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Trails making

Steffie Van Nieuland, Jan M Baetens, Bernard De Baets
'The 100 km Dodentocht', which takes place annually and has its start in Bornem, Belgium, is a long distance march where participants have to cover a 100 km trail in at most 24 hours. The approximately 11 000 marchers per edition are tracked by making use of passive radio-frequency-identification (RFID). These tracking data were analyzed to build a spatially explicit marching model that gives insights into the dynamics of the event and allows to evaluate the effect of changes in the starting procedure of the event...
2016: PloS One
J Zhao, Y Zhang, Y Y Chao, J Ma, Y F Yang, J Y Zhao, Y H Du, W W Li, X Q Song, L X Lü
Objective: To study the impairments of cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia and the potential effectiveness of risperidone and olanzapine monotherapy on first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 57 first-episode schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls were assessed at baseline, and patients were assessed again after 8-week antipsychotics therapy. Results: The positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) reductive ratio between the two groups was similar. At baseline, the performance of schizophrenia patients was significant poor than healthy controls in the four domains of cognitive function (P<0...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Abhishek Jaywant, Jennifer Barredo, David C Ahern, Linda Resnik
The Trail Making Test (TMT) and written version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) assess attention, processing speed, and executive functions but their utility is limited in populations with upper limb dysfunction. Oral versions of the TMT and SDMT exist, but a systematic review of their psychometric properties and clinical utility has not been conducted, which was the goal of this study. Searches were conducted in PubMed and PsycINFO, test manuals, and the reference lists of included articles. Four measures were identified: the SDMT-oral, oral TMT-A, oral TMT-B, and the Mental Alternation Test (MAT)...
October 18, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Adrian Noriega De La Colina, Rong Wu, Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau, Pierre Larochelle, Maxime Lamarre-Cliche, Louis Bherer, Hélène Girouard
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance in older adults treated and controlled for blood pressure (BP) when compared to untreated normotensive subjects, and to determine whether blood pressure still correlates with poorer cognitive performances. DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight older adults aged between 65 and 85 years were recruited in the community and divided into two groups: normotensive (n = 26) and controlled hypertensive (n = 22)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Paul S Foster, Valeria Drago, Brad J Ferguson, Patti Kelly Harrison, David W Harrison
The most frequently used measures of executive functioning are either sensitive to left frontal lobe functioning or bilateral frontal functioning. Relatively little is known about right frontal lobe contributions to executive functioning given the paucity of measures sensitive to right frontal functioning. The present investigation reports the development and initial validation of a new measure designed to be sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, the Figure Trail Making Test (FTMT). The FTMT, the classic Trial Making Test, and the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) were administered to 42 right-handed men...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Qu Tian, Yang An, Susan M Resnick, Stephanie Studenski
BACKGROUND: most older individuals who experience mobility decline, also show cognitive decline, but whether cognitive decline precedes or follows mobility limitation is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: examine the temporal sequence of mobility and cognition among initially unimpaired older adults. METHODS: mobility and cognition were assessed every 2 years for 6 years in 412 participants aged ≥60 with initially unimpaired cognition and gait speed...
October 15, 2016: Age and Ageing
Valeria Peviani, Pina Scarpa, Alessio Toraldo, Gabriella Bottini
Neuropsychological assessment is critical in both diagnosis and prognosis of patients with epilepsy. Beyond electrophysiological and anatomical alterations, other factors including different ethnic-cultural and linguistic backgrounds might affect neuropsychological performance. Only a few studies considered migration and acculturation effects and they typically concerned nonclinical samples. The current study aimed at investigating the influence of ethnic background and time spent in Italy on a full neuropsychological battery administered to both Italian and foreign-born patients and at providing a brief interview for obtaining relevant information on each patient's transcultural and language-related history...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Marta K Zamroziewicz, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
Objectives: This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and executive functions in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher plasma levels of phosphatidylcholine are associated with better performance on a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that have been implicated in cognitive flexibility...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tarkeshwar Singh, Julius Fridriksson, Christopher Perry, Sarah C Tryon, Angela Ross, Stacy Fritz, Troy M Herter
Successful execution of many motor skills relies on well-organized visual search (voluntary eye movements that actively scan the environment for task-relevant information). Although impairments of visual search that result from brain injuries are linked to diminished motor performance, the neural processes that guide visual search within this context remain largely unknown. The first objective of this study was to examine how visual search in healthy adults and stroke survivors is used to guide hand movements during the Trail Making Test (TMT), a neuropsychological task that is a strong predictor of visuomotor and cognitive deficits...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Zhenghua Hou, Yuxiu Sui, Xiaopeng Song, Yonggui Yuan
The intuitive association between cognitive impairment and aberrant functional activity in the brain network has prompted interest in exploring the role of functional connectivity in late-onset depression (LOD). The relationship of altered voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) and cognitive dysfunction in LOD is not yet well understood. This study was designed to examine the implicit relationship between the disruption of interhemispheric functional coordination and cognitive impairment in LOD. LOD patients (N = 31) and matched healthy controls (HCs; N = 37) underwent neuropsychological tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tamara Shiner, Anat Mirelman, Mali Gana Weisz, Anat Bar-Shira, Elissa Ash, Ron Cialic, Naomi Nevler, Tanya Gurevich, Noa Bregman, Avi Orr-Urtreger, Nir Giladi
Importance: Mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are a risk factor for the development of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). These mutations are common among Ashkenazi Jews (AJ) and appear to have an effect on the natural history of the disease. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and genetic characteristics of an AJ cohort of patients diagnosed with DLB, assess the association of phenotype of DLB with GBA mutations, and explore the effects of these mutations on the clinical course of the disease...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Manoj Jayabalan, Thomas O'Daniel
This study presents a systematic literature review of access control for electronic health record systems to protect patient's privacy. Articles from 2006 to 2016 were extracted from the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and MetaPress using broad eligibility criteria, and chosen for inclusion based on analysis of ISO22600. Cryptographic standards and methods were left outside the scope of this review. Three broad classes of models are being actively investigated and developed: access control for electronic health records, access control for interoperability, and access control for risk analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Rodrigo B Mansur, Juhie Ahmed, Danielle S Cha, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Julie Lovshin, Jung G Lee, Jae-Hon Lee, Elisa Brietzke, Eva Z Reininghaus, Kang Sim, Maj Vinberg, Natalie Rasgon, Tomas Hajek, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of treatments that are capable of reliably and robustly improving cognitive function in adults with mood disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is synthesized centrally and its receptors are abundantly expressed in neural circuits subserving cognitive function. We aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, on objective measures of cognition in adults with a depressive or bipolar disorder. METHODS: In this 4-week, pilot, open-label, domain-based study (e...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Manli Huang, Yi Huang, Liang Yu, Jianbo Hu, Jinkai Chen, Pingbo Jin, Weijuan Xu, Ning Wei, Shaohua Hu, Hongli Qi, Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore differences in links between negative symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in adolescent and adult patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by positive and negative symptoms, reduced emotional expression, excitatory status, and poor cognitive ability. The severity of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia was reported to be more related to poor quality of life, weak functional ability, and heavy burden from families than with the severity of positive symptoms...
October 6, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Xiao Luo, Tiantian Qiu, Yunlu Jia, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Xinfeng Yu, Zhujing Shen, Yerfan Jiaerken, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Minming Zhang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the best established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a need to understand the effects of this genotype on the brain by simultaneously assessing intrinsic brain network and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers changes in healthy older ε4 carriers. Thirteen cognitively intact, elderly APOE ε4 carriers and 22 ε3 homozygotes were included in the present study. Eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) was used to identify brain network hub organization based on resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Conor P Kerley, Katrina Hutchinson, Jessica Bramham, Aisling McGowan, John Faul, Liam Cormican
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our group and others have reported a high rate of vitamin D deficiency in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), where vitamin D levels (25(OH)D) correlate negatively with OSAS severity and some of its associated metabolic alterations. Data regarding vitamin D supplementation in OSAS are lacking. We wanted to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on OSAS symptoms and metabolic parameters. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily supplementation with 4,000 IU vitamin D3 (D3) or placebo (PL)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
P S Meena, R Soni, M Jain, C S Jilowa, Omprakash
OBJECTIVES: During and after childbirth women undergo tremendous psychological and biological changes. These biological changes, along with the stress of assuming the new role of mother, make postpartum women vulnerable to various psychiatric disorders including cognitive dysfunction, depression, and anxiety. Such problems are under-reported as they are difficult to identify, especially by caregivers who are more focused on the newborn. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of behaviour problems and cognitive dysfunction during the postpartum period...
September 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Eric Jouvent, Edouard Duchesnay, Foued Hadj-Selem, François De Guio, Jean-François Mangin, Dominique Hervé, Marco Duering, Stefan Ropele, Reinhold Schmidt, Martin Dichgans, Hugues Chabriat
OBJECTIVE: To obtain simple models predicting disease evolution at 3 years for a given patient with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: Based on data obtained in a prospective study of 236 patients, we built and validated models predicting, at the individual level, 3-year changes in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS), Trail Making Test version B (TMTB), and modified Rankin Scale (mRS)...
September 30, 2016: Neurology
Yujiro Kose, Masahiro Ikenaga, Yosuke Yamada, Kazuhiro Morimura, Noriko Takeda, Shinji Ouma, Yoshio Tsuboi, Tatsuo Yamada, Misaka Kimura, Akira Kiyonaga, Yasuki Higaki, Hiroaki Tanaka
AIM: This study aimed to ascertain if performance on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with indicators of brain volume and cognitive functions among community-dwelling older adults with normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment. METHODS: Participants were 80 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89years (44 men, 36 women), including 20 with mild cognitive impairment. Participants completed the TUG and a battery of cognitive assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Logical Memory I and II (LM-I, LM-II) subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised; and the Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A, TMT-B)...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Vincent Auffret, Francisco Campelo-Parada, Ander Regueiro, María Del Trigo, Olivier Chiche, Chekrallah Chamandi, Ricardo Allende, Juan G Cordoba-Soriano, Jean-Michel Paradis, Robert De Larochellière, Daniel Doyle, Eric Dumont, Siamak Mohammadi, Mélanie Côté, Alier Marrero, Rishi Puri, Josep Rodés-Cabau
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mid- to long-term cognitive trajectory of transcatheter aortic valve (TAVR) recipients are scarce. OBJECTIVES: Changes in global cognition and specific cognitive domains up to 1 year post-TAVR were evaluated. METHODS: Fifty-one patients (median age 80.0 [interquartile range: 72.0 to 85.0] years; 37% women) underwent TAVR and prospective assessment of cognitive function using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) at baseline, short-term (30 days), and 1 year post-TAVR...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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