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Matthew W Ethington, Larry D Galligan, Fred M Stephen
The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Marc-Antoine Marquis, Christina K Ullrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Yuanyuan Tian, Zhenhua Shuai, Jingjing Shen, Lei Zhang, Shufen Chen, Chunyuan Song, Baomin Zhao, Quli Fan, Lianhui Wang
A novel plasmonic heterodimer nanostructure with a controllable self-assembled hot spot is fabricated by the conjugation of individual Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes (Au@Ag NCs) and varisized gold nanospheres (GNSs) via the biotin-streptavidin interaction from the ensemble to the single-assembly level. Due to their featured configurations, three types of heterogeneous nanostructures referred to as Vertice, Vicinity, and Middle are proposed and a single hot spot forms between the nanocube and nanosphere, which exhibits distinct diversity in surface plasmon resonance effect...
May 7, 2018: Small
Neža Prezelj, Maja Trošt, Dejan Georgiev, Dušan Flisar
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment option for advanced stages of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. It is known that DBS is susceptible to strong electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that can be generated by various electrical devices at work, home, and in medical environments. EMFs can interfere with the proper functioning of implantable pulse generators (IPGs). Very strong EMFs can generate induction currents in implanted electrodes and even damage the brain. Manufacturers of DBS devices have issued a list of warnings on how to avoid this danger...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
M Di Renzo, J Urzay
Self-induced electricity, including lightning, is often observed in dusty atmospheres. However, the physical mechanisms leading to this phenomenon remain elusive as they are remarkably challenging to determine due to the high complexity of the multi-phase turbulent flows involved. Using a fast multi-pole method in direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence laden with hundreds of millions of inertial particles, here we show that mesoscopic electric fields can be aerodynamically created in bi-disperse suspensions of oppositely charged particles...
April 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Alexander P Houser, Shane L Larson, Julia S Fast
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Zibo Zheng, Nan Cui, Hengying Xu, Xiaoguang Zhang, Wenbo Zhang, Lixia Xi, Yuanyuan Fang, Liangchuan Li
A window-split frequency domain Kalman scheme is proposed in this paper for the equalization of large polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and ultra-fast rotation of state-of-polarization (RSOP) which is an extreme environment due to the Kerr effect and the Faraday effect under the lightning strike near the fiber cables. In order to carry out the proposed Kalman scheme, we give a simplified and equivalent fiber channel model as a replacement for the general model of the polarization effect of the co-existence of PMD and RSOP...
March 19, 2018: Optics Express
Yoichi Ogata, Anatoliy Vorobyev, Chunlei Guo
We investigated the optical third harmonic generation (THG) signal from nanostructure-covered microcubes on Ni. We found that the hierarchical structures greatly change the third-order optical nonlinearity of the metallic surface. While the symmetry and lightning rod (LR) effects on microstructures did not significantly influence the THG, the localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect on the nanostructures enhanced it. By removing the nanostructures on the hierarchical structures, THG intensity could be strongly suppressed...
March 27, 2018: Materials
Andrew Mezentsev, Nikolai Lehtinen, Nikolai Østgaard, F J Pérez-Invernón, Steven A Cummer
We compared the modeled energy spectral density of very low frequency (VLF) radio emissions from terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) with the energy spectral density of VLF radio sferics recorded by Duke VLF receiver simultaneously with those TGFs. In total, six events with world wide lightning location network (WWLLN) defined locations were analyzed to exhibit a good fit between the modeled and observed energy spectral densities. In VLF range the energy spectral density of the TGF source current moment is found to be dominated by the contribution of secondary low-energy electrons and independent of the relativistic electrons which play their role in low-frequency (LF) range...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Michael Peterson, Scott Rudlosky, Wiebke Deierling
This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical lightning flashes observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Wonjae Lee, Andrei H Gheorghe, Konstantin Tiurev, Tuomas Ollikainen, Mikko Möttönen, David S Hall
Classical electromagnetism and quantum mechanics are both central to the modern understanding of the physical world and its ongoing technological development. Quantum simulations of electromagnetic forces have the potential to provide information about materials and systems that do not have conveniently solvable theoretical descriptions, such as those related to quantum Hall physics, or that have not been physically observed, such as magnetic monopoles. However, quantum simulations that simultaneously implement all of the principal features of classical electromagnetism have thus far proved elusive...
March 2018: Science Advances
Pavlo Kochkin, A P J van Deursen, M Marisaldi, A Ursi, A I de Boer, M Bardet, C Allasia, J-F Boissin, F Flourens, N Østgaard
An Airbus A340 aircraft flew over Northern Australia with the In-Flight Lightning Damage Assessment System (ILDAS) installed onboard. A long-duration gamma ray emission was detected. The most intense emission was observed at 12 km altitude and lasted for 20 s. Its intensity was 20 times the background counts, and it was abruptly terminated by a distant lightning flash. In this work we reconstruct the aircraft path and event timeline. The glow-terminating flash triggered a discharge from the aircraft wing that was recorded by a video camera operating onboard...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Andreas Kainz, Harald Steiner, Johannes Schalko, Artur Jachimowicz, Franz Kohl, Michael Stifter, Roman Beigelbeck, Franz Keplinger, Wilfried Hortschitz
Small-scale and distortion-free measurement of electric fields is crucial for applications such as surveying atmospheric electrostatic fields, lightning research, and safeguarding areas close to high-voltage power lines. A variety of measurement systems exist, the most common of which are field mills, which work by picking up the differential voltage of the measurement electrodes while periodically shielding them with a grounded electrode. However, all current approaches are either bulky, suffer from a strong temperature dependency, or severely distort the electric field requiring a well-defined surrounding and complex calibration procedures...
January 8, 2018: Nature electronics
Ivana Kolmašová, Ondřej Santolík, Eric Defer, William Rison, Sylvain Coquillat, Stéphane Pedeboy, Radek Lán, Luděk Uhlíř, Dominique Lambert, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Serge Prieur, Véronique Pont
We analyze lightning initiation process using magnetic field waveforms of preliminary breakdown (PB) pulses observed at time scales of a few tens of microseconds by a broad-band receiver. We compare these pulses with sources of narrow-band very high frequency (VHF) radiation at 60-66 MHz recorded by two separate Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMAs). We find that almost none of the observed PB pulses correspond to geo-located VHF radiation sources, in agreement with previous results and with the hypothesis that processes generating VHF radiation and PB pulses are only weakly related...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiangdong Guo, Hai Hu, Baoxin Liao, Xing Zhu, Xiaoxia Yang, Qing Dai
Graphene plasmon with extremely strong light confinement and tunable resonance frequency represents a promising surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) sensing platform. However, plasmonic absorption is relatively weak (approximately 1%-9%) in monolayer graphene nanostructures, which would limit its sensitivity. Here, we theoretically propose a hybrid plasmon-metamaterial structure that can realize perfect absorption in graphene with a low carrier mobility of 1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 . This structure combines a gold reflector and a gold grating to the graphene plasmon structures, which introduce interference effect and the lightning-rod effect, respectively, and largely enhance the coupling of light to graphene...
May 4, 2018: Nanotechnology
C Suresh, H Nagabhushana, R B Basavaraj, G P Darshan, D Kavyashree, B Daruka Prasad, S C Sharma, R Vanithamani
For the first time, intense red color composite of SiO2 @LaOF:Eu3+ core-shell nanostructures (NS) were fabricated via facile solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. The obtained core-shell particles display better spherical shape and non-agglomeration with a narrow size distribution. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra exhibits intense peaks at ∼593 nm, 611 nm, 650 nm corresponds to 5 D0  → 7 FJ (J = 0, 1 and 2) Eu3+ transitions respectively. The spectral intensity parameters and Eu-O ligand behaviors are estimated by means of Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Marc Blancher, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R Wheeler, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, Peter Paal
Blancher, Marc, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R. Wheeler III, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, and Peter Paal. Management of multi-casualty incidents in mountain rescue. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. INTRODUCTION: Multi-Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur in mountain areas. Little is known about the incidence and character of such events, and the kind of rescue response. Therefore, the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM) set out to provide recommendations for the management of MCI in mountain areas...
February 15, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Alisha Floyd, Ashwin Lal, Kimberly Molina, Michael Puchalski, Dylan Miller, Lindsay May
Myocarditis is an important but incompletely understood cause of cardiac dysfunction. Children with fulminant myocarditis often require inotropic or mechanical circulatory support, and researchers in some studies suggest that up to 42% of children who die suddenly have evidence of myocarditis. Recurrent myocarditis is extremely rare, and the vast majority of reported cases involve adult patients. Pediatric providers who suspect a recurrence of myocarditis have limited evidence to guide patient management because the literature in this domain is sparse...
February 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Christopher H Rashidifard, Hani A Mayassi, Chelsea M Bush, Brian M Opalacz, Mark W Richardson, Paul M Muccino, Thomas G DiPasquale
BACKGROUND: Defects in sterile surgical wrapping are identified by the presence of holes through which light can be seen. However, it is unknown how reliably the human eye can detect these defects. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to determine (1) how often holes in sterile packaging of various sizes could be detected; and (2) whether differences in lighting, experience level of the observer, or time spent inspecting the packaging were associated with improved likelihood of detection of holes in sterile packaging...
May 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Serge Mordon, Anne S Vignion-Dewalle, Elise Thecua, Claire Vicentini, Cyril Maire, Pascal Deleporte, Gregory Baert, Fabienne Lecomte, Laurent Mortier
Natural DayLight-mediated PhotoDynamic Therapy (NDL-PDT) is an efficacious treatment option for thin actinic keratosis that offers advantages over conventional PDT in terms of tolerability, treatment duration, and cost. It is now accepted that the minimum criteria required for effective NDL-PDT is a dose of 4 J/cm2 with a treatment time of 2 h and a minimum temperature of 10°C, corresponding to a minimum illuminance of 11 000 lux. This value is easily achievable: 20 000 lux can be obtained during a typical overcast day at midday...
February 7, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
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