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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087252/novel-method-for-evaluation-of-eye-movements-in-patients-with-narcolepsy
#1
Julie A E Christensen, Lykke Kempfner, Helle L Leonthin, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Miki Nikolic, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy causes abnormalities in the control of wake-sleep, non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep and REM sleep, which inlcudes specific eye movements (EMs). In this study, we aim to evaluate EM characteristics in narcolepsy as compared to controls using an automated detector. METHODS: We developed a data-driven method to detect EMs during sleep based on two EOG signals recorded as part of a polysomnography (PSG). The method was optimized using the manually scored hypnograms from 36 control subjects...
December 21, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077261/ventral-medullary-control-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-and-atonia
#2
Michael C Chen, Ramalingam Vetrivelan, Chunni Guo, Catie Chang, Patrick M Fuller, Jun Lu
Discrete populations of neurons at multiple levels of the brainstem control rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the accompanying loss of postural muscle tone, or atonia. The specific contributions of these brainstem cell populations to REM sleep control remains incompletely understood. Here we show in rats that viral vector-based lesions of the ventromedial medulla at a level rostral to the inferior olive (pSOM) produced violent myoclonic twitches and abnormal electromyographic spikes, but not complete loss of tonic atonia, during REM sleep...
January 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070566/interleukin-37-expression-in-mice-alters-sleep-responses-to-inflammatory-agents-and-influenza-virus-infection
#3
Christopher J Davis, Mark R Zielinski, Danielle Dunbrasky, Ping Taishi, Charles A Dinarello, James M Krueger
Multiple interactions between the immune system and sleep are known, including the effects of microbial challenge on sleep or the effects of sleep loss on facets of the immune response. Cytokines regulate, in part, sleep and immune responses. Here we examine the role of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-37 (IL-37) on sleep in a mouse strain that expresses human IL-37b (IL37tg mice). Constitutive expression of the IL-37 gene in the brains of these mice under resting conditions is low; however, upon an inflammatory stimulus, expression increases dramatically...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066138/potentiation-of-decursinol-angelate-on-pentobarbital-induced-sleeping-behaviors-via-the-activation-of-gabaa-ergic-systems-in-rodents
#4
Jae Hoon Woo, Tae-Woo Ha, Jae-Seon Kang, Jin Tae Hong, Ki-Wan Oh
Angelicae Gigantis Radix (AGR, Angelica gigas) has been used for a long time as a traditional folk medicine in Korea and oriental countries. Decursinol angelate (DCA) is structurally isomeric decursin, one of the major components of AGR. This study was performed to confirm whether DCA augments pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via the activation of GABAA-ergic systems in animals. Oral administration of DCA (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) markedly suppressed spontaneous locomotor activity. DCA also prolonged sleeping time, and decreased the sleep latency by pentobarbital (42 mg/kg), in a dose-dependent manner, similar to muscimol, both at the hypnotic (42 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) dosages...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060294/manipulation-of-epileptiform-electrocorticograms-ecogs-and-sleep-in-rats-and-mice-by-acupuncture
#5
Pei-Lu Yi, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yi-Jou Wu, Fang-Chia Chang
Ancient Chinese literature has documented that acupuncture possesses efficient therapeutic effects on epilepsy and insomnia. There is, however, little research to reveal the possible mechanisms behind these effects. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on epilepsy and sleep, several issues need to be addressed. The first is to identify the acupoints, which correspond between humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, the depth of insertion of the acupuncture needle, the degree of needle twist in manual needle acupuncture, and the stimulation parameters for electroacupuncture (EA) need to be determined...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045040/the-fall-of-sleep-k-complex-in-alzheimer-disease
#6
Luigi De Gennaro, Maurizio Gorgoni, Flaminia Reda, Giulia Lauri, Ilaria Truglia, Susanna Cordone, Serena Scarpelli, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Aurora D'atri, Giordano Lacidogna, Michele Ferrara, Camillo Marra, Paolo Maria Rossini
Although a slowing of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during wakefulness and -to some extent- sleep of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients (i.e., increased slow-frequency activity) was documented, recent findings in healthy elderly show a decreased 0.6-1 Hz slow wave activity (SWA) during NREM, which was associated to β-amyloid deposition and impaired hippocampal memory consolidation. We hypothesize that the apparent contradiction may be explained by the partial overlap between 0.6-1 Hz EEG activity and K-Complex (KC)...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043770/sleep-related-modifications-of-eeg-connectivity-in-the-sensory-motor-networks-in-huntington-disease-an-eloreta-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Carla Piano, Claudio Imperatori, Anna Losurdo, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Pietro Cortelli, Giacomo Della Marca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate EEG functional connectivity in the sensory-motor network, during wake and sleep, in patients with Huntington Disease (HD). METHODS: 23 patients with HD and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. EEG connectivity analysis was performed by means of exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography (eLORETA). RESULTS: In wake, HD patients showed an increase of delta lagged phase synchronization (T=3.60; p<0.05) among Broadman's Areas (BA) 6-8 bilaterally; right BA 6-8 and right BA 1-2-3; left BA 1-2-3 and left BA 4...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039375/cholinergic-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurons-of-the-ppt-have-distinct-effects-on-sleep-wake-behavior-in-mice
#8
Daniel Kroeger, Loris L Ferrari, Gaetan Petit, Carrie E Mahoney, Patrick M Fuller, Elda Arrigoni, Thomas E Scammell
: The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) has long been implicated in the regulation of cortical activity and behavioral states, including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. For example, electrical stimulation of the PPT region during sleep leads to rapid awakening, whereas lesions of the PPT in cats reduce REM sleep. Though these effects have been linked with the activity of cholinergic PPT neurons, the PPT also includes intermingled glutamatergic and GABAergic cell populations, and the precise roles of cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic PPT cell groups in regulating cortical activity and behavioral state remains unknown...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013579/a-rodent-model-of-night-shift-work-induces-short-term-and-enduring-sleep-and-electroencephalographic-disturbances
#9
Janne Grønli, Peter Meerlo, Torhild T Pedersen, Ståle Pallesen, Silje Skrede, Andrea R Marti, Jonathan P Wisor, Robert Murison, Tone E G Henriksen, Michael J Rempe, Jelena Mrdalj
Millions of people worldwide are working at times that overlap with the normal time for sleep. Sleep problems related to the work schedule may mediate the well-established relationship between shift work and increased risk for disease, occupational errors and accidents. Yet, our understanding of causality and the underlying mechanisms that explain this relationship is limited. We aimed to assess the consequences of night-shift work for sleep and to examine whether night-shift work-induced sleep disturbances may yield electrophysiological markers of impaired maintenance of the waking brain state...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011172/wake-sleep-and-cardiovascular-regulatory-changes-in-rats-made-obese-by-a-high-fat-diet
#10
Marco Luppi, Abed A Al-Jahmany, Flavia Del Vecchio, Matteo Cerri, Alessia Di Cristoforo, Timna Hitrec, Davide Martelli, Emanuele Perez, Giovanni Zamboni, Roberto Amici
Obesity is known to be associated with alterations in wake-sleep (WS) architecture and cardiovascular parameters. This study was aimed at assessing the possible influence of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on sleep homeostasis and on the WS state-dependent levels of arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate in the rat. Two groups of age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high-fat hypercaloric diet, leading to DIO, or a normocaloric standard diet (lean controls) for 8 weeks. While under general anesthesia, animals were implanted with instrumentation for the recording of electroencephalogram, electromyogram, arterial pressure, and deep brain temperature...
December 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003411/dorsal-versus-ventral-differences-in-fast-up-state-associated-oscillations-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mpfc-of-the-urethane-anaesthetised-rat
#11
Sabine Gretenkord, Adrian Rees, Miles A Whittington, Sarah E Gartside, Fiona E N LeBeau
Cortical slow oscillations (0.1 - 1 Hz), which may play a role in memory consolidation, are a hallmark of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and also occur under anaesthesia. During slow oscillations the neuronal network generates faster oscillations on the active Up-states and these nested oscillations are particularly prominent in the PFC. In rodents the mPFC consists of several subregions: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL) and dorsal peduncular cortices (DP). Although each region has a distinct anatomy and function, it is not known whether slow or fast network oscillations differ between subregions in vivo...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998287/the-thalamic-mglur1-plc%C3%AE-4-pathway-is-critical-in-sleep-architecture
#12
Joohyeon Hong, Jungryun Lee, Kiyeong Song, Go Eun Ha, Yong Ryoul Yang, Ji Su Ma, Masahiro Yamamoto, Hee-Sup Shin, Pann-Ghill Suh, Eunji Cheong
The transition from wakefulness to a nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep state at the onset of sleep involves a transition from low-voltage, high-frequency irregular electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms to large-amplitude, low-frequency EEG waveforms accompanying synchronized oscillatory activity in the thalamocortical circuit. The thalamocortical circuit consists of reciprocal connections between the thalamus and cortex. The cortex sends strong excitatory feedback to the thalamus, however the function of which is unclear...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982120/emotional-arousal-modulates-oscillatory-correlates-of-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-nrem-but-not-rem-sleep
#13
Mick Lehmann, Thomas Schreiner, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered to preferentially reprocess emotionally arousing memories. We tested this hypothesis by cueing emotional vs. neutral memories during REM and NREM sleep and wakefulness by presenting associated verbal memory cues after learning. Here we show that cueing during NREM sleep significantly improved memory for emotional pictures, while no cueing benefit was observed during REM sleep. On the oscillatory level, successful memory cueing during NREM sleep resulted in significant increases in theta and spindle oscillations with stronger responses for emotional than neutral memories...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927960/why-does-sleep-slow-wave-activity-increase-after-extended-wake-assessing-the-effects-of-increased-cortical-firing-during-wake-and-sleep
#14
Alexander V Rodriguez, Chadd M Funk, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy, Yuval Nir, Giulio Tononi, Chiara Cirelli
: During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, cortical neurons alternate between ON periods of firing and OFF periods of silence. This bi-stability, which is largely synchronous across neurons, is reflected in the EEG as slow waves. Slow-wave activity (SWA) increases with wake duration and declines homeostatically during sleep, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is neuronal "fatigue": high, sustained firing in wake would force neurons to recover with more frequent and longer OFF periods during sleep...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923426/periodic-limb-movements-during-sleep-mimicking-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#15
Carles Gaig, Alex Iranzo, Montserrat Pujo, Hernando Perez, Joan Santamaria
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe a group of patients referredbecause of abnormal sleep behaviors that were suggestive ofREM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in whom videopolysomnographyruled out RBD and showed the reportedbehaviors associated with vigorous periodic limb movementsduring sleep (PLMS). METHODS: Clinical history and video-polysomnography reviewof patients identified during routine visits in a sleepcenter. RESULTS: Patients were fifteen men and two women with a median age of 66 (range 48-77) years...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912885/tetrandrine-an-alkaloid-from-s-tetrandra-exhibits-anti-hypertensive-and-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-shr-via-different-mechanisms
#16
Yuan-Li Huang, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Qing Cao, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Xiao Hu, Hui Ye, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). PURPOSE: This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#17
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#18
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909457/the-severity-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-induces-different-decrease-in-the-oxygen-saturation-during-rapid-eye-movement-and-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#19
Eunkyung Choi, Doo-Heum Park, Jae-Hak Yu, Seung-Ho Ryu, Ji-Hyeon Ha
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how differences in oxygen saturation between non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep in patients according to the severity of sleep apnea. METHODS: We studied 396 male patients diagnosed with simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on nocturnal polysomnography. Patients were divided into groups by the OSAS severity. We compared the average oxygen saturation between REM and NREM sleep in each group. RESULTS: In the simple snoring group, average oxygen saturation was significantly greater during REM than during NREM sleep...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875989/interleukin-1-receptor-il-1r-mediates-epilepsy-induced-sleep-disruption
#20
Tzu-Rung Huang, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yu-Ju Chou, Pei-Lu Yi, Chun-Jen Chen, Fang-Chia Chang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disruptions are common in epilepsy patients. Our previous study demonstrates that homeostatic factors and circadian rhythm may mediate epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances when epilepsy occurs at different zeitgeber hours. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is a somnogenic cytokine and may also be involved in epileptogenesis; however, few studies emphasize the effect of IL-1 in epilepsy-induced sleep disruption. We herein hypothesized that IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) mediates the pathogenesis of epilepsy and epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
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