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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522097/sleep-spindle-density-in-narcolepsy
#1
Julie Anja Engelhard Christensen, Miki Nikolic, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513589/decoding-material-specific-memory-reprocessing-during-sleep-in-humans
#2
M Schönauer, S Alizadeh, H Jamalabadi, A Abraham, A Pawlizki, S Gais
Neuronal learning activity is reactivated during sleep but the dynamics of this reactivation in humans are still poorly understood. Here we use multivariate pattern classification to decode electrical brain activity during sleep and determine what type of images participants had viewed in a preceding learning session. We find significant patterns of learning-related processing during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, which are generalizable across subjects. This processing occurs in a cyclic fashion during time windows congruous to critical periods of synaptic plasticity...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509666/an-inhibitory-gate-for-state-transition-in-cortex
#3
Stefano Zucca, Giulia D'Urso, Valentina Pasquale, Dania Vecchia, Giuseppe Pica, Serena Bovetti, Claudio Moretti, Stefano Varani, Manuel Molano-Mazón, Michela Chiappalone, Stefano Panzeri, Tommaso Fellin
Large scale transitions between active (up) and silent (down) states during quiet wakefulness or NREM sleep regulate fundamental cortical functions and are known to involve both excitatory and inhibitory cells. However, if and how inhibition regulates these activity transitions is unclear. Using fluorescence-targeted electrophysiological recording and cell-specific optogenetic manipulation in both anesthetized and non-anesthetized mice, we found that two major classes of interneurons, the parvalbumin and the somatostatin positive cells, tightly control both up-to-down and down-to-up state transitions...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483860/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-predominant-central-sleep-apnea-relieved-by-positive-airway-pressure-a-case-report
#4
Noah P Jouett, Michael L Smith, Donald E Watenpaugh, Maryam Siddiqui, Maleeha Ahmad, Farrukh Siddiqui
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is characterized by intermittent apneas and hypopneas during sleep that result from absent central respiratory drive. CSA occurs almost exclusively during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep due to enhanced neuronal ventilatory drive during REM sleep that makes central apneas highly unlikely to form. A 45-year-old obese African American female presented with co-existing Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and CSA, not in the form of mixed or complex sleep apnea. Peculiarly, her CSA occurred only during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, which is exceedingly rare...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482238/nocturnal-sleep-architecture-is-altered-by-sleep-bruxism
#5
Marcelo Palinkas, Marisa Semprini, João Espir Filho, Graziela de Luca Canto, Isabela Hallak Regalo, César Bataglion, Laíse Angélica Mendes Rodrigues, Selma Siéssere, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo
OBJECTIVE: Sleep is a complex behaviour phenomenon essential for physical and mental health and for the body to restore itself. It can be affected by structural alterations caused by sleep bruxism. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of sleep bruxism on the sleep architecture parameters proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. DESIGN: The sample comprised 90 individuals, between the ages of 18 and 45 years, divided into two groups: with sleep bruxism (n=45) and without sleep bruxism (n=45)...
April 27, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472227/cortical-nnos-nk1-receptor-neurons-are-regulated-by-cholinergic-projections-from-the-basal-forebrain
#6
Rhîannan H Williams, Jacqueline Vazquez-DeRose, Alexia M Thomas, Juliette Piquet, Bruno Cauli, Thomas S Kilduff
Cholinergic (ACh) basal forebrain (BF) neurons are active during wakefulness and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and are involved in sleep homeostasis. We have previously shown in adult animals that cortical neurons that express neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the receptor for Substance P (NK1R) are activated during non-REM (NREM) sleep in proportion to homeostatic sleep drive. Here, we show that BF neurons modulate cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. In vitro optogenetic stimulation of BF terminals both activated and inhibited nNOS/NK1R neurons...
May 2, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468235/in-search-of-sleep-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-k-complexes-do-not-discriminate-between-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-controls
#7
Flaminia Reda, Maurizio Gorgoni, Giulia Lauri, Ilaria Truglia, Susanna Cordone, Serena Scarpelli, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Aurora D'Atri, Michele Ferrara, Giordano Lacidogna, Camillo Marra, Paolo Maria Rossini, Luigi De Gennaro
The K-complex (KC) is one of the hallmarks of Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. Recent observations point to a drastic decrease of spontaneous KCs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, no study has investigated when, in the development of AD, this phenomenon starts. The assessment of KC density in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a clinical condition considered a possible transitional stage between normal cognitive function and probable AD, is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare KC density in AD/MCI patients and healthy controls (HCs), also assessing the relationship between KC density and cognitive decline...
April 29, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464758/periodic-limb-movements-in-tetraplegia
#8
Annemieke Emma Josina Peters, Lysanne van Silfhout, Marnie Graco, Rachel Schembri, Dick Thijssen, David J Berlowitz
OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep (PLMS) in patients with tetraplegia, controlling for obstructive sleep apnea. To explore whether demographic and injury characteristics affect PLMS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohorts. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seventy-three participants with acute (<12 months) and 92 with chronic (>12 months) tetraplegia who underwent full overnight diagnostic sleep studies...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449905/sleep-wake-patterns-non-rapid-eye-movement-and-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-cycles-in-teenage-narcolepsy
#9
Xing Xu, Huijuan Wu, Jianhua Zhuang, Kun Chen, Bei Huang, Zhengqing Zhao, Zhongxin Zhao
BACKGROUND: To further characterize sleep disorders associated with narcolepsy, we assessed the sleep-wake patterns, rapid eye movement (REM), and non-REM (NREM) sleep cycles in Chinese teenagers with narcolepsy. METHODS: A total of 14 Chinese type 1 narcoleptic patients (13.4 ± 2.6 years of age) and 14 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects (13.6 ± 1.8 years of age) were recruited. Ambulatory 24-h polysomnography was recorded for two days, with test subjects adapting to the instruments on day one and the study data collection performed on day two...
May 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444769/lesions-of-the-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-attenuates-sleepiness-and-adenosine-after-alcohol-consumption
#10
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Alcohol has a profound effect on sleep. However, neuronal substrates mediating sleep-promoting effects of alcohol are unknown. Since the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons are implicated in the homeostatic regulation of sleep, we hypothesized that the BF cholinergic neurons may have an important role in sleepiness observed after alcohol consumption. 192-IgG-saporin (bilateral BF infusions) was used to selectively lesion BF cholinergic neurons in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Standard surgical procedures were used to implant sleep recording electrodes or microdialysis guide cannulas...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434101/predicting-dream-recall-eeg-activation-during-nrem-sleep-or-shared-mechanisms-with-wakefulness
#11
Serena Scarpelli, Aurora D'Atri, Anastasia Mangiaruga, Cristina Marzano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Cinzia Schiappa, Michele Ferrara, Luigi De Gennaro
The common knowledge of a uniqueness of REM sleep as a privileged scenario of dreaming still persists, although consolidated empirical evidence shows that the assumption that dreaming is just an epiphenomenon of REM sleep is no longer tenable. However, the brain mechanisms underlying dream generation and its encoding in memory during NREM sleep are still mostly unknown. In fact, only few studies have investigated on the mechanisms of dream phenomenology related to NREM sleep. For this reason, our study is specifically aimed to elucidate the electrophysiological (EEG) correlates of dream recall (DR) upon NREM sleep awakenings...
April 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433628/ca-2-dependent-hyperpolarization-hypothesis-for-mammalian-sleep
#12
REVIEW
Fumiya Tatsuki, Koji L Ode, Hiroki R Ueda
The detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of sleep/wake cycles in mammals are elusive. In this regulation, at least two mechanisms with fast and slow time scales are involved. In the faster time scale, a state of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep can be microscopically characterized by the millisecond-to-second-order electrical behavior of neurons, namely slow-wave oscillations described by electrophysiology. In the slower time scale, the total duration of NREM sleep is homeostatically regulated by sleep pressure (the need for sleep), which is usually sustained for hours or even days and can be macroscopically described by electroencephalogram (EEG)...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432269/altered-sleep-patterns-in-patients-with-non-functional-ghrh-receptor
#13
Francielle T Oliveira, Roberto Salvatori, Jose' Marcondes, Larissa B Macena, Alecia A Oliveira-Santos, Augusto Cn Faro, Viviane C Campos, Carla R Oliveira, Ursula Mm Costa, Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: GH releasing hormone (GHRH) exerts hypnotic actions increasing non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Conversely, GH stimulates REM sleep. GH deficiency (GHD) often leads to sleep problems, daytime fatigue, and reduced quality of life (QoL). GHD may be due to lack of hypothalamic GHRH or destruction of somatotroph cells. We have described a cohort with isolated GHD (IGHD) due to GHRH resistance caused by a homozygous null mutation in the GHRH receptor gene. They have normal QoL and no obvious complaints of chronic tiredness...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425172/the-homeostatic-and-circadian-sleep-recovery-responses-after-total-sleep-deprivation-in-mice
#14
Garance Dispersyn, Fabien Sauvet, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Sylvain Ciret, Catherine Drogou, Damien Leger, Thierry Gallopin, Mounir Chennaoui
Many studies on sleep deprivation effects lack data regarding the recovery period. We investigated the 2-day homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery response to 24 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) induced by brief rotation of an activity wheel. Eight mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters (DSI F40-EET) that recorded simultaneously their electroencephalography (EEG), locomotor activity and temperature during 24 h of baseline (BSL), TSD and 2 days of recovery (D1 and D2). In a second experiment, two groups of five non-implanted mice underwent TSD or ad libitum sleep, after which they were killed, adrenal glands were weighed and blood was collected for analysis of corticosterone concentration...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424466/the-role-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue-in-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-induced-sleep-metabolic-and-feeding-responses
#15
Éva Szentirmai, Levente Kapás
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system via β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-AR). Here we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological stimulation of β3-ARs leads to increased sleep in mice and if this change is BAT dependent. In wild-type (WT) animals, administration of CL-316,243, a selective β3-AR agonist, induced significant increases in non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) lasting for 4-10 h. Simultaneously, electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) was significantly decreased and body temperature was increased with a delay of 5-6 h...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414209/polypharmacological-in-silico-bioactivity-profiling-and-experimental-validation-uncovers-sedative-hypnotic-effects-of-approved-and-experimental-drugs-in-rat
#16
Georgios Drakakis, Keith A Wafford, Suzanne C Brewerton, Michael J Bodkin, David A Evans, Andreas Bender
In this work, we describe the computational ("in silico") mode-of-action analysis of CNS-active drugs, which is taking both multiple simultaneous hypotheses as well as sets of protein targets for each mode-of-action into account, and which was followed by successful prospective in vitro and in vivo validation. Using sleep-related phenotypic readouts describing both efficacy and side effects for 491 compounds tested in rat, we defined an "optimal" (desirable) sleeping pattern. Compounds were subjected to in silico target prediction (which was experimentally confirmed for 21 out of 28 cases), followed by the utilization of decision trees for deriving polypharmacological bioactivity profiles...
May 1, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408635/cardiac-autonomic-control-and-complexity-during-sleep-are-preserved-after-chronic-sleep-restriction-in-healthy-subjects
#17
Eleonora Tobaldini, Naima Covassin, Andrew Calvin, Prachi Singh, Jan Bukartyk, Shiang Wang, Nicola Montano, Virend K Somers
Acute sleep deprivation (SD) alters cardiovascular autonomic control (CAC) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the effects of partial SD on CAC are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of partial SD on CAC during sleep. We randomized seventeen healthy subjects to a restriction group (RES, n = 8, subjects slept two-thirds of normal sleep time based on individual habitual sleep duration for 8 days and 8 nights) or a Control group (CON, n = 9, subjects were allowed to sleep their usual sleep time)...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401950/auditory-conditioned-stimulus-presentation-during-nrem-sleep-impairs-fear-memory-in-mice
#18
Ross J Purple, Takeshi Sakurai, Masanori Sakaguchi
Externally manipulating memories by presenting conditioned stimuli (CS) during sleep is a new approach to investigating memory processing during sleep. However, whether presenting a CS during REM or NREM sleep enhances or extinguishes fear memory has not been clearly delineated. In this study, mice underwent trace fear conditioning consisting of an auditory CS paired with a foot shock, and the auditory CS was re-presented during subsequent REM or NREM sleep. Mice that received auditory cueing during NREM but not REM sleep showed impaired fear memory upon later presentation of the auditory CS...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401614/suppression-of-interictal-spikes-during-phasic-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-a-quantitative-stereo-electroencephalography-study
#19
C Campana, F Zubler, S Gibbs, F de Carli, P Proserpio, A Rubino, M Cossu, L Tassi, K Schindler, L Nobili
Tonic and phasic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep seem to represent two different brain states exerting different effects on epileptic activity. In particular, interictal spikes are suppressed strongly during phasic REM sleep. The reason for this effect is not understood completely. A different level of synchronization in phasic and tonic REM sleep has been postulated, yet never measured directly. Here we assessed the interictal spike rate across non-REM (NREM) sleep, phasic and tonic REM sleep in nine patients affected by drug resistant focal epilepsy: five with type II focal cortical dysplasia and four with hippocampal sclerosis...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399441/sleep-architecture-in-insomniacs-with-severe-benzodiazepine-abuse
#20
Mauro Manconi, Raffaele Ferri, Silvia Miano, Michelangelo Maestri, Valentina Bottasini, Marco Zucconi, Luigi Ferini-Strambi
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most commonly prescribed compounds in insomnia. A long-term of BZDs use may cause dependence and abuse. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep architecture and microstructure (in terms of cyclic alternating pattern - CAP - analysis and of sleep EEG power spectral analysis) in a group of long-term users of high doses of BZDs for their primary chronic insomnia. METHODS: Twenty patients consecutively admitted at the Sleep Centre for drug discontinuation and 13 matched healthy controls underwent a full nocturnal video-polysomnographic recording, after one adaptation night...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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