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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923426/periodic-limb-movements-during-sleep-mimicking-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#1
Carles Gaig, Alex Iranzo, Montserrat Pujo, Hernando Perez, Joan Santamaria
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe a group of patients referredbecause of abnormal sleep behaviors that were suggestive ofREM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in whom videopolysomnographyruled out RBD and showed the reportedbehaviors associated with vigorous periodic limb movementsduring sleep (PLMS). METHODS: Clinical history and video-polysomnography reviewof patients identified during routine visits in a sleepcenter. RESULTS: Patients were fifteen men and two women with a median age of 66 (range 48-77) years...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912885/tetrandrine-an-alkaloid-from-s-tetrandra-exhibits-anti-hypertensive-and-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-shr-via-different-mechanisms
#2
Yuan-Li Huang, Su-Ying Cui, Xiang-Yu Cui, Qing Cao, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Xiao Hu, Hui Ye, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders have been found to be associated with hypertension in both cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies. Tetrandrine, a major component of Stephania tetrandra, is well known as an antihypertensive agent. The anti-hypertension mechanism mainly relies on its L-type calcium channel blocking property. In the previous study, tetrandrine revealed both anti-hypertension and hypnotic effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). PURPOSE: This study aims to elucidate whether the antihypertensive mechanism of tetrandrine in SHRs is relevant to its hypnotic effect...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#3
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909987/orexin-ox2-receptor-antagonists-as-sleep-aids
#4
Laura H Jacobson, Sui Chen, Sanjida Mir, Daniel Hoyer
The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX1 and OX2 receptors (OX2Rs)...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909457/the-severity-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-induces-different-decrease-in-the-oxygen-saturation-during-rapid-eye-movement-and-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#5
Eunkyung Choi, Doo-Heum Park, Jae-Hak Yu, Seung-Ho Ryu, Ji-Hyeon Ha
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how differences in oxygen saturation between non-REM (NREM) and REM sleep in patients according to the severity of sleep apnea. METHODS: We studied 396 male patients diagnosed with simple snoring or obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) on nocturnal polysomnography. Patients were divided into groups by the OSAS severity. We compared the average oxygen saturation between REM and NREM sleep in each group. RESULTS: In the simple snoring group, average oxygen saturation was significantly greater during REM than during NREM sleep...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875989/interleukin-1-receptor-il-1r-mediates-epilepsy-induced-sleep-disruption
#6
Tzu-Rung Huang, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yu-Ju Chou, Pei-Lu Yi, Chun-Jen Chen, Fang-Chia Chang
BACKGROUND: Sleep disruptions are common in epilepsy patients. Our previous study demonstrates that homeostatic factors and circadian rhythm may mediate epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances when epilepsy occurs at different zeitgeber hours. The proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is a somnogenic cytokine and may also be involved in epileptogenesis; however, few studies emphasize the effect of IL-1 in epilepsy-induced sleep disruption. We herein hypothesized that IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) mediates the pathogenesis of epilepsy and epilepsy-induced sleep disturbances...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874164/-rem-related-osa-a-forgotten-diagnostic-possible-path-to-under-diagnosing-sleep-apnea
#7
A Beneto, S Soler-Algarra, V Salavert
INTRODUCTION: Restrictive criteria are proposed to define the disorder 'REM-related OSA' disorder, and questions remain about its nosological transcendence and clinical management. AIM: To evaluate the criteria proposed to define 'REM-related OSA', its relationship with cardio-metabolic comorbidity, and aspects related to it diagnostic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study of clinical and polysomnographic data from outpatients...
December 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860547/the-discovery-of-suvorexant-the-first-orexin-receptor-drug-for-insomnia
#8
Paul J Coleman, Anthony L Gotter, W Joseph Herring, Christopher J Winrow, John J Renger
Historically, pharmacological therapies have used mechanisms such as γ- aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor potentiation to drive sleep through broad suppression of central nervous system activity. With the discovery of orexin signaling loss as the etiology underlying narcolepsy, a disorder associated with hypersomnolence, orexin antagonism emerged as an alternative approach to attenuate orexin-induced wakefulness more selectively. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) block the activity of orexin 1 and 2 receptors to both reduce the threshold to transition into sleep and attenuate orexin-mediated arousal...
November 17, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855741/normal-morning-mch-levels-and-no-association-with-rem-or-nrem-sleep-parameters-in-narcolepsy-type-1-and-type-2
#9
Maren Schrölkamp, Poul J Jennum, Steen Gammeltoft, Anja Holm, Birgitte R Kornum, Stine Knudsen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved in rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCH levels, in contrast to previously reported normal evening/afternoon levels...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853537/global-field-synchronization-reveals-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-as-most-synchronized-brain-state-in-the-human-eeg
#10
Peter Achermann, Thomas Rusterholz, Roland Dürr, Thomas König, Leila Tarokh
Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global field synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852786/electrophysiological-evidence-for-alternative-motor-networks-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#11
Marc Hackius, Esther Werth, Oguzkan Sürücü, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show mostly unimpaired motor behavior during REM sleep, which contrasts strongly to coexistent nocturnal bradykinesia. The reason for this sudden amelioration of motor control in REM sleep is unknown, however. We set out to determine whether movements during REM sleep are processed by different motor networks than movements in the waking state. We recorded local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and scalp EEG (modified 10/20 montage) during sleep in humans with PD and RBD...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849520/cellular-and-neurochemical-basis-of-sleep-stages-in-the-thalamocortical-network
#12
Giri P Krishnan, Sylvain Chauvette, Isaac Shamie, Sara Soltani, Igor Timofeev, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Maxim Bazhenov
The link between the combined action of neuromodulators in the brain and global brain states remains a mystery. In this study, using biophysically realistic models of the thalamocortical network, we identified the critical intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms, associated with the putative action of acetylcholine (ACh), GABA and monoamines, which lead to transitions between primary brain vigilance states (waking, non-rapid eye movement sleep [NREM] and REM sleep) within an ultradian cycle. Using ECoG recordings from humans and LFP recordings from cats and mice, we found that during NREM sleep the power of spindle and delta oscillations is negatively correlated in humans and positively correlated in animal recordings...
November 16, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815021/interleukin-1%C3%AE-induces-sleep-independent-of-prostaglandin-d2-in-rats-and-mice
#13
Bin-Jia Zhang, Shu-Rong Shao, Kosuke Aritake, Atsuko Takeuchi, Yoshihiro Urade, Zhi-Li Huang, Michael Lazarus, Wei-Min Qu
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and prostaglandin (PG) D2 are endogenous sleep-promoting substances. Since it was reported that a highly selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, NS398, completely inhibited IL-1β-induced sleep in rats, IL-1β-induced sleep had been believed to be mediated by prostanoids, most probably PGD2. However, in the present study, pretreatment of rats with NS398 (3mg/kg) did not suppress the 64.2% increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep during infusion of IL-1β (10ng) for 6h in the nocturnal (active) period between 23:00 and 5:00 into the subarachnoid space of the PGD2-sensitive sleep-promoting zone of the basal forebrain...
November 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810712/sleep-architecture-parameters-as-a-putative-biomarker-of-suicidal-ideation-in-treatment-resistant-depression
#14
Rebecca A Bernert, David A Luckenbaugh, Wallace C Duncan, Naomi G Iwata, Elizabeth D Ballard, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Disturbed sleep may confer risk for suicidal behaviors. Polysomnographic (PSG) sleep parameters have not been systematically evaluated in association with suicidal ideation (SI) among individuals with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: This secondary data analysis included 54 TRD individuals (N=30 with major depressive disorder (MDD) and N=24 with bipolar depression (BD)). PSG sleep parameters included Sleep Efficiency (SE), Total Sleep Time (TST), Wakefulness After Sleep Onset (WASO), REM percent/latency, and non-REM (NREM) Sleep Stages 1-4...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807161/bottom-up-versus-top-down-induction-of-sleep-by-zolpidem-acting-on-histaminergic-and-neocortex-neurons
#15
David S Uygun, Zhiwen Ye, Anna Y Zecharia, Edward C Harding, Xiao Yu, Raquel Yustos, Alexei L Vyssotski, Stephen G Brickley, Nicholas P Franks, William Wisden
: Zolpidem, a GABAA receptor-positive modulator, is the gold-standard drug for treating insomnia. Zolpidem prolongs IPSCs to decrease sleep latency and increase sleep time, effects that depend on α2 and/or α3 subunit-containing receptors. Compared with natural NREM sleep, zolpidem also decreases the EEG power, an effect that depends on α1 subunit-containing receptors, and which may make zolpidem-induced sleep less optimal. In this paper, we investigate whether zolpidem needs to potentiate only particular GABAergic pathways to induce sleep without reducing EEG power...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806374/forward-genetics-analysis-of-sleep-in-randomly-mutagenized-mice
#16
Hiromasa Funato, Chika Miyoshi, Tomoyuki Fujiyama, Takeshi Kanda, Makito Sato, Zhiqiang Wang, Jing Ma, Shin Nakane, Jun Tomita, Aya Ikkyu, Miyo Kakizaki, Noriko Hotta-Hirashima, Satomi Kanno, Haruna Komiya, Fuyuki Asano, Takato Honda, Staci J Kim, Kanako Harano, Hiroki Muramoto, Toshiya Yonezawa, Seiya Mizuno, Shinichi Miyazaki, Linzi Connor, Vivek Kumar, Ikuo Miura, Tomohiro Suzuki, Atsushi Watanabe, Manabu Abe, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Satoru Takahashi, Kenji Sakimura, Yu Hayashi, Qinghua Liu, Kazuhiko Kume, Shigeharu Wakana, Joseph S Takahashi, Masashi Yanagisawa
Sleep is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates, and is tightly regulated in a homeostatic manner. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that determine the amount of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS) remain unknown. Here we identify two dominant mutations that affect sleep and wakefulness by using an electroencephalogram/electromyogram-based screen of randomly mutagenized mice. A splicing mutation in the Sik3 protein kinase gene causes a profound decrease in total wake time, owing to an increase in inherent sleep need...
November 2, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793219/sleep-and-microbes
#17
J M Krueger, M R Opp
Sleep is profoundly altered during the course of infectious diseases. The typical response to infection includes an initial increase in nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) followed by an inhibition in NREMS. REMS is inhibited during infections. Bacterial cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide, macrophage digests of these components, such as muramyl peptides, and viral products, such as viral double-stranded RNA, trigger sleep responses. They do so via pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition receptors that, in turn, enhance cytokine production...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773950/sleep-disturbances-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-updated-review-and-implications-for-treatment
#18
Erin Koffel, Imran S Khawaja, Anne Germain
Sleep disturbances are common in adults with PTSD and range from insomnia and nightmares to periodic leg movements and disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Together these findings suggest profound disturbances in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, although there is a lack of consensus regarding a distinct profile of objective sleep disturbances associated with PTSD. Prospective, longitudinal studies have established that sleep disturbances represent a risk factor for the development and course of PTSD, suggesting that sleep is an important neurobiological mechanism in the etiology and maintenance of this disorder...
March 2016: Psychiatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771371/rem-sleep-disorder-following-general-anesthesia-in-rats
#19
Katarina Lazic, Jelena Petrovic, Jelena Ciric, Aleksandar Kalauzi, Jasna Saponjic
Postoperative sleep disorders, particularly the REM sleep disorder, may have a significant deleterious impact on postoperative outcomes and may contribute to the genesis of certain delayed postoperative complications. We have followed the effect of distinct anesthesia regimens (ketamine/diazepam vs. pentobarbital) over 6days following the induction of a stable anesthetized state in adult male Wistar rats, chronically instrumented for sleep recording. In order to compare the effect of both anesthetics in the physiological controls vs...
January 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770662/menstrual-cycle-related-variation-in-autonomic-nervous-system-functioning-in-women-in-the-early-menopausal-transition-with-and-without-insomnia-disorder
#20
Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
Insomnia is considered a hyperarousal disorder, in which several psychophysiological domains including the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are over-activated, potentially contributing to increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Here, we aimed to determine whether insomnia that develops in the context of the transition to menopause (menopausal transition insomnia, MTI) is similarly characterized by autonomic arousal. We also took into account modulation of the ANS by the hormonal changes of the menstrual cycle, a factor that has not previously been considered in studies on insomnia...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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