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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821651/role-of-somatostatin-positive-cortical-interneurons-in-the-generation-of-sleep-slow-waves
#1
Chadd M Funk, Kayla Peelman, Michele Bellesi, William Marshall, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi
During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep cortical and thalamic neurons oscillate every second or so between ON periods characterized by membrane depolarization and wake-like tonic firing, and OFF periods characterized by membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silence. Cortical slow waves - the hallmark of NREM sleep - reflect near-synchronous OFF periods in cortical neurons. However, the mechanisms triggering such OFF periods are unclear, as there is little evidence for somatic inhibition. We studied cortical inhibitory interneurons that express somatostatin (SOM), because ∼70% of them are Martinotti cells that target diffusely layer I and can block excitatory transmission presynaptically, at glutamatergic terminals, and postsynaptically, at apical dendrites, without inhibiting the soma...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811195/epileptic-interictal-discharges-are-more-frequent-during-nrem-slow-wave-downstates
#2
Péter Przemyslaw Ujma, Péter Halász, Anna Kelemen, Dániel Fabó, Loránd Erőss
Epileptiform activity in various but not all epilepsy and recording types and cerebral areas is more frequent in NREM sleep, and especially during sleep periods with high-amplitude EEG slow waves. Slow waves synchronize high-frequency oscillations: physiological activity from the theta through the gamma band usually appears during scalp-positive upstates while epileptiform activity occurs at transitory phases and the scalp-negative downstate. It has been proposed that interictal discharges (IIDs) are facilitated by the high degree of neuronal firing synchrony during slow wave transitory and downstates...
August 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808850/non-rem-sleep-disordered-breathing-affects-performance-on-the-psychomotor-vigilance-task
#3
Takuro Kitamura, Soichiro Miyazaki, Hiroshi Kadotani, Takashi Kanemura, Harun Bin Sulaiman, Shoko Takeuchi, Takahisa Tabata, Hideaki Suzuki
PURPOSE: Although many studies have investigated the clinical importance of sleep apnea on rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, the relationship between behavioral performance and apneic events during different sleep phases remains unclear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effect of sleep phase fragmentation due to sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during REM and NREM on the vigilance and sustainability of attention based on psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance...
August 14, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795023/leptocarpus-disjunctus-prolongs-sleeping-time-and-increases-nonrapid-eye-movement-sleep-with-additional-anxiolytic-capacity
#4
Watchara Damjuti, Thanes Fuangfoo, Chanida Palanuvej, Tingli Li, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi
Leptocarpus disjunctus Mast. (Restionaceae) is an edible plant which has indigenous warnings regarding its side effects which can manifest as dizziness. This study investigated hypnotic and anxiolytic properties using several animal models. Anxiolytic activities were evaluated using locomotor determination by elevated plus-maze test, open-field test, and rotarod performance test. Hypnotic activities were performed using pentobarbital sodium-induced sleeping time test. Sleep architecture and quality were obtained from sleep-wake analysis and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) delta activity using electroencephalography...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794189/time-of-day-influences-on-respiratory-sequelae-following-maximal-electroshock-induced-seizures-in-mice
#5
Benton S Purnell, Michael A Hajek, Gordon F Buchanan
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in refractory epilepsy patients. While specific mechanisms underlying SUDEP are not well understood, evidence suggests most SUDEP occurs due to seizure-induced respiratory arrest. SUDEP also tends to happen at night. While this may be due to circumstances humans find themselves in at night, such as being alone without supervision or sleeping prone, or due to independent influences of sleep state, there are a number of reasons why the night (i...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790302/formation-and-suppression-of-acoustic-memories-during-human-sleep
#6
Thomas Andrillon, Daniel Pressnitzer, Damien Léger, Sid Kouider
Sleep and memory are deeply related, but the nature of the neuroplastic processes induced by sleep remains unclear. Here, we report that memory traces can be both formed or suppressed during sleep, depending on sleep phase. We played samples of acoustic noise to sleeping human listeners. Repeated exposure to a novel noise during Rapid Eye Movements (REM) or light non-REM (NREM) sleep leads to improvements in behavioral performance upon awakening. Strikingly, the same exposure during deep NREM sleep leads to impaired performance upon awakening...
August 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779938/reflexology-and-polysomnography-changes-in-cerebral-wave-activity-induced-by-reflexology-promote-n1-and-n2-sleep-stages
#7
REVIEW
N Esmel-Esmel, E Tomás-Esmel, M Tous-Andreu, A Bové-Ribé, M Jiménez-Herrera
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown the effectiveness of reflexology in different health problems as well as obtaining a high degree of relaxation during its application. A previous study suggested a possible relation between the relaxation obtained during the reflexology session and the sleep. However, the design of the study did not provide evidence for this hypothesis. In this study, we use a polysomnogram to investigate the effects during its application. METHOD: Prospective experimental study conducted in a sleep laboratory...
August 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751184/restoration-of-sleep-architecture-after-maxillomandibular-advancement-success-beyond-the-apnea-hypopnea-index
#8
S Y-C Liu, L-K Huon, C Ruoff, R W Riley, K P Strohl, Z Peng
While effects of maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) on respiratory parameters for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are well described, effects on sleep architecture before and after MMA are not. A retrospective cohort analysis on sleep architecture was examined in 10 OSA patients who underwent MMA surgery between July 2013 and November 2014, and had prespecified complete polysomnography (PSG) datasets. Sleep stages were examined relative to a Western European population-based control group. All of the respiratory parameters improved significantly post MMA...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737503/directional-connectivity-in-the-eeg-is-able-to-discriminate-wakefulness-from-nrem-sleep
#9
Giulia Lioi, Steven L Bell, David C Smith, David M Simpson
A reliable measure of consciousness is of great interest for various clinical applications including sleep studies and the assessment of depth of anaesthesia. A number of measures of consciousness based on the EEG have been proposed in the literature and tested in studies of dreamless sleep, general anaesthesia and disorders of consciousness. However, reliability has remained a persistent challenge. Despite considerable theoretical and experimental effort, the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness remain unclear, but connectivity between brain regions is thought to be disrupted, impairing information flow...
July 24, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735925/upper-airway-flow-limitation-and-transcutaneous-carbon-dioxide-during-sleep-in-normal-pregnancy
#10
Ville Rimpilä, Riina Jernman, Katariina Lassila, Jukka Uotila, Heini Huhtala, Johanna Mäenpää, Olli Polo
OBJECTIVE: Sleep during pregnancy involves a physiological challenge to provide sufficient gas exchange to the fetus. Enhanced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia may protect from deficient gas exchange, but sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may predispose to adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze sleep and breathing in healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, with a focus on CO2 changes and upper-airway flow limitation. METHODS: Healthy women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited for polysomnography...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735914/companion-of-oral-movements-with-limb-movements-in-patients-with-sleep-bruxism-preliminary-findings
#11
Yangping Zhang, Junlan Lu, Zilong Wang, Zhijun Zhong, Miao Xu, Xueliang Zou, Bin Yu, Dongyuan Yao
BACKGROUND: Sleep bruxism (SB) patients show a higher incidence of leg movements than normal subjects. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to characterize SB episodes and their relationships with limb movements (LMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were performed on eight SB patients. The intervals between the onsets of adjacent SB episodes and LMs were determined and linear correlation analyses were used to estimate the relationship between the SB index and SB episodes in clusters...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733679/increased-overall-cortical-connectivity-with-syndrome-specific-local-decreases-suggested-by-atypical-sleep-eeg-synchronization-in-williams-syndrome
#12
Ferenc Gombos, Róbert Bódizs, Ilona Kovács
Williams syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion) is characterized by specific alterations in neurocognitive architecture and functioning, as well as disordered sleep. Here we analyze the region, sleep state and frequency-specific EEG synchronization of whole night sleep recordings of 21 Williams syndrome and 21 typically developing age- and gender-matched subjects by calculating weighted phase lag indexes. We found broadband increases in inter- and intrahemispheric neural connectivity for both NREM and REM sleep EEG of Williams syndrome subjects...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733208/influence-of-cued-fear-conditioning-and-its-impairment-on-nrem-sleep
#13
Tankesh Kumar, Sushil K Jha
Many studies suggest that fear conditioning influences sleep. It is, however, not known if the changes in sleep architecture after fear conditioning are essentially associated with the consolidation of fearful memory or with fear itself. Here, we have observed that within sleep, NREM sleep consistently remained augmented after the consolidation of cued fear-conditioned memory. But a similar change did not occur after impairing memory consolidation by blocking new protein synthesis and glutamate transmission between glial-neuronal loop in the lateral amygdala (LA)...
July 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722302/a-novel-neurological-function-of-rice-bran-a-standardized-rice-bran-supplement-promotes-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-in-mice-through-histamine-h1-receptors
#14
Min Young Um, Sojin Kim, Young-Ho Jin, Minseok Yoon, Hyejin Yang, Jaekwang Lee, Jonghoon Jung, Yoshihiro Urade, Zhi-Li Huang, Sangoh Kwon, Suengmok Cho
SCOPE: Although rice bran has been shown to be associated with a wide spectrum of health benefits, to date, there are no reports on its effects on sleep. We investigated the effect of rice bran on sleep and the mechanism underlying this effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Electroencephalography was used to evaluate the effects of standardized rice bran supplement (RBS) and doxepin hydrochloride (DH), a histamine H1 receptor (H1 R) antagonist used as a positive control, on sleep in mice...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712436/association-of-symptoms-of-insomnia-and-sleep-parameters-among-kidney-transplant-recipients
#15
Katalin Z Ronai, Andras Szentkiralyi, Alpar S Lazar, Zsolt I Lazar, Istvan Papp, Ferenc Gombos, Rezso Zoller, Maria E Czira, Anett V Lindner, Istvan Mucsi, Robert Bodizs, Miklos Z Molnar, Marta Novak
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia complaints are frequent among kidney transplant (kTx) recipients and are associated with fatigue, depression, lower quality of life and increased morbidity. However, it is not known if subjective insomnia symptoms are associated with objective parameters of sleep architecture. Thus, we analyze the association between sleep macrostructure and EEG activity versus insomnia symptoms among kTx recipients. METHODS: Participants (n1=100) were selected from prevalent adult transplant recipients (n0=1214) followed at a single institution...
August 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711601/catecholaminergic-a1-c1-neurons-contribute-to-the-maintenance-of-upper-airway-muscle-tone-but-may-not-participate-in-nrem-sleep-related-depression-of-these-muscles
#16
Irma Rukhadze, Nancy J Carballo, Sathyajit S Bandaru, Atul Malhotra, Patrick M Fuller, Victor B Fenik
Neural mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea, a common sleep-related breathing disorder, are incompletely understood. Hypoglossal motoneurons, which provide tonic and inspiratory activation of genioglossus (GG) muscle (a major upper airway dilator), receive catecholaminergic input from medullary A1/C1 neurons. We aimed to determine the contribution of A1/C1 neurons in control of GG muscle during sleep and wakefulness. To do so, we placed injections of a viral vector into DBH-cre mice to selectively express the hMD4i inhibitory chemoreceptors in A1/C1 neurons...
October 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704743/sleep-abnormalities-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-a-sleep-questionnaire-and-polysomnography-based-study
#17
Sujata Roshan, Vinod Puri, Neera Chaudhry, Anu Gupta, Sumit Kumar Rabi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality of sleep, its architecture and occurrence of epileptiform discharges with their distribution across various stages of sleep in patients of Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), both drug naïve as well as those already on treatment. METHODS: 99 patients of JME [36 drug naïve, 63 on antiepileptic drug(s) (AED)], and 30 healthy controls were recruited. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were evaluated with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), respectively...
June 28, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694098/sleep-promoting-potential-of-low-dose-%C3%AE-asarone-in-rat-model
#18
Arathi Radhakrishnan, N Jayakumari, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
Commonly used hypnotics have undesirable side-effects, especially during continuous usage. On the other hand, some herbal products, which are used for prolonged periods, are suggested to have a sleep inducing property, though the claims have not been validated scientifically. The hypnotic potential of α-Asarone, an active principle of Acorus species, was tested in the present study by first identifying the optimal dose of α-Asarone for improving sleep, followed by studies that evaluated the effect of repeated administration of this optimal dose for five days on sleep deprived rats...
July 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691719/narcolepsy-type-1-and-hypersomnia-associated-with-a-psychiatric-disorder-show-different-slow-wave-activity-dynamics
#19
Ewa Walacik-Ufnal, Anna Justyna Piotrowska, Dorota Wołyńczyk-Gmaj, Piotr Januszko, Bartłomiej Gmaj, Marcin Ufnal, Marek Kabat, Marcin Wojnar
The aim of the study was to compare electrophysiological parameters of night sleep in narcolepsy type 1 and hypersomnia associated with a psychiatric disorder. Fortyfour patients: 15 with narcolepsy type 1, 14 with hypersomnia associated with a psychiatric disorder and 15 age- and sex-matched controls participated in the study. The study subjects filled in the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The severity of daytime sleepiness was quantified subjectively using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), and objectively using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689981/thalamic-spindles-promote-memory-formation-during-sleep-through-triple-phase-locking-of-cortical-thalamic-and-hippocampal-rhythms
#20
Charles-Francois V Latchoumane, Hong-Viet V Ngo, Jan Born, Hee-Sup Shin
While the interaction of the cardinal rhythms of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep-the thalamo-cortical spindles, hippocampal ripples, and the cortical slow oscillations-is thought to be critical for memory consolidation during sleep, the role spindles play in this interaction is elusive. Combining optogenetics with a closed-loop stimulation approach in mice, we show here that only thalamic spindles induced in-phase with cortical slow oscillation up-states, but not out-of-phase-induced spindles, improve consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory during sleep...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
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