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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672672/mri-and-neuropsychological-correlates-in-african-americans-with-hypertension-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#1
B Waldron-Perrine, J E Kisser, A Brody, E M Haacke, R Dawood, S Millis, P Levy
Background: African Americans (AA) are at high risk for hypertension (HTN) and poor blood pressure (BP) control. Persistently elevated BP contributes to cardiovascular morbidity. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a definable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker of cerebrovascular injury linked to impairments in higher level thinking (i.e., executive functions), memory formation and speed of perceptual-motor processing. Methods: This sub-investigation evaluated neuropsychological functioning in association with WMH on brain MRIs in 23 otherwise healthy hypertensive AAs participating in an NIH-funded study of the effects of Vitamin D on BP and cardiac remodeling in AA patients 30-74 years of age with HTN and left ventricular hypertrophy...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665124/how-does-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-start-prodromal-cognitive-changes-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#2
Daphné Génier Marchand, Ronald B Postuma, Frédérique Escudier, Jessie De Roy, Amélie Pelletier, Jacques Montplaisir, Jean-François Gagnon
Objective We describe the progression of cognitive decline and identify the predictive values of cognitive tests in three groups of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients classified at their last follow-up as having Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or still-idiopathic. Methods Patients (n=109) underwent polysomnographic, neurological, and neuropsychological assessments. We used linear mixed-model analyses to compare the progression of cognitive test performance between the three groups over a three-year prodromal period, and performed linear regressions for a six-year prodromal period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664932/obesity-and-unhealthy-lifestyle-associated-with-poor-executive-function-among-malaysian-adolescents
#3
Joyce Ying Hui Tee, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan, Yit Siew Chin
The understanding on the roles of obesity and lifestyle behaviors in predicting executive function of adolescents has been limited. Low executive function proficiency may have adverse effects on adolescents' school academic performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between BMI-for-age and multiple lifestyle behaviors (operationalized as meal consumption, physical activity, and sleep quality) with executive function (operationalized as inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) on a sample of Malaysian adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years (N = 513)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663261/evaluation-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-changes-and-neurocognitive-effects-of-asymptomatic-vitamin-b12-deficiency
#4
Ali Zeynal Abidin Tak, Erdal Dayan, Hacı Taner Bulut
Vitamin B12 plays an important role in the mechanisms which are responsible for myelinization in the central nervous system. It can particularly lead to hematological and neuropsychiatric symptoms when serum levels fall due to insufficient intake with diet or absorption problems. The purpose of this study was to show the cognitive effects in vitamin B12 deficiency cases that have not reached clinical symptom level using neuropsychological tests, and to show possible cerebral neuronal damage using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method...
April 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661241/breaking-bad-habits-by-improving-executive-function-in-individuals-with-obesity
#5
Vanessa Allom, Barbara Mullan, Evelyn Smith, Phillipa Hay, Jayanthi Raman
BACKGROUND: Two primary factors that contribute to obesity are unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior. These behaviors are particularly difficult to change in the long-term because they are often enacted habitually. Cognitive Remediation Therapy has been modified and applied to the treatment of obesity (CRT-O) with preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial demonstrating significant weight loss and improvements in executive function. The objective of this study was to conduct a secondary data analysis of the CRT-O trial to evaluate whether CRT-O reduces unhealthy habits that contribute to obesity via improvements in executive function...
April 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660936/associations-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-1-and-angiotensin-ii-blood-levels-and-cognitive-function
#6
Sevil Yasar, Vijay R Varma, Gregory C Harris, Michelle C Carlson
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests a possible role of the renin angiotensin system in the pathophysiologic process of Alzheimer's disease, of which angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (ANGII) are important proteins. Few studies evaluated associations between blood ACE-1 and none between ANGII levels, and cognition. OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study was aimed to examine associations between blood ACE-1 and ANG II levels and cognitive function in non-demented participants at baseline and over a 1-year period...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660087/older-adults-pay-an-additional-cost-when-texting-and-walking-effects-of-age-environment-and-use-of-mixed-reality-on-dual-task-performance
#7
Tal Krasovsky, Patrice L Weiss, Rachel Kizony
Background: Texting while walking (TeWW) has become common among people of all ages, and mobile phone use during gait is increasingly associated with pedestrian injury. Although dual-task walking performance is known to decline with age, data regarding the effect of age on dual-task performance in ecological settings are limited. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of age, environment (indoors/outdoors), and mixed reality (merging of real and virtual environments) on TeWW performance...
April 6, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659822/development-and-application-of-crispr-cas9-technologies-in-genomic-editing
#8
Zhang Cui, Quan Renfu, Wang Jinfu
Genomic editing to correct disease-causing mutations is a promising approach for the treatment of human diseases. As a simple and programmable nuclease-based genomic editing tool, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has substantially improved the ability to make precise changes in the human genome. Rapid development of CRISPR-based technologies in recent years has expanded its application scope and promoted CRISPR-based therapies in preclinical trails...
April 6, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658987/does-bilingualism-increase-brain-or-cognitive-reserve-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#9
Anny Reyes, Brianna M Paul, Anisa Marshall, Yu-Hsuan A Chang, Naeim Bahrami, Leena Kansal, Vicente J Iragui, Evelyn S Tecoma, Tamar H Gollan, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: Bilingual healthy adults have been shown to exhibit an advantage in executive functioning (EF) that is associated with microstructural changes in white matter (WM) networks. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often show EF deficits that are associated with WM compromise. In this study, we investigate whether bilingualism can increase cognitive reserve and/or brain reserve in bilingual patients with TLE, mitigating EF impairment and WM compromise. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was obtained in 19 bilingual and 26 monolingual patients with TLE, 12 bilingual healthy controls (HC), and 21 monolingual HC...
April 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657745/optimal-random-search-using-limited-spatial-memory
#10
Tomoko Sakiyama, Yukio-Pegio Gunji
Lévy walks are known to be efficient movements because Lévy walkers search wide areas while restricting returns to previously visited sites. A self-avoiding walk (SAW) is a series of moves on a lattice that visit the same place only once. As such, SAWs can also be effective search algorithms. However, it is not realistic that foragers memorize many visited positions for a long time. In this work, we investigated whether foragers performed optimal searches when having limited memory. The agent in our model followed SAWs to some extent by memorizing and avoiding visited places...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649723/the-relevance-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-self-limited-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#11
Ellen Marise Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Bernardo Dos Santos, Letícia Gentil, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the attentional and executive functions in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls and compared with patients with ADHD without epilepsy. We evaluated 12 patients with BCECTS and ADHD (66.7% boys; mean age of 9.67years); 11 children with non-ADHD BCECTS (63.6% boys; mean age of 11.91years); 20 healthy children (75% boys; mean age of 10.15years); and 20 subjects with ADHD without epilepsy (60% boys; mean age of 10...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649707/specific-smartphone-usage-and-cognitive-performance-affect-gait-characteristics-during-free-living-and-treadmill-walking
#12
Daniel Niederer, Anke Bumann, Yvonne Mühlhauser, Mareike Schmitt, Katja Wess, Tobias Engeroff, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone tasks like texting, typing, and dialling during walking are known to impact gait characteristics. Beyond that, the effects of performing smartphone-typical actions like researching and taking self-portraits (selfie) on gait have not been investigated yet. RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed to investigate the effects of smartphone usage on relevant gait characteristics and to reveal potential association of basic cognitive and walking plus smartphone dual-task abilities...
April 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618054/influence-of-residual-disease-following-surgical-resection-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-on-clinical-neurocognitive-and-patient-reported-outcomes
#13
William A Hall, Stephanie L Pugh, Jeffrey S Wefel, Terri S Armstrong, Mark R Gilbert, David G Brachman, Maria Werner-Wasik, Merideth M Wendland, Paul D Brown, Samuel T Chao, Kevin S Roof, H Ian Robins, Minesh P Mehta, Walter J Curran, Benjamin Movsas
BACKGROUND: The influence of subtotal resection (STR) on neurocognitive function (NCF), quality of life, and symptom burden in glioblastoma is unknown. If bevacizumab preferentially benefits patients with STR is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine these uncertainties. METHODS: NCF and patient reported outcomes (PRO) were prospectively collected in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 and 0825. Changes in NCF and PRO measures from baseline to prespecified times were examined by Wilcoxon test, and mixed effects longitudinal modeling, to assess differences between patients who received STR vs gross-total resection...
March 30, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614659/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-cognitive-function-are-positively-related-among-participants-with-mild-and-subjective-cognitive-impairment
#14
Tim Stuckenschneider, Christopher David Askew, Stefanie Rüdiger, Maria Cristina Polidori, Vera Abeln, Tobias Vogt, Andreas Krome, Marcel Olde Rikkert, Brian Lawlor, Stefan Schneider
BACKGROUND: By 2030, about 74 million people will be diagnosed with dementia, and many more will experience subjective (SCI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As physical inactivity has been identified to be a strong modifiable risk factor for dementia, exercise and physical activity (PA) may be important parameters to predict the progression from MCI to dementia, but might also represent disease trajectory modifying strategies for SCI and MCI. OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the relationship between activity, fitness, and cognitive function across the spectrum of MCI and SCI would provide an insight into the potential utility of PA and fitness as early markers, and treatment targets to prevent cognitive decline...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608615/executive-function-associated-with-sexual-risk-in-young-south-african-women-findings-from-the-hptn-068-cohort
#15
Molly Rosenberg, Audrey Pettifor, Mihaela Duta, Nele Demeyere, Ryan G Wagner, Amanda Selin, Catherine MacPhail, Oliver Laeyendecker, James P Hughes, Alan Stein, Stephen Tollman, Kathleen Kahn
PURPOSE: Heightened sexual risk in adolescence and young adulthood may be partially explained by deficits in executive functioning, the set of cognitive processes used to make reasoned decisions. However, the association between executive function and sexual risk is understudied among adolescent girls and young women, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: In a cohort of 853 young women age 18-25 in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa, we evaluated executive function with three non-verbal cognitive tests: I...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596856/neural-signatures-of-trail-making-test-performance-evidence-from-lesion-mapping-and-neuroimaging-studies
#16
Andreja Varjacic, Dante Mantini, Nele Demeyere, Celine R Gillebert
The Trail Making Test (TMT) is an extensively used neuropsychological instrument for the assessment of set-switching ability across a wide range of neurological conditions. However, the exact nature of the cognitive processes and associated brain regions contributing to the performance on the TMT remains unclear. In this review, we first introduce the TMT by discussing its administration and scoring approaches. We then examine converging evidence and divergent findings concerning the brain regions related to TMT performance, as identified by lesion-symptom mapping studies conducted in brain-injured patients and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies conducted in healthy participants...
March 26, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593639/step-by-step-kinematics-of-the-reciprocal-trail-making-task-predict-slowness-of-activities-of-daily-living-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Philipp Gulde, Katharina Leippold, Sarah Kohl, Timo Grimmer, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Alan Armstrong, Joachim Hermsdörfer
Dementia impairs the ability to perform everyday activities. Reduced motor capacity and executive functions as well as loss of memory function and forms of apraxia and action disorganization syndrome can be reasons for such impairments. In this study, an analysis of the hand trajectories during the sequential movements in an adapted version of the trail making task, the reciprocal trail making task (RTMT), was used to predict performance in activities of daily living (ADL) of patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment and dementia...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593512/presbycusis-disrupts-spontaneous-activity-revealed-by-resting-state-functional-mri
#18
Yu-Chen Chen, Huiyou Chen, Liang Jiang, Fan Bo, Jin-Jing Xu, Cun-Nan Mao, Richard Salvi, Xindao Yin, Guangming Lu, Jian-Ping Gu
Purpose : Presbycusis, age-related hearing loss, is believed to involve neural changes in the central nervous system, which is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to determine if presbycusis disrupted spontaneous neural activity in specific brain areas involved in auditory processing, attention and cognitive function using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach. Methods : Hearing and resting-state fMRI measurements were obtained from 22 presbycusis patients and 23 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592842/mirror-movements-are-linked-to-executive-control-in-healthy-and-brain-injured-adults
#19
Joseph Tisseyre, David Amarantini, Alexandre Chalard, Philippe Marque, David Gasq, Jessica Tallet
It has been shown that brain-injured patients have exacerbated mirror movements (MM). MM are involuntary contractions occurring in homologous muscles contralateral to voluntary movements, particularly in distal upper limb muscles. Attentional and inhibitory processes have been proposed as key factors to explain the level of MM. However, the link between MM and attentional/inhibitory processes has never been formally tested. The present study aims to test this link in 24 right-handed healthy adults and eight chronic brain-injured patients...
March 25, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590487/psychological-flexibility-and-set-shifting-among-veterans-participating-in-a-yoga-program-a-pilot-study
#20
Timothy Avery, Christine Blasey, Craig Rosen, Peter Bayley
Introduction: Trauma-focused psychotherapies do not meet the needs of all veterans. Yoga shows some potential in reducing stress and perhaps even PTSD in veterans, although little is understood about the mechanisms of action. This study identifies preliminary correlates of change in PTSD and perceived stress for veterans participating in yoga. Materials and methods: Nine veterans (seven males and two females) were recruited from an existing clinical yoga program and observed over 16 wk...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
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