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Andrew Mezentsev, Nikolai Lehtinen, Nikolai Østgaard, F J Pérez-Invernón, Steven A Cummer
We compared the modeled energy spectral density of very low frequency (VLF) radio emissions from terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) with the energy spectral density of VLF radio sferics recorded by Duke VLF receiver simultaneously with those TGFs. In total, six events with world wide lightning location network (WWLLN) defined locations were analyzed to exhibit a good fit between the modeled and observed energy spectral densities. In VLF range the energy spectral density of the TGF source current moment is found to be dominated by the contribution of secondary low-energy electrons and independent of the relativistic electrons which play their role in low-frequency (LF) range...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Michael Peterson, Scott Rudlosky, Wiebke Deierling
This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical lightning flashes observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Wonjae Lee, Andrei H Gheorghe, Konstantin Tiurev, Tuomas Ollikainen, Mikko Möttönen, David S Hall
Classical electromagnetism and quantum mechanics are both central to the modern understanding of the physical world and its ongoing technological development. Quantum simulations of electromagnetic forces have the potential to provide information about materials and systems that do not have conveniently solvable theoretical descriptions, such as those related to quantum Hall physics, or that have not been physically observed, such as magnetic monopoles. However, quantum simulations that simultaneously implement all of the principal features of classical electromagnetism have thus far proved elusive...
March 2018: Science Advances
Pavlo Kochkin, A P J van Deursen, M Marisaldi, A Ursi, A I de Boer, M Bardet, C Allasia, J-F Boissin, F Flourens, N Østgaard
An Airbus A340 aircraft flew over Northern Australia with the In-Flight Lightning Damage Assessment System (ILDAS) installed onboard. A long-duration gamma ray emission was detected. The most intense emission was observed at 12 km altitude and lasted for 20 s. Its intensity was 20 times the background counts, and it was abruptly terminated by a distant lightning flash. In this work we reconstruct the aircraft path and event timeline. The glow-terminating flash triggered a discharge from the aircraft wing that was recorded by a video camera operating onboard...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Andreas Kainz, Harald Steiner, Johannes Schalko, Artur Jachimowicz, Franz Kohl, Michael Stifter, Roman Beigelbeck, Franz Keplinger, Wilfried Hortschitz
Small-scale and distortion-free measurement of electric fields is crucial for applications such as surveying atmospheric electrostatic fields, lightning research, and safeguarding areas close to high-voltage power lines. A variety of measurement systems exist, the most common of which are field mills, which work by picking up the differential voltage of the measurement electrodes while periodically shielding them with a grounded electrode. However, all current approaches are either bulky, suffer from a strong temperature dependency, or severely distort the electric field requiring a well-defined surrounding and complex calibration procedures...
January 8, 2018: Nat Electron
Ivana Kolmašová, Ondřej Santolík, Eric Defer, William Rison, Sylvain Coquillat, Stéphane Pedeboy, Radek Lán, Luděk Uhlíř, Dominique Lambert, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Serge Prieur, Véronique Pont
We analyze lightning initiation process using magnetic field waveforms of preliminary breakdown (PB) pulses observed at time scales of a few tens of microseconds by a broad-band receiver. We compare these pulses with sources of narrow-band very high frequency (VHF) radiation at 60-66 MHz recorded by two separate Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMAs). We find that almost none of the observed PB pulses correspond to geo-located VHF radiation sources, in agreement with previous results and with the hypothesis that processes generating VHF radiation and PB pulses are only weakly related...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiangdong Guo, Hai Hu, Baoxin Liao, Xing Zhu, Xiaoxia Yang, Qing Dai
Graphene plasmon with extremely strong light confinement and tunable resonance
 frequency represents a promising surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) sensing platform.
 However, plasmonic absorption is relatively weak (approximately 1%~9%) in monolayer
 graphene nanostructures, which would limit it sensitivity. Here, we theoretically propose a hybrid
 plasmon-metamaterial structure that can realize perfect absorption in graphene with a low carrier
 mobility of 1000 cm<sup>2</sup>/Vs...
February 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
C Suresh, H Nagabhushana, R B Basavaraj, G P Darshan, D Kavyashree, B Daruka Prasad, S C Sharma, R Vanithamani
For the first time, intense red color composite of SiO2 @LaOF:Eu3+ core-shell nanostructures (NS) were fabricated via facile solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. The obtained core-shell particles display better spherical shape and non-agglomeration with a narrow size distribution. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra exhibits intense peaks at ∼593 nm, 611 nm, 650 nm corresponds to5 D0 → 7 FJ (J = 0, 1 and 2) Eu3+ transitions respectively. The spectral intensity parameters and Eu-O ligand behaviors are estimated by means of Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Marc Blancher, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R Wheeler, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, Peter Paal
Blancher, Marc, François Albasini, Fidel Elsensohn, Ken Zafren, Natalie Hölzl, Kyle McLaughlin, Albert R. Wheeler III, Steven Roy, Hermann Brugger, Mike Greene, and Peter Paal. Management of multi-casualty incidents in mountain rescue. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. INTRODUCTION: Multi-Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur in mountain areas. Little is known about the incidence and character of such events, and the kind of rescue response. Therefore, the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM) set out to provide recommendations for the management of MCI in mountain areas...
February 15, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Alisha Floyd, Ashwin Lal, Kimberly Molina, Michael Puchalski, Dylan Miller, Lindsay May
Myocarditis is an important but incompletely understood cause of cardiac dysfunction. Children with fulminant myocarditis often require inotropic or mechanical circulatory support, and researchers in some studies suggest that up to 42% of children who die suddenly have evidence of myocarditis. Recurrent myocarditis is extremely rare, and the vast majority of reported cases involve adult patients. Pediatric providers who suspect a recurrence of myocarditis have limited evidence to guide patient management because the literature in this domain is sparse...
February 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Christopher H Rashidifard, Hani A Mayassi, Chelsea M Bush, Brian M Opalacz, Mark W Richardson, Paul M Muccino, Thomas G DiPasquale
BACKGROUND: Defects in sterile surgical wrapping are identified by the presence of holes through which light can be seen. However, it is unknown how reliably the human eye can detect these defects. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study was to determine (1) how often holes in sterile packaging of various sizes could be detected; and (2) whether differences in lighting, experience level of the observer, or time spent inspecting the packaging were associated with improved likelihood of detection of holes in sterile packaging...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Serge Mordon, Anne S Vignion-Dewalle, Elise Thecua, Claire Vicentini, Cyril Maire, Pascal Deleporte, Gregory Baert, Fabienne Lecomte, Laurent Mortier
Natural DayLight-mediated PhotoDynamic Therapy (NDL-PDT) is an efficacious treatment option for thin actinic keratosis that offers advantages over conventional PDT in terms of tolerability, treatment duration, and cost. It is now accepted that the minimum criteria required for effective NDL-PDT is a dose of 4 J/cm2 with a treatment time of 2 h and a minimum temperature of 10°C, corresponding to a minimum illuminance of 11 000 lux. This value is easily achievable: 20 000 lux can be obtained during a typical overcast day at midday...
February 7, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Laura DeFrancesco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Naiara Fachinetti, Roberta Balansin Rigon, Josimar O Eloy, Mariana Rillo Sato, Karen Cristina Dos Santos, Marlus Chorilli
Trans-resveratrol (RSV) is a natural compound with several properties, such as the ability to inhibit the tyrosinase enzyme, with potential application as a skin-lightning agent and for the treatment of skin disorders associated with hyperpigmentation and melanogenesis. However, the drug faces several drawbacks which altogether limit its therapeutic application. Thus, drug loading into nanocarriers emerge as an alternative to circumvent these problems. Herein, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) have been employed for RSV encapsulation, with comparison of two different lipids, glyceryl behenate (more hydrophobic), and polyoxyethylene 40 (PEG 40) stearate...
February 5, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
S P Mueller, C Helo, F Keller, J Taddeucci, J M Castro
Electrification in volcanic ash plumes often leads to syn-eruptive lightning discharges. High temperatures in and around lightning plasma channels have the potential to chemically alter, re-melt, and possibly volatilize ash fragments in the eruption cloud. In this study, we experimentally simulate temperature conditions of volcanic lightning in the laboratory, and systematically investigate the effects of rapid melting on the morphology and chemical composition of ash. Samples of different size and composition are ejected towards an artificially generated electrical arc...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jasmine Jacob-Hirsch, Eran Eyal, Binyamin A Knisbacher, Jonathan Roth, Karen Cesarkas, Chen Dor, Sarit Farage-Barhom, Vered Kunik, Amos J Simon, Moran Gal, Michal Yalon, Sharon Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Rick Tearle, Shlomi Constantini, Erez Y Levanon, Ninette Amariglio, Gideon Rechavi
Neural progenitor cells undergo somatic retrotransposition events, mainly involving L1 elements, which can be potentially deleterious. Here, we analyze the whole genomes of 20 brain samples and 80 non-brain samples, and characterized the retrotransposition landscape of patients affected by a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders including Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, ataxia-telangiectasia and autism. We report that the number of retrotranspositions in brain tissues is higher than that observed in non-brain samples and even higher in pathologic vs normal brains...
January 12, 2018: Cell Research
Nandini Venkateswaran, Anat Galor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Pier-Olivier Tremblay, Thierry Duchesne, Steven G Cumming
Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene) and the size at "being held" (a state when no further increase in size is expected). We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin Donald Oakes, Lars-Göran Mattsson, Per Näsman, Andrés Alayón Glazunov
Modern infrastructures are becoming increasingly dependent on electronic systems, leaving them more vulnerable to electrical surges or electromagnetic interference. Electromagnetic disturbances appear in nature, e.g., lightning and solar wind; however, they may also be generated by man-made technology to maliciously damage or disturb electronic equipment. This article presents a systematic risk assessment framework for identifying possible, consequential, and plausible intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) attacks on an arbitrary distribution network infrastructure...
January 3, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Ioana Baiu, Gregory W Charville, Brendan C Visser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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