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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269072/development-of-a-head-phantom-and-measurement-setup-for-lightning-effects
#1
Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock
Direct lightning strikes to human heads lead to various effects ranging from Lichtenberg figures, over loss of consciousness to death. The evolution of the induced current distribution in the head is of great interest to understand the effect mechanisms. This work describes a technique to model a simplified head-phantom to investigate effects during direct lightning strike. The head-phantom geometry, conductive and dielectric parameters were chosen similar to that of a human head. Three layers (brain, skull, and scalp) were created for the phantom using agarose hydrogel doped with sodium chloride and carbon...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252424/the-peculiarities-of-treatment-of-uncomplicated-and-complicated-dental-injuries-caused-by-trauma
#2
M Mamaladze, N Nizharadze, O Vadachkoria
Trauma related injuries of permanent teeth occur frequently and are the most pressing issue the dentists are facing today. In different age groups the same type of trauma affects the teeth with different frequencies. For instance, accident related dental trauma in children and adults affected permanent teeth in 30% and deciduous teeth in 20%, respectively. It should also be noted that front teeth are more susceptible to traumatic injuries compared to the incisors. Upper front teeth were injured in 72% of cases, while lower central, upper lateral incisors, canines and premolars only in 6-8%...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242690/human-started-wildfires-expand-the-fire-niche-across-the-united-states
#3
Jennifer K Balch, Bethany A Bradley, John T Abatzoglou, R Chelsea Nagy, Emily J Fusco, Adam L Mahood
The economic and ecological costs of wildfire in the United States have risen substantially in recent decades. Although climate change has likely enabled a portion of the increase in wildfire activity, the direct role of people in increasing wildfire activity has been largely overlooked. We evaluate over 1.5 million government records of wildfires that had to be extinguished or managed by state or federal agencies from 1992 to 2012, and examined geographic and seasonal extents of human-ignited wildfires relative to lightning-ignited wildfires...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227291/development-of-a-head-phantom-and-measurement-setup-for-lightning-effects
#4
Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Rene Machts
Direct lightning strikes to human heads lead to various effects ranging from Lichtenberg figures, over loss of consciousness to death. The evolution of the induced current distribution in the head is of great interest to understand the effect mechanisms. This work describes a technique to model a simplified head-phantom to investigate effects during direct lightning strike. The head-phantom geometry, conductive and dielectric parameters were chosen similar to that of a human head. Three layers (brain, skull, and scalp) were created for the phantom using agarose hydrogel doped with sodium chloride and carbon...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190442/neurologic-complications-of-acute-environmental-injuries
#5
I R F da Silva, J A Frontera
Environmental injuries can result in serious neurologic morbidity. This chapter reviews neurologic complications of thermal burns, smoke inhalation, lightning strikes, electric injury, near drowning, decompression illness, as well as heat stroke and accidental hypothermia. Knowing the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of such injuries is essential to proper management of primary and secondary medical complications. This chapter highlights the most frequently encountered neurologic injuries secondary to common environmental hazards, divided into the topics: injuries related to fire, electricity, water, and the extremes of temperature...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164145/multi-organ-injuries-due-to-a-lightning-strike-a-case-report-highlighting-the-importance-of-a-multi-disciplinary-approach
#6
Marlene Tadler, Eva Rüegg, Marc Niquille, Baris Gencer, Oliver P Gautschi, Brigitte Pittet-Cuénod, Ali Modarressi
The interdisciplinary management of patients with multiple organ injuries after lightning strike is of paramount importance. Cutaneous burns can be associated to other organ injuries requiring emergency and life-support treatment. We report the case of a lightning strike victim who presented with burns as well as cardiologic and neurologic complications.
2017: Case Reports in Plastic Surgery & Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128880/single-cell-proteomics-in-biomedicine-high-dimensional-data-acquisition-visualization-and-analysis
#7
Yapeng Su, Qihui Shi, Wei Wei
New insights on cellular heterogeneity in the last decade provoke the development of a variety of single cell omics tools at a lightning pace. The resultant high-dimensional single cell data generated by these tools require new theoretical approaches and analytical algorithms for effective visualization and interpretation. In this review, we briefly survey the state-of-the-art single cell proteomic tools with a particular focus on data acquisition and quantification, followed by an elaboration of a number of statistical and computational approaches developed to date for dissecting the high-dimensional single cell data...
January 27, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125937/thoracic-compression-myelopathy-due-to-the-progression-of-dystrophic-scoliosis-the-presence-of-a-paraspinal-tumor-and-high-and-excessive-amplitude-movement-of-the-shoulder
#8
Takashi Kurosawa, Takashi Yurube, Kenichiro Kakutani, Koichiro Maeno, Koki Uno, Masahiro Kurosaka, Kotaro Nishida
The authors present a case of 45-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and thoracic scoliosis, previously undergoing fusion surgery, who developed myelopathy. This patient further complained of lightning pain when he extended and horizontally abducted the convex-side shoulder. Radiological examination revealed the progression of dystrophic scoliosis with opened spinal canals and the presence of a neurofibroma behind the spinal cord at the apical levels. Delayed development of spinal instability can occur due to dystrophy even postoperatively in patients with NF-1...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114174/case-report-lightning-induced-pneumomediastinum
#9
Ryan Blumenthal, Gert Saayman
We present the case of a 41-year-old woman who was fatally injured during a witnessed lightning strike event and in whom autopsy revealed the unusual keraunopathological finding of overt pneumomediastinum. The possible pathophysiological mechanism(s) of causation of this phenomenon are discussed, with specific reference also to the "Macklin" effect and the role of blast overpressures associated with lightning strike. It is suggested that the latter may lead to sudden alveolar rupture, with subsequent rapid tracking of air along bronchovascular sheaths in a centripetal manner toward the hilum of the lung and thus into the mediastinum...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053312/laser-guided-energetic-discharges-over-large-air-gaps-by-electric-field-enhanced-plasma-filaments
#10
Francis Théberge, Jean-François Daigle, Jean-Claude Kieffer, François Vidal, Marc Châteauneuf
Recent works on plasma channels produced during the propagation of ultrashort and intense laser pulses in air demonstrated the guiding of electric discharges along the laser path. However, the short plasma lifetime limits the length of the laser-guided discharge. In this paper, the conductivity and lifetime of long plasma channels produced by ultrashort laser pulses is enhanced efficiently over many orders of magnitude by the electric field of a hybrid AC-DC high-voltage source. The AC electric pulse from a Tesla coil allowed to stimulate and maintain the highly conductive channel during few milliseconds in order to guide a subsequent 500 times more energetic discharge from a 30-kV DC source...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040319/fracture-of-the-femoral-component-after-a-lightning-strike-injury-a-case-report
#11
Xavier Lizano-Díez, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Alfonso León-García, Fernando Marqués-López
A fracture of the stem in a total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an uncommon complication. We report a case of femoral stem fracture in a 55-year-old male patient after a lightning strike. A revision was conducted using a Wagner osteotomy and a revision prosthesis. Dall-Milles cerclages were used to close the osteotomy. The postoperative evolution was satisfactory, with an immediate partial weight bearing, consolidation of the osteotomy after three months and return to daily activity without pain.
January 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028416/right-hemispheric-leukoencephalopathy-as-an-incidental-finding-following-a-lightning-strike
#12
Jera Kruja, Altin Kuqo, Serla Grabova, Arben Rroji, Gentian Vyshka
BACKGROUND: Lightning injuries may produce a variety of medical conditions, and specific neurological complications have been identified, with the character of immediate aftershock effects or even long-term consequences. AIM: The authors describe the incidental finding following a routine unenhanced brain MRI performed to a young female patient, suffering from a headache. CASE REPORT: Diffuse white matter changes with the character of a leukoencephalopathy were seen, which strictly interested only the right cerebral hemisphere...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000746/initiation-and-propagation-of-cloud-to-ground-lightning-observed-with-a-high-speed-video-camera
#13
M D Tran, V A Rakov
Complete evolution of a lightning discharge, from its initiation at an altitude of about 4 km to its ground attachment, was optically observed for the first time at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida. The discharge developed during the late stage of a cloud flash and was initiated in a decayed branch of the latter. The initial channel section was intermittently illuminated for over 100 ms, until a bidirectionally extending channel (leader) was formed. During the bidirectional leader extension, the negative end exhibited optical and radio-frequency electromagnetic features expected for negative cloud-to-ground strokes developing in virgin air, while the positive end most of the time appeared to be inactive or showed intermittent channel luminosity enhancements...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982087/an-innovative-concept-of-use-of-redox-active-electrolyte-in-asymmetric-capacitor-based-on-mwcnts-mno2-and-fe2o3-thin-films
#14
Nilesh R Chodankar, Deepak P Dubal, Abhishek C Lokhande, Amar M Patil, Jin H Kim, Chandrakant D Lokhande
In present investigation, we have prepared a nanocomposites of highly porous MnO2 spongy balls and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in thin film form and tested in novel redox-active electrolyte (K3[Fe(CN)6] doped aqueous Na2SO4) for supercapacitor application. Briefly, MWCNTs were deposited on stainless steel substrate by "dip and dry" method followed by electrodeposition of MnO2 spongy balls. Further, the supercapacitive properties of these hybrid thin films were evaluated in hybrid electrolyte ((K3[Fe(CN)6 doped aqueous Na2SO4)...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893181/synaesthesia-lost-and-found-two-cases-of-person-and-music-colour-synaesthesia
#15
Francesca R Farina, Kevin J Mitchell, Richard A P Roche
Synaesthesia is a developmental condition involving cross-communication between sensory modalities or substreams whereby an inducer (e.g. a sound) automatically evokes a concurrent percept in another modality (e.g. a colour). Whether this condition arises due to atypical structural connectivity (e.g., between normally unconnected cortical areas) or altered neurochemistry remains a central question. We report the exceptional cases of two synaesthetes - subjects AB and CD - both of whom experience coloured auras around individuals, as well as coloured perceptions in response to music...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884788/the-virtual-dissecting-room-creating-highly-detailed-anatomy-models-for-educational-purposes
#16
Marijn Zilverschoon, Koen L Vincken, Ronald L A W Bleys
INTRODUCTION: Virtual 3D models are powerful tools for teaching anatomy. At the present day, there are a lot of different digital anatomy models, most of these commercial applications are based on a 3D model of a human body reconstructed from images with a 1 millimeter intervals. The use of even smaller intervals may result in more details and more realistic appearances of 3D anatomy models. The aim of this study was to create a realistic and highly detailed 3D model of the hand and wrist based on small interval cross-sectional images, suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching purposes with the possibility to perform a virtual dissection in an educational application...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876858/multi-functional-carbon-fibre-composites-using-carbon-nanotubes-as-an-alternative-to-polymer-sizing
#17
T R Pozegic, J V Anguita, I Hamerton, K D G I Jayawardena, J-S Chen, V Stolojan, P Ballocchi, R Walsh, S R P Silva
Carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) were introduced to the aerospace, automobile and civil engineering industries for their high strength and low weight. A key feature of CFRP is the polymer sizing - a coating applied to the surface of the carbon fibres to assist handling, improve the interfacial adhesion between fibre and polymer matrix and allow this matrix to wet-out the carbon fibres. In this paper, we introduce an alternative material to the polymer sizing, namely carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the carbon fibres, which in addition imparts electrical and thermal functionality...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867785/lightning-mapping-array-flash-detection-performance-with-variable-receiver-thresholds
#18
Vanna C Chmielewski, Eric C Bruning
This study characterizes Lightning Mapping Array performance for networks that participated in the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field program using new Monte Carlo and curvature matrix model simulations. These open-source simulation tools are readily adapted to real-time operations or detailed studies of performance. Each simulation accounted for receiver threshold and location, as well as a reference distribution of source powers and flash sizes based on thunderstorm observations and the mechanics of station triggering...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867780/observation-of-intrinsically-bright-terrestrial-gamma-ray-flashes-from-the-mediterranean-basin
#19
T Gjesteland, N Østgaard, S Laviola, M M Miglietta, E Arnone, M Marisaldi, F Fuschino, A B Collier, F Fabró, J Montanya
 We present three terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) observed over the Mediterranean basin by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) satellite. Since the occurrence of these events in the Mediterranean region is quite rare, the characterization of the events was optimized by combining different approaches in order to better define the cloud of origin. The TGFs on 7 November 2004 and 16 October 2006 came from clouds with cloud top higher than 10-12 km where often a strong penetration into the stratosphere is found...
December 16, 2015: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859135/why-do-trees-die-characterizing-the-drivers-of-background-tree-mortality
#20
Adrian J Das, Nathan L Stephenson, Kristin P Davis
The drivers of background tree mortality rates-the typical low rates of tree mortality found in forests in the absence of acute stresses like drought-are central to our understanding of forest dynamics, the effects of ongoing environmental changes on forests, and the causes and consequences of geographical gradients in the nature and strength of biotic interactions. To shed light on factors contributing to background tree mortality, we analyzed detailed pathological data from 200,668 tree-years of observation and 3,729 individual tree deaths, recorded over a 13-yr period in a network of old-growth forest plots in California's Sierra Nevada mountain range...
October 2016: Ecology
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