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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#1
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637659/enduring-effects-of-perinatal-nicotine-exposure-on-murine-sleep-in-adulthood
#2
Jeremy Charles Borniger, Reuben F Don, Ning Zhang, Robert Thomas Boyd, Randy J Nelson
The long-term consequences of early life nicotine exposure are poorly defined. Approximately 8-10% of women report smoking during pregnancy, and this may promote aberrant development in the offspring. To this end, we investigated potential enduring effects of perinatal nicotine exposure on murine sleep and affective behaviors in adulthood (~13-15 weeks of age) in C57Bl6j mice. Mothers received a water bottle containing 200 µg/ml nicotine bitartrate dihydrate in 2% w/v saccharin or pH-matched 2% saccharin with 0...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633091/cyclic-alternating-pattern-and-interictal-epileptiform-discharges-during-morning-sleep-after-sleep-deprivation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Filippo Sean Giorgi, Michelangelo Maestri, Melania Guida, Luca Carnicelli, Lorenzo Caciagli, Raffaele Ferri, Ubaldo Bonuccelli, Enrica Bonanni
PURPOSE: Sleep deprivation (SD) increases the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) compared to basal EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In adults, EEG after SD is usually performed in the morning after SD. We aimed to evaluate whether morning sleep after SD bears additional IED-inducing effects compared with nocturnal physiological sleep, and whether changes in sleep stability (described by the cyclic alternating pattern-CAP) play a significant role. METHODS: Adult patients with TLE underwent in-lab night polysomnography (n-PSG) and, within 7days from n-PSG, they underwent also a morning EEG after night SD (SD-EEG)...
June 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626013/sleep-disrupts-high-level-speech-parsing-despite-significant-basic-auditory-processing
#4
Shiri Makov, Omer Sharon, Nai Ding, Michal Ben-Shachar, Yuval Nir, Elana Zion Golumbic
The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli, such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed, using non-invasive brain recordings. Those were so far tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels, using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that can online monitor the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625231/you-ll-feel-better-in-the-morning-slow-wave-activity-and-overnight-mood-regulation-in-interepisode-bipolar-disorder
#5
A M Soehner, K A Kaplan, J M Saletin, L S Talbot, I S Hairston, J Gruber, P Eidelman, M P Walker, A G Harvey
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are prominent correlates of acute mood episodes and inadequate recovery in bipolar disorder (BD), yet the mechanistic relationship between sleep physiology and mood remains poorly understood. Using a series of pre-sleep mood inductions and overnight sleep recording, this study examined the relationship between overnight mood regulation and a marker of sleep intensity (non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave activity; NREM SWA) during the interepisode phase of BD...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605546/plasticity-related-gene-expression-during-eszopiclone-induced-sleep
#6
Dmitry Gerashchenko, Ravi K Pasumarthi, Thomas S Kilduff
Study Objectives: Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. Methods: We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and 2 miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice...
June 12, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602690/dorsal-raphe-dopamine-neurons-modulate-arousal-and-promote-wakefulness-by-salient-stimuli
#7
Jounhong Ryan Cho, Jennifer B Treweek, J Elliott Robinson, Cheng Xiao, Lindsay R Bremner, Alon Greenbaum, Viviana Gradinaru
Ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) is unambiguously involved in motivation and behavioral arousal, yet the contributions of other DA populations to these processes are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dorsal raphe nucleus DA neurons are critical modulators of behavioral arousal and sleep-wake patterning. Using simultaneous fiber photometry and polysomnography, we observed time-delineated dorsal raphe nucleus dopaminergic (DRN(DA)) activity upon exposure to arousal-evoking salient cues, irrespective of their hedonic valence...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597190/the-prevalence-of-rem-related-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-is-reduced-by-the-aasm-2012-hypopnoea-criteria
#8
Brett Duce, Antti Kulkas, Christian Langton, Juha Töyräs, Craig Hukins
PURPOSE: The variations in reported prevalence of rapid eye movement-related obstructive sleep apnoea (REM-OSA) have been attributed to different definitions, although the effect of hypopnoea criteria has not been previously investigated. METHODS: Within this retrospective study, 134 of 382 consecutive patients undertaking polysomnography (PSG) for the suspicion of OSA met the inclusion criteria. PSGs were scored using both the 2007 AASM recommended hypopnoea criteria (AASM2007Rec) and the 2012 AASM recommended hypopnoea criteria (AASM2012Rec)...
June 9, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583511/blood-count-values-and-ratios-for-predicting-sleep-apnea-in-obese-children
#9
Ibrahim Erdim, Omer Erdur, Fatih Oghan, Fatih Mete, Mustafa Celik
OBJECTIVES: To detect whether the mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are contributing factors in the diagnosis and severity of sleep apnea in obese children. INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a public health problem, and its prevalence increases daily. Although PSG is the gold standard test in the investigation of sleep apnea, the application of this test requires equipment, personnel, time, and cost. There is no simple laboratory test for diagnosing and determining the severity of sleep apnea...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575720/local-aspects-of-sleep-and-wakefulness
#10
REVIEW
Francesca Siclari, Giulio Tononi
Slow waves, the hallmark of NREM (Non Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, are not uniformly distributed across the cortical surface, but can occur locally and asynchronously across brain regions. Their regional distribution and amplitude is affected by brain maturation and by time spent awake, mediated in part by experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength. Recent studies have shown that local low-frequency oscillations (<10Hz) can also occur in REM sleep and during wakefulness, leading to region-specific cognitive errors...
May 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572762/evaluating-and-improving-automatic-sleep-spindle-detection-by-using-multi-objective-evolutionary-algorithms
#11
Min-Yin Liu, Adam Huang, Norden E Huang
Sleep spindles are brief bursts of brain activity in the sigma frequency range (11-16 Hz) measured by electroencephalography (EEG) mostly during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stage 2 sleep. These oscillations are of great biological and clinical interests because they potentially play an important role in identifying and characterizing the processes of various neurological disorders. Conventionally, sleep spindles are identified by expert sleep clinicians via visual inspection of EEG signals. The process is laborious and the results are inconsistent among different experts...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562209/the-phenomenal-contents-and-neural-correlates-of-spontaneous-thoughts-across-wakefulness-nrem-sleep-and-rem-sleep
#12
Lampros Perogamvros, Benjamin Baird, Mitja Seibold, Brady Riedner, Melanie Boly, Giulio Tononi
Thoughts occur during wake as well as during dreaming sleep. Using experience sampling combined with high-density EEG, we investigated the phenomenal qualities and neural correlates of spontaneously occurring thoughts across wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and REM sleep. Across all states, thoughts were associated with activation of a region of the midcingulate cortex. Thoughts during wakefulness additionally involved a medial prefrontal region, which was associated with metacognitive thoughts during wake...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560832/effects-of-a-lifestyle-intervention-on-rem-sleep-related-osa-severity-in-obese-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Ari Shechter, Gary D Foster, Wei Lang, David M Reboussin, Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Gary Zammit, Anne B Newman, Richard P Millman, Thomas A Wadden, John M Jakicic, Elsa S Strotmeyer, Rena R Wing, F Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Samuel T Kuna
The aim of this study was to determine if an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) reduces the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, and to determine if longitudinal changes in glycaemic control are related to changes in OSA severity during REM sleep over a 4-year follow-up. This was a randomized controlled trial including 264 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and OSA. Participants were randomized to an ILI targeted to weight loss or a diabetes support and education (DSE) control group...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544929/rem-sleep-and-memory
#14
REVIEW
Richard Boyce, Sylvain Williams, Antoine Adamantidis
Memory consolidation, a process which stabilizes recently acquired information into long-term storage, is thought to be optimized during sleep. Although recent evidence indicates that non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMs) is directly involved in memory consolidation, the role of rapid-eye movement sleep (REMs) in this process has remained controversial due to the extreme difficulty in experimentally isolating neural activity during REMs. Using a combination of electrophysiological recording and optogenetic techniques, recent work demonstrated for the first time that neural activity occurring specifically during REMs is required for spatial and contextual memory consolidation...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533747/selective-inhibition-of-orexin-2-receptors-prevents-stress-induced-acth-release-in-mice
#15
Sujin Yun, Michelle Wennerholm, Jonathan E Shelton, Pascal Bonaventure, Michael A Letavic, Brock T Shireman, Timothy W Lovenberg, Christine Dugovic
Orexins peptides exert a prominent role in arousal-related processes including stress responding, by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors located widely throughout the brain. Stress or orexin administration stimulates hyperarousal, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone release, and selective OX1R blockade can attenuate several stress-induced behavioral and cardiovascular responses but not the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. As opposed to OX1R, OX2R are preferentially expressed in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus which is involved in the HPA axis regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522097/sleep-spindle-density-in-narcolepsy
#16
Julie Anja Engelhard Christensen, Miki Nikolic, Mathias Hvidtfelt, Birgitte Rahbek Kornum, Poul Jennum
BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513589/decoding-material-specific-memory-reprocessing-during-sleep-in-humans
#17
M Schönauer, S Alizadeh, H Jamalabadi, A Abraham, A Pawlizki, S Gais
Neuronal learning activity is reactivated during sleep but the dynamics of this reactivation in humans are still poorly understood. Here we use multivariate pattern classification to decode electrical brain activity during sleep and determine what type of images participants had viewed in a preceding learning session. We find significant patterns of learning-related processing during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, which are generalizable across subjects. This processing occurs in a cyclic fashion during time windows congruous to critical periods of synaptic plasticity...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509666/an-inhibitory-gate-for-state-transition-in-cortex
#18
Stefano Zucca, Giulia D'Urso, Valentina Pasquale, Dania Vecchia, Giuseppe Pica, Serena Bovetti, Claudio Moretti, Stefano Varani, Manuel Molano-Mazón, Michela Chiappalone, Stefano Panzeri, Tommaso Fellin
Large scale transitions between active (up) and silent (down) states during quiet wakefulness or NREM sleep regulate fundamental cortical functions and are known to involve both excitatory and inhibitory cells. However, if and how inhibition regulates these activity transitions is unclear. Using fluorescence-targeted electrophysiological recording and cell-specific optogenetic manipulation in both anesthetized and non-anesthetized mice, we found that two major classes of interneurons, the parvalbumin and the somatostatin positive cells, tightly control both up-to-down and down-to-up state transitions...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483860/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-predominant-central-sleep-apnea-relieved-by-positive-airway-pressure-a-case-report
#19
Noah P Jouett, Michael L Smith, Donald E Watenpaugh, Maryam Siddiqui, Maleeha Ahmad, Farrukh Siddiqui
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is characterized by intermittent apneas and hypopneas during sleep that result from absent central respiratory drive. CSA occurs almost exclusively during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep due to enhanced neuronal ventilatory drive during REM sleep that makes central apneas highly unlikely to form. A 45-year-old obese African American female presented with co-existing Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and CSA, not in the form of mixed or complex sleep apnea. Peculiarly, her CSA occurred only during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, which is exceedingly rare...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482238/nocturnal-sleep-architecture-is-altered-by-sleep-bruxism
#20
Marcelo Palinkas, Marisa Semprini, João Espir Filho, Graziela de Luca Canto, Isabela Hallak Regalo, César Bataglion, Laíse Angélica Mendes Rodrigues, Selma Siéssere, Simone Cecilio Hallak Regalo
OBJECTIVE: Sleep is a complex behaviour phenomenon essential for physical and mental health and for the body to restore itself. It can be affected by structural alterations caused by sleep bruxism. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of sleep bruxism on the sleep architecture parameters proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. DESIGN: The sample comprised 90 individuals, between the ages of 18 and 45 years, divided into two groups: with sleep bruxism (n=45) and without sleep bruxism (n=45)...
April 27, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
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