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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138444/the-elusive-evidence-of-volcanic-lightning
#1
K Genareau, P Gharghabi, J Gafford, M Mazzola
Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073666/trigeminal-neuralgia-following-lightning-injury
#2
Alfonso S López Chiriboga, William P Cheshire
Lightning and other electrical incidents are responsible for more than 300 injuries and 100 deaths per year in the United States alone. Lightning strikes can cause a wide spectrum of neurologic manifestations affecting any part of the neuraxis through direct strikes, side flashes, touch voltage, connecting leaders, or acoustic shock waves. This article describes the first case of trigeminal neuralgia induced by lightning injury to the trigeminal nerve, thereby adding a new syndrome to the list of possible lightning-mediated neurologic injuries...
October 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065564/assessing-lightning-and-wildfire-hazard-by-land-properties-and-cloud-to-ground-lightning-data-with-association-rule-mining-in-alberta-canada
#3
DongHwan Cha, Xin Wang, Jeong Woo Kim
Hotspot analysis was implemented to find regions in the province of Alberta (Canada) with high frequency Cloud to Ground (CG) lightning strikes clustered together. Generally, hotspot regions are located in the central, central east, and south central regions of the study region. About 94% of annual lightning occurred during warm months (June to August) and the daily lightning frequency was influenced by the diurnal heating cycle. The association rule mining technique was used to investigate frequent CG lightning patterns, which were verified by similarity measurement to check the patterns' consistency...
October 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018518/cardiac-effects-of-lightning-strikes
#4
Theodoros Christophides, Sarosh Khan, Mahmood Ahmad, Hossam Fayed, Richard Bogle
Lightning strikes are a common and leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Multiple organ systems can be involved, though the effects of the electrical current on the cardiovascular system are one of the main modes leading to cardiorespiratory arrest in these patients. Cardiac effects of lightning strikes can be transient or persistent, and include benign or life-threatening arrhythmias, inappropriate therapies from cardiac implantable electronic devices, cardiac ischaemia, myocardial contusion, pericardial disease, aortic injury, as well as cardiomyopathy with associated ventricular failure...
August 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988255/cardiac-rhythm-recorded-by-implanted-loop-recorder-during-lightning-strike
#5
Ali Altalhi, Waleed Al-Manea, Naif Alqweai, Mohammed Alothman
Lightning strikes cause severe injuries and fatalities. Injuries vary from self-limiting skin manifestations to cardiac arrest and death. Because the event is sudden and unpredictable, assessment of the direct effects of the lightning on the human heart is usually impossible. In this case, a 16-year old boy who had an implanted loop recorder subcutaneous cardiac monitor was hit by lightning during a picnic and survived. A cardiac rhythm strip was recorded live during the strike. SIMILAR CASES PUBLISHED: 0...
September 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966554/larch-forests-of-middle-siberia-long-term-trends-in-fire-return-intervals
#6
Viacheslav I Kharuk, Mariya L Dvinskaya, Ilya A Petrov, Sergei T Im, Kenneth J Ranson
Fire history within the northern larch forests of Central Siberia was studied (65+°N). Fires within this area are predominantly caused by lightning strikes rather than human activity. Mean fire return intervals (FRI) were found to be 112 ± 49 years (based on fire scars) and 106 ± 36 years (based on fire scars and tree natality dates). FRI were increased with latitude increase, and observed to be about 80 years at 64°N, about 200 years near the Arctic Circle, and about 300 years nearby the northern range limit of larch stands (~71°+N)...
December 2016: Regional Environmental Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945476/assessment-of-lungs-for-transplant-recovered-from-uncontrolled-donation-after-circulatory-determination-of-death-donors
#7
Thomas Egan, John Blackwell, Katherine Birchard, Benjamin Haithcock, Jason Long, Stephen Gazda, Nissa Casey, Caitlin Thys
RATIONALE: To address the lung donor shortage, we obtained institutional review board and US Food and Drug Administration approval to transplant lungs recovered from uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death donors (uDCDDs). OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes of recipients of lungs recovered from uDCDDs vs. brain-dead donors. METHODS: After consent and screening, lungs recovered from uDCDDs were assessed by 4 hours ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) and computed tomography (CT) scan...
September 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914443/indirect-effects-of-larvae-dispersal-following-mass-mortality-events
#8
Marcus A Lashley, Heather R Jordan, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Brandon T Barton
Mass mortality events are characterized by rapid die-offs of many individuals within a population at a specific location. These events produce a high concentration of remains within a given locale and the frequency and magnitude of these events may be increasing (Fey et al. 2015). Mass mortality events may be caused by physical (e.g., lightning strikes, fire), chemical (e.g., pollutants, hypoxia), or biological processes (e.g., disease, phenological mismatch with food source). This article is protected by copyright...
September 15, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893968/correction-to-when-lightning-strikes-fulminant-myocarditis-in-the-realm-of-inflammatory-cardiomyopathies
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882638/delayed-onset-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-ventricular-tachycardia-after-an-automobile-lightning-strike
#10
Dorian Drigalla, Shannon E Essler, C Keith Stone
BACKGROUND: Lightning strike is a rare medical emergency. The primary cause of death in lightning strike victims is immediate cardiac arrest. The mortality rate from lightning exposure can be as high as 30%, with up to 70% of patients left with significant morbidity. CASE REPORT: An 86-year-old male was struck by lightning while driving his vehicle and crashed. On initial emergency medical services evaluation, he was asymptomatic with normal vital signs. During his transport, he lost consciousness several times and was found to be in atrial fibrillation with intermittent runs of ventricular tachycardia during the unconscious periods...
November 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770051/quantification-and-identification-of-lightning-damage-in-tropical-forests
#11
Stephen P Yanoviak, Evan M Gora, Jeffrey M Burchfield, Phillip M Bitzer, Matteo Detto
Accurate estimates of tree mortality are essential for the development of mechanistic forest dynamics models, and for estimating carbon storage and cycling. However, identifying agents of tree mortality is difficult and imprecise. Although lightning kills thousands of trees each year and is an important agent of mortality in some forests, the frequency and distribution of lightning-caused tree death remain unknown for most forests. Moreover, because all evidence regarding the effects of lightning on trees is necessarily anecdotal and post hoc, rigorous tests of hypotheses regarding the ecological effects of lightning are impossible...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767532/cardiac-arrest-secondary-to-lightning-strike-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Elena L Rotariu, Mioara D Manole
Lightning strike injuries, although less common than electrical injuries, have a higher morbidity rate because of critical alterations of the circulatory system, respiratory system, and central nervous system. Most lightning-related deaths occur immediately after injury because of arrhythmia or respiratory failure. We describe the case of a pediatric patient who experienced cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to a lightning strike, where the Advanced Cardiac Life Support and Basic Life Support chain of survival was well executed, leading to return of spontaneous circulation and intact neurological survival...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738899/a-rare-manifestation-of-burns-after-lightning-strike-in-rural-ghana-a-case-report
#13
Paschal Awingura Apanga, John Atigiba Azumah, Joseph Bayewala Yiranbon
BACKGROUND: Lightning is a natural phenomenon that mostly affects countries in the tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, including Ghana. Lightning strikes pose a global public health issue. Although strikes to humans are uncommon, it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 10-year-old Ghanaian girl who got second-degree burns after being struck by lightning. She was put on an intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic (ceftriaxone), Ringer's lactate, and her burns were dressed with sterile gauze impregnated with Vaseline (petroleum jelly) and silver sulfadiazine ointment...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708378/synthesis-of-highly-conductive-uniformly-silver-coated-carbon-nanofibers-by-electroless-deposition
#14
Xavier Cauchy, Jolanta-Ewa Klemberg-Sapieha, Daniel Therriault
Noble-metal-coated carbon-based nanoparticles, when used as electrically conductive fillers, have the potential to provide excellent conductivity without the high weight and cost normally associated with metals such as silver and gold. To this effect, many attempts were made to deposit uniform metallic layers on core nanoparticles with an emphasis on silver for its high conductivity. The results so far were disheartening with the metal morphology being better described as a decoration than a coating with small effects on the electrical conductivity of the bulk particles...
August 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523435/cutaneous-manifestations-of-lightning-strike-variability-in-lichtenberg-figures
#15
Roger W Byard, Min Thu, John D Gilbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468350/field-measurements-of-sop-transients-in-opgw-with-time-and-location-correlation-to-lightning-strikes
#16
Douglas Charlton, Steven Clarke, David Doucet, Maurice O'Sullivan, Daniel L Peterson, Darryl Wilson, Glenn Wellbrock, Michel Bélanger
We monitored the state of polarization (SOP) of polarized light in an optical ground wire (OPGW) link located in North America using a test method and apparatus that measured Stokes space angular velocity and geographic location of SOP transients. We observed transients up to 5.1 Mrad/s and were able to correlate these events in both time and location to lightning strikes documented by the United States Precision Lightning Network (USPLN).
May 1, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467585/variations-in-otological-presentation-of-lightning-strike-victims-clinical-report-of-3-patients
#17
Erbil Kılıç, Hakan Genç, Ümit Aydın, Burak Aşık, Bülent Satar
Lightning strike can cause fatal or nonfatal injuries. Some nonfatal injuries are associated with otological symptoms and findings. Conductive hearing loss due to rupture of the tympanic membrane is the most common audiovestibular lesion of lightning strike. Various forms of sensorineural hearing loss and dizziness have also been reported. Presently described are 3 cases of lightning strike injury. First patient had mid-frequency hearing loss in right ear and high frequency sensorineural hearing loss in left ear...
March 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322263/causal-mechanisms-of-seismo-em-phenomena-during-the-1965-1967-matsushiro-earthquake-swarm
#18
Yuji Enomoto, Tsuneaki Yamabe, Nobuo Okumura
The 1965-1967 Matsushiro earthquake swarm in central Japan exhibited two unique characteristics. The first was a hydro-mechanical crust rupture resulting from degassing, volume expansion of CO2/water, and a crack opening within the critically stressed crust under a strike-slip stress. The other was, despite the lower total seismic energy, the occurrence of complexed seismo-electromagnetic (seismo-EM) phenomena of the geomagnetic intensity increase, unusual earthquake lights (EQLs) and atmospheric electric field (AEF) variations...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269072/development-of-a-head-phantom-and-measurement-setup-for-lightning-effects
#19
Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock
Direct lightning strikes to human heads lead to various effects ranging from Lichtenberg figures, over loss of consciousness to death. The evolution of the induced current distribution in the head is of great interest to understand the effect mechanisms. This work describes a technique to model a simplified head-phantom to investigate effects during direct lightning strike. The head-phantom geometry, conductive and dielectric parameters were chosen similar to that of a human head. Three layers (brain, skull, and scalp) were created for the phantom using agarose hydrogel doped with sodium chloride and carbon...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227291/development-of-a-head-phantom-and-measurement-setup-for-lightning-effects
#20
Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Rene Machts
Direct lightning strikes to human heads lead to various effects ranging from Lichtenberg figures, over loss of consciousness to death. The evolution of the induced current distribution in the head is of great interest to understand the effect mechanisms. This work describes a technique to model a simplified head-phantom to investigate effects during direct lightning strike. The head-phantom geometry, conductive and dielectric parameters were chosen similar to that of a human head. Three layers (brain, skull, and scalp) were created for the phantom using agarose hydrogel doped with sodium chloride and carbon...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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