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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893181/synaesthesia-lost-and-found-two-cases-of-person-and-music-colour-synaesthesia
#1
Francesca R Farina, Kevin J Mitchell, Richard A P Roche
Synaesthesia is a developmental condition involving cross-communication between sensory modalities or substreams whereby an inducer (e.g. a sound) automatically evokes a concurrent percept in another modality (e.g. a colour). Whether this condition arises due to atypical structural connectivity (e.g., between normally unconnected cortical areas) or altered neurochemistry remains a central question. We report the exceptional cases of two synaesthetes - subjects AB and CD - both of whom experience coloured auras around individuals, as well as coloured perceptions in response to music...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884788/the-virtual-dissecting-room-creating-highly-detailed-anatomy-models-for-educational-purposes
#2
Marijn Zilverschoon, Koen L Vincken, Ronald L A W Bleys
INTRODUCTION: Virtual 3D models are powerful tools for teaching anatomy. At the present day, there are a lot of different digital anatomy models, most of these commercial applications are based on a 3D model of a human body reconstructed from images with a 1 millimeter intervals. The use of even smaller intervals may result in more details and more realistic appearances of 3D anatomy models. The aim of this study was to create a realistic and highly detailed 3D model of the hand and wrist based on small interval cross-sectional images, suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching purposes with the possibility to perform a virtual dissection in an educational application...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876858/multi-functional-carbon-fibre-composites-using-carbon-nanotubes-as-an-alternative-to-polymer-sizing
#3
T R Pozegic, J V Anguita, I Hamerton, K D G I Jayawardena, J-S Chen, V Stolojan, P Ballocchi, R Walsh, S R P Silva
Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867785/lightning-mapping-array-flash-detection-performance-with-variable-receiver-thresholds
#4
Vanna C Chmielewski, Eric C Bruning
This study characterizes Lightning Mapping Array performance for networks that participated in the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field program using new Monte Carlo and curvature matrix model simulations. These open-source simulation tools are readily adapted to real-time operations or detailed studies of performance. Each simulation accounted for receiver threshold and location, as well as a reference distribution of source powers and flash sizes based on thunderstorm observations and the mechanics of station triggering...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867780/observation-of-intrinsically-bright-terrestrial-gamma-ray-flashes-from-the-mediterranean-basin
#5
T Gjesteland, N Østgaard, S Laviola, M M Miglietta, E Arnone, M Marisaldi, F Fuschino, A B Collier, F Fabró, J Montanya
 We present three terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) observed over the Mediterranean basin by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) satellite. Since the occurrence of these events in the Mediterranean region is quite rare, the characterization of the events was optimized by combining different approaches in order to better define the cloud of origin. The TGFs on 7 November 2004 and 16 October 2006 came from clouds with cloud top higher than 10-12 km where often a strong penetration into the stratosphere is found...
December 16, 2015: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859135/why-do-trees-die-characterizing-the-drivers-of-background-tree-mortality
#6
Adrian J Das, Nathan L Stephenson, Kristin P Davis
The drivers of background tree mortality rates-the typical low rates of tree mortality found in forests in the absence of acute stresses like drought-are central to our understanding of forest dynamics, the effects of ongoing environmental changes on forests, and the causes and consequences of geographical gradients in the nature and strength of biotic interactions. To shed light on factors contributing to background tree mortality, we analyzed detailed pathological data from 200,668 tree-years of observation and 3,729 individual tree deaths, recorded over a 13-yr period in a network of old-growth forest plots in California's Sierra Nevada mountain range...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831943/a-unusual-lightning-death-in-an-indoor-setting-a-case-report
#7
Francesco Ventura, Rosario Barranco, Alessandro Bonsignore, Francesco De Stefano
Death due to lightning strikes is infrequent, above all indoors. Some cases may take on a medical legal interest due to the unusual and uncommon circumstances in which they occur. The authors report an extremely rare case of electrocution occurred inside a house in a rural area. A 53-year-old man was reached by an electrical discharge originating from lightning while he was doing renovation work on a cottage. In this case, the correct interpretation of the autopsy and histological aspects and the attentive analysis of the circumstantial and environmental data led to the correct diagnosis of death and to the reconstruction of the dynamics with which it occurred...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809401/lagged-cumulative-spruce-budworm-defoliation-affects-the-risk-of-fire-ignition-in-ontario-canada
#8
Patrick M A James, Louis-Etienne Robert, B M Wotton, David L Martell, Richard A Fleming
Detailed understanding of forest disturbance interactions is needed for effective forecasting, modelling, and management. Insect outbreaks are a significant forest disturbance that alters forest structure as well as the distribution and connectivity of combustible fuels at broad spatial scales. The effect of insect outbreaks on fire activity is an important but contentious issue with significant policy consequences. The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a native defoliating insect in eastern North America whose periodic outbreaks create large patches of dead fir and spruce trees...
November 3, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790641/frequency-domain-model-for-transient-analysis-of-lightning-protection-systems-of-buildings
#9
Pablo Gómez
A frequency domain modeling approach for lightning protection systems (LPS) of buildings is described and validated in this paper. The model is based on a 2-port transmission line representation of each conductor, and the further assembling of a network representing the complete structure. Horizontal and vertical conductors are modeled using formulas based on the complex images method, in order to take into account frequency dependence. Variation of electrical parameters with height is also considered for vertical conductors...
October 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774368/radio-emissions-from-double-rhessi-tgfs
#10
Andrew Mezentsev, Nikolai Østgaard, Thomas Gjesteland, Kjetil Albrechtsen, Nikolai Lehtinen, Martino Marisaldi, David Smith, Steven Cummer
A detailed analysis of Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) is performed in association with World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) sources and very low frequency (VLF) sferics recorded at Duke University. RHESSI clock offset is evaluated and found to experience changes on the 5 August 2005 and 21 October 2013, based on the analysis of TGF-WWLLN matches. The clock offsets were found for all three periods of observations with standard deviations less than 100 μs...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773951/enhanced-detection-of-terrestrial-gamma-ray-flashes-by-agile
#11
M Marisaldi, A Argan, A Ursi, T Gjesteland, F Fuschino, C Labanti, M Galli, M Tavani, C Pittori, F Verrecchia, F D'Amico, N Østgaard, S Mereghetti, R Campana, P W Cattaneo, A Bulgarelli, S Colafrancesco, S Dietrich, F Longo, F Gianotti, P Giommi, A Rappoldi, M Trifoglio, A Trois
At the end of March 2015 the onboard software configuration of the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite was modified in order to disable the veto signal of the anticoincidence shield for the minicalorimeter instrument. The motivation for such a change was the understanding that the dead time induced by the anticoincidence prevented the detection of a large fraction of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs). The configuration change was highly successful resulting in an increase of one order of magnitude in TGF detection rate...
November 16, 2015: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773308/dual-color-emitting-eu-doped-strontium-orthosilicate-phosphors-synthesized-by-bio-template-assisted-ultrasound-for-solid-state-lightning-and-display-applications
#12
M Venkataravanappa, H Nagabhushana, B Daruka Prasad, G P Darshan, R B Basavaraj, G R Vijayakumar
A novel Sr2SiO4:Eu (1-5mol %) superstructures (SS) were synthesized using bio-sacrificial A.V. gel assisted ultrasound method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of both α and β phase formation. It was evident that the morphological growth was highly reliant on A.V. gel concentration, sonication time, pH and sonication power. The formation mechanisms for different hierarchical SS were proposed. From diffuse reflectance spectra, the energy band gap was estimated and found to be ∼4.70-5...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764751/forensic-examination-after-exhumation-contribution-and-difficulties-after-more-than-thirty-years-of-burial
#13
Y Nouma, W Ben Amar, M Zribi, S Bardaa, Z Hammami, S Maatoug
We report a case of a Tunisian footballer who was found dead abroad under suspicious circumstances. The cause of death was, originally, attributed to a lightning strike. The corpse was buried without/autopsy. Over thirty years later, the family requested the exhumation to verify the identity and the cause of death. The exhumation was performed in 2011. DNA profiling from teeth and femur bone samples confirmed the identity of the deceased. The dry bone study revealed defects in the skull and the pelvis evoking firearm injuries...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700137/carbon-monoxide-and-the-potential-for-prebiotic-chemistry-on-habitable-planets-around-main-sequence-m-stars
#14
J Manik Nava-Sedeño, Adrian Ortiz-Cervantes, Antígona Segura, Shawn D Domagal-Goldman
Lifeless planets with CO2 atmospheres produce CO by CO2 photolysis. On planets around M dwarfs, CO is a long-lived atmospheric compound, as long as UV emission due to the star's chromospheric activity lasts, and the sink of CO and O2 in seawater is small compared to its atmospheric production. Atmospheres containing reduced compounds, like CO, may undergo further energetic and chemical processing to give rise to organic compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. We calculated the yield of organic compounds from CO2-rich atmospheres of planets orbiting M dwarf stars, which were previously simulated by Domagal-Goldman et al...
October 4, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665937/measuring-method-for-lightning-channel-temperature
#15
X Li, J Zhang, L Chen, Q Xue, R Zhu
In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612326/press-pulse-interactions-effects-of-warming-n-deposition-altered-winter-precipitation-and-fire-on-desert-grassland-community-structure-and-dynamics
#16
Scott L Collins, Laura M Ladwig, Matthew D Petrie, Sydney K Jones, John M Mulhouse, James R Thibault, William T Pockman
Global environmental change is altering temperature, precipitation patterns, resource availability, and disturbance regimes. Theory predicts that ecological presses will interact with pulse events to alter ecosystem structure and function. In 2006, we established a long-term, multifactor global change experiment to determine the interactive effects of nighttime warming, increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, and increased winter precipitation on plant community structure and aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in a northern Chihuahuan Desert grassland...
September 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601121/a-follow-up-study-of-a-large-group-of-children-struck-by-lightning
#17
Lynette Mary Ann Silva, Mary Ann Cooper, Ryan Blumenthal, Neil Pliskin
BACKGROUND: On 11 November 1994, 26 preadolescent girls, 2 adult supervisors and 7 dogs were sleeping in a tent in rural South Africa when the tent was struck by lightning. Four of the girls and 4 of the dogs were killed. The 2 adults were unharmed, but all but 3 of the children suffered significant injuries. An article in 2002 detailed the event and examined the medical and psychological changes in the surviving girls. OBJECTIVE: To understand the medical and psychological changes secondary to lightning strike years after injury...
September 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598325/some-wildfire-ignition-causes-pose-more-risk-of-destroying-houses-than-others
#18
Kathryn M Collins, Trent D Penman, Owen F Price
Many houses are at risk of being destroyed by wildfires. While previous studies have improved our understanding of how, when and why houses are destroyed by wildfires, little attention has been given to how these fires started. We compiled a dataset of wildfires that destroyed houses in New South Wales and Victoria and, by comparing against wildfires where no houses were destroyed, investigated the relationship between the distribution of ignition causes for wildfires that did and did not destroy houses. Powerlines, lightning and deliberate ignitions are the main causes of wildfires that destroyed houses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583574/nitrogen-in-ancient-mud-a-biosignature
#19
Eva E Stüeken
UNLABELLED: Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all life on Earth and possibly elsewhere. Burial of nitrogen bound to organic matter constitutes the major flux of nitrogen into sediments today, which has led to the inference that nitrogen enrichments in sedimentary rocks may be a biosignature. However, abiotic processes such as lightning or volcanism can fix atmospheric N2 and contribute to sedimentary nitrogen burial in the absence of life. It is therefore uncertain whether observed nitrogen enrichments of up to 430 ppm in Paleoarchean metasedimentary biotite grains are indeed biogenic...
September 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578342/-when-the-skies-fight-hiv-violence-and-pathways-of-precarity-in-south-africa
#20
Elizabeth Mills
Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence. These linked forms of violence are discussed in light of the concept of precarity...
May 2016: Reproductive Health Matters
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