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K Genareau, P Gharghabi, J Gafford, M Mazzola
Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Farah Adilah Jamaludin, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab-Kadir, Mahdi Izadi, Norhafiz Azis, Jasronita Jasni, Muhammad Syahmi Abd-Rahman
Located near the equator, Malaysia is a country with one of the highest lightning densities in the world. Lightning contributes to 70% of the power outages in Malaysia and affects power equipment, automated network systems, causes data losses and monetary losses in the nation. Therefore, consideration of insulator evaluation under lightning impulses can be crucial to evaluate and attempt to overcome this issue. This paper presents a new approach to increase the electrical performance of polymer insulators using a Room Temperature Vulcanisation (RTV) coating...
2017: PloS One
Christopher J Andrews, Andrew D Reisner, Mary Ann Cooper
In the past, victims of electrical and lightning injuries have been assessed in a manner lacking a systematic formulation, and against ad hoc criteria, particularly in the area of neuropsychological disability. In this manner patients have, for example, only been partially treated, been poorly or incorrectly diagnosed, and have been denied the full benefit of compensation for their injuries. This paper contains a proposal for diagnostic criteria particularly for the neuropsychological aspects of the post injury syndrome...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Evan M Gora, Phillip M Bitzer, Jeffrey C Burchfield, Stefan A Schnitzer, Stephen P Yanoviak
The effects of lightning on trees range from catastrophic death to the absence of observable damage. Such differences may be predictable among tree species, and more generally among plant life history strategies and growth forms. We used field-collected electrical resistivity data in temperate and tropical forests to model how the distribution of power from a lightning discharge varies with tree size and identity, and with the presence of lianas. Estimated heating density (heat generated per volume of tree tissue) and maximum power (maximum rate of heating) from a standardized lightning discharge differed 300% among tree species...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Alfonso S López Chiriboga, William P Cheshire
Lightning and other electrical incidents are responsible for more than 300 injuries and 100 deaths per year in the United States alone. Lightning strikes can cause a wide spectrum of neurologic manifestations affecting any part of the neuraxis through direct strikes, side flashes, touch voltage, connecting leaders, or acoustic shock waves. This article describes the first case of trigeminal neuralgia induced by lightning injury to the trigeminal nerve, thereby adding a new syndrome to the list of possible lightning-mediated neurologic injuries...
October 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
Margarida M Santana, Juan M Gonzalez, Cristina Cruz
Many publications highlight the importance of nitric oxide (NO) in plant-bacteria interactions, either in the promotion of health and plant growth or in pathogenesis. However, the role of NO in the signaling between bacteria and plants and in the fate of their interaction, as well as the reconstruction of their interactive evolution, remains largely unknown. Despite the complexity of the evolution of life on Earth, we explore the hypothesis that denitrification and aerobic respiration were responsible for local NO accumulation, which triggered primordial antagonistic biotic interactions, namely the first phytopathogenic interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ondřej Santolík, Ivana Kolmašová
All lightning strokes generate electromagnetic pulses -atmospherics- which can travel over distances of thousands of kilometers. Night-side atmospherics show typical frequency dispersion signatures caused by sub-ionospheric propagation. Their analysis can be used to determine the distance to the source lightning, and therefore it represents a safe tool for investigation of distant thunderstorms, as well as for indirect observations of the lower ionosphere. However, such analysis has never been done on the dayside...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
DongHwan Cha, Xin Wang, Jeong Woo Kim
Hotspot analysis was implemented to find regions in the province of Alberta (Canada) with high frequency Cloud to Ground (CG) lightning strikes clustered together. Generally, hotspot regions are located in the central, central east, and south central regions of the study region. About 94% of annual lightning occurred during warm months (June to August) and the daily lightning frequency was influenced by the diurnal heating cycle. The association rule mining technique was used to investigate frequent CG lightning patterns, which were verified by similarity measurement to check the patterns' consistency...
October 23, 2017: Sensors
Yaru Jia, Lei Zhang, Liping Song, Liwei Dai, Xuefei Lu, Youju Huang, Jiawei Zhang, Zhiyong Guo, Tao Chen
Sensitivity and reproducibility are two major concerns to improve the performance and extend the range of practical applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A theoretical report reveals that hot spots formed by gold nanoparticles with a tip-to-tip configuration would generate the maximum electric field enhancement because of the lightning rod effect. In our present study, we constructed a giant vesicle consisting of anchored tiny gold nanowires to provide a high density of sharp tip-to-tip nanogaps for SERS application...
November 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Victor Pozzobon, Patrick Perre
This work provides a model and the associated set of parameters allowing for microalgae population growth computation under intermittent lightning. Han's model is coupled with a simple microalgae growth model to yield a relationship between illumination and population growth. The model parameters were obtained by fitting a dataset available in literature using Particle Swarm Optimization method. In their work, authors grew microalgae in excess of nutrients under flashing conditions. Light/dark cycles used for these experimentations are quite close to those found in photobioreactor, i...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Dagmar Amtmann, Fraser D Bocell, Kara McMullen, Alyssa M Bamer, Kurt L Johnson, Shelley Wiechman, Jeffrey C Schneider
OBJECTIVES: To examine trajectories of satisfaction with life (SWL) of burn survivors over time and their clinical, demographic and other predictors. DESIGN: Longitudinal survey. SETTING: N/A. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals 18 and over who underwent burn-related surgery and met one of the following criteria: (1) > 10% total burn surface area (TBSA) burn and ≥ 65 years of age; (2) > 20% TBSA burn and 18 to 64 years of age; (3) electrical high voltage/lightning injury; or (4) burn injury to the hands, face, or feet...
October 16, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Sean D Smith, Joseph K Kawash, Andrey Grigoriev
Current human whole genome sequencing projects produce massive amounts of data, often creating significant computational challenges. Different approaches have been developed for each type of genome variant and method of its detection, necessitating users to run multiple algorithms to find variants. We present Genome Rearrangement OmniMapper (GROM), a novel comprehensive variant detection algorithm accepting aligned read files as input and finding SNVs, indels, structural variants (SVs), and copy number variants (CNVs)...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
Michael L Wong, Benjamin D Charnay, Peter Gao, Yuk L Yung, Michael J Russell
We quantify the amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) produced through lightning and photochemical processes in the Hadean atmosphere to be available in the Hadean ocean for the emergence of life. Atmospherically generated nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) are the most attractive high-potential electron acceptors for pulling and enabling crucial redox reactions of autotrophic metabolic pathways at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents. The Hadean atmosphere, dominated by CO2 and N2, will produce nitric oxide (NO) when shocked by lightning...
October 12, 2017: Astrobiology
Theodoros Christophides, Sarosh Khan, Mahmood Ahmad, Hossam Fayed, Richard Bogle
Lightning strikes are a common and leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Multiple organ systems can be involved, though the effects of the electrical current on the cardiovascular system are one of the main modes leading to cardiorespiratory arrest in these patients. Cardiac effects of lightning strikes can be transient or persistent, and include benign or life-threatening arrhythmias, inappropriate therapies from cardiac implantable electronic devices, cardiac ischaemia, myocardial contusion, pericardial disease, aortic injury, as well as cardiomyopathy with associated ventricular failure...
August 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
Alexander Broberg Skeltved, Nikolai Østgaard, Andrew Mezentsev, Nikolai Lehtinen, Brant Carlson
Several computer models exist to explain the observation of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). Some of these models estimate the electric field ahead of lightning leaders and its effects on electron acceleration and multiplication. In this paper, we derive a new set of constraints to do more realistic modeling. We determine initial conditions based on in situ measurements of electric field and vertical separation between the main charge layers of thunderclouds. A maximum electric field strength of 50 kV/cm at sea level is introduced as the upper constraint for the leader electric field...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Ali Altalhi, Waleed Al-Manea, Naif Alqweai, Mohammed Alothman
Lightning strikes cause severe injuries and fatalities. Injuries vary from self-limiting skin manifestations to cardiac arrest and death. Because the event is sudden and unpredictable, assessment of the direct effects of the lightning on the human heart is usually impossible. In this case, a 16-year old boy who had an implanted loop recorder subcutaneous cardiac monitor was hit by lightning during a picnic and survived. A cardiac rhythm strip was recorded live during the strike. SIMILAR CASES PUBLISHED: 0...
September 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Hiroaki Kishikawa, Zen'ichiro Wajima, Toshiro Shitara, Toru Shimizu, Hitoshi Adachi, Atsuhiro Sakamoto
Deafferentation pain induced by subarachnoid block (SAB) is rare, but it can appear in the form of recurrent phantom lower limb pain, new acute-onset stump pain in amputees, lower limb pain in patients with tabes dorsalis, and neuropathic pain. We have previously reported that thiopental is an effective treatment for deafferentation pain induced by therapeutic SAB applied to treat neuropathic pain of central origin. Here, we report the case of an amputee who developed new stump pain in his lower limb immediately after subarachnoid tetracaine was administered prior to appendectomy...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
E S Obukhova, O V Zhukova, E A Khizhkin, I A Vinogradova, V A Ilukha
The age dynamics of ovulatory function of rats which were kept in conditions of light deprivation and receiving luzindol (a blocker the melatonin receptors) is investigated in this research. Cytological research of an estrous cycle was conducted quarterly within two years. It is defined that the age changes of an ovulatory cycle in the mode of light deprivation came later and were less expressed in comparison with similar changes at control rat females kept in the conditions of standard lightning. In case of the blockade of melatonin receptors by luzindol, the dynamics of aging of reproductive system corresponded to the one in the control group kept in standard lightning mode...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Viacheslav I Kharuk, Mariya L Dvinskaya, Ilya A Petrov, Sergei T Im, Kenneth J Ranson
Fire history within the northern larch forests of Central Siberia was studied (65+°N). Fires within this area are predominantly caused by lightning strikes rather than human activity. Mean fire return intervals (FRI) were found to be 112 ± 49 years (based on fire scars) and 106 ± 36 years (based on fire scars and tree natality dates). FRI were increased with latitude increase, and observed to be about 80 years at 64°N, about 200 years near the Arctic Circle, and about 300 years nearby the northern range limit of larch stands (~71°+N)...
December 2016: Regional Environmental Change
Anelí Bongers
A recent strategy carried out by the aircraft industry to reduce the total cost of the new generation fighters has consisted in the development of a single airframe with different technical and operational specifications. This strategy has been designed to reduce costs in the Research, Design and Development phase with the ultimate objective of reducing the final unit price per aircraft. This is the case of the F-35 Lightning II, where three versions, with significant differences among them, are produced simultaneously based on a single airframe...
2017: PloS One
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