, Li Qin, Bernardo J Selim, Kingman P Strohl, Nancy S Redeker, John Concato, Henry K Yaggi
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a heterogeneous disorder, and improved understanding of physiologic phenotypes and their clinical implications is needed. We aimed to determine whether routine polysomnographic data can be used to identify OSA phenotypes (clusters) and to assess the associations between the phenotypes and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of a multisite, observational US Veteran (n=1247) cohort were performed...
September 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928647/individual-differences-in-frequency-and-topography-of-slow-and-fast-sleep-spindles
#16
Roy Cox, Anna C Schapiro, Dara S Manoach, Robert Stickgold
Sleep spindles are transient oscillatory waveforms that occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep across widespread cortical areas. In humans, spindles can be classified as either slow or fast, but large individual differences in spindle frequency as well as methodological difficulties have hindered progress towards understanding their function. Using two nights of high-density electroencephalography recordings from 28 healthy individuals, we first characterize the individual variability of NREM spectra and demonstrate the difficulty of determining subject-specific spindle frequencies...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912724/abnormalities-in-the-polysomnographic-adenosine-and-metabolic-response-to-sleep-deprivation-in-an-animal-model-of-hyperammonemia
#17
Selena Marini, Olena Santangeli, Pirjo Saarelainen, Benita Middleton, Namrata Chowdhury, Debra J Skene, Rodolfo Costa, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Sara Montagnese
Patients with liver cirrhosis can develop hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), accompanied by pronounced daytime sleepiness. Previous studies with healthy volunteers show that experimental increase in blood ammonium levels increases sleepiness and slows the waking electroencephalogram. As ammonium increases adenosine levels in vitro, and adenosine is a known regulator of sleep/wake homeostasis, we hypothesized that the sleepiness-inducing effect of ammonium is mediated by adenosine. Eight adult male Wistar rats were fed with an ammonium-enriched diet for 4 weeks; eight rats on standard diet served as controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899529/qt-interval-variability-index-and-qt-interval-duration-during-different-sleep-stages-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#18
Moonika Viigimae, Deniss Karai, Kristjan Pilt, Peeter Pirn, Heini Huhtala, Olli Polo, Kalju Meigas, Jyri Kaik
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the QT interval variability and duration in patients during different sleep stages. METHODS: Polysomnographic recordings of 28 (13 male, 15 female) patients with OSA and 30 (15 male, 15 female) patients without OSA were analyzed. The QT interval variability index (QTVI) and the corrected QT interval (QTc) analyses were performed using two awake, 3-4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and three rapid eye movement (REM) sleep episodes (each 300 s)...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899528/back-to-sleep-or-not-the-effect-of-the-supine-position-on-pediatric-osa-sleeping-position-in-children-with-osa
#19
Lisa M Walter, Daranagama U N Dassanayake, Aidan J Weichard, Margot J Davey, Gillian M Nixon, Rosemary S C Horne
BACKGROUND: In both adults and children, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has significant adverse cardiovascular consequences. In adults, sleeping position has a marked effect on the severity of OSA; however, the limited number of studies conducted in children have reported conflicting findings. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sleeping position on OSA severity and the cardiovascular consequences in preschool-aged children. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of children (3-5 years of age) diagnosed with OSA (n = 75) and nonsnoring controls (n = 25)...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894212/daytime-rem-sleep-affects-emotional-experience-but-not-decision-choices-in-moral-dilemmas
#20
Nicola Cellini, Lorella Lotto, Carolina Pletti, Michela Sarlo
Moral decision-making depends on the interaction between automatic emotional responses and rational cognitive control. A natural emotional regulator state seems to be sleep, in particular rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We tested the impact of daytime sleep, either with or without REM, on moral decision. Sixty participants were presented with 12 sacrificial (6 Footbridge- and 6 Trolley-type) and 8 everyday-type moral dilemmas at 9 AM and at 5 PM. In sacrificial dilemmas, participants had to decide whether or not to kill one person to save more people (utilitarian choice), and to judge how morally acceptable the proposed choice was...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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