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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441012/a-modified-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-test-predicts-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-better-than-executive-function-tests
#1
Matthias L Schroeter, Sarah Pawelke, Sandrine Bisenius, Jana Kynast, Katharina Schuemberg, Maryna Polyakova, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Adrian Danek, Klaus Fassbender, Holger Jahn, Frank Jessen, Johannes Kornhuber, Martin Lauer, Johannes Prudlo, Anja Schneider, Ingo Uttner, Angelika Thöne-Otto, Markus Otto, Janine Diehl-Schmid
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by deep alterations in behavior and personality. Although revised diagnostic criteria agree for executive dysfunction as most characteristic, impairments in social cognition are also suggested. The study aimed at identifying those neuropsychological and behavioral parameters best discriminating between bvFTD and healthy controls. Eighty six patients were diagnosed with possible or probable bvFTD according to Rascovsky et al. (2011) and compared with 43 healthy age-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438112/executive-functioning-and-daily-living-of-individuals-with-chronic-stroke-measurement-and-implications
#2
Lena Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Gabi Zeilig, Harold Weingarden, Clara Rozental-Iluz, Debbie Rand
Deficits in executive functioning (EF) are often still present at the chronic stage after stroke, which may negatively impact independent living. The objectives of this study were (a) to characterize the EF and independence in daily living of community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke by using pen-and-paper and performance-based EF assessments, (b) to explore correlations between scores detected by different EF assessments and (c) to assess the correlations between EF and independence in basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433577/gaps-and-strategies-in-developing-health-research-capacity-experience-from-the-nigeria-implementation-science-alliance
#3
Echezona E Ezeanolue, William Nii Ayitey Menson, Dina Patel, Gregory Aarons, Ayodotun Olutola, Michael Obiefune, Patrick Dakum, Prosper Okonkwo, Bola Gobir, Timothy Akinmurele, Anthea Nwandu, Hadiza Khamofu, Bolanle Oyeledun, Muyiwa Aina, Andy Eyo, Obinna Oleribe, Ikoedem Ibanga, John Oko, Chukwuma Anyaike, John Idoko, Muktar H Aliyu, Rachel Sturke
BACKGROUND: Despite being disproportionately burdened by preventable diseases than more advanced countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continue to trail behind other parts of the world in the number, quality and impact of scholarly activities by their health researchers. Our strategy at the Nigerian Implementation Science Alliance (NISA) is to utilise innovative platforms that catalyse collaboration, enhance communication between different stakeholders, and promote the uptake of evidence-based interventions in improving healthcare delivery...
February 12, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432778/-looking-at-nothing-during-sequential-sensorimotor-actions-long-term-memory-based-eye-scanning-of-remembered-target-locations
#4
Rebecca M Foerster
Before acting humans saccade to a target object to extract relevant visual information. Even when acting on remembered objects, locations previously occupied by relevant objects are fixated during imagery and memory tasks - a phenomenon called "looking-at-nothing". While looking-at-nothing was robustly found in tasks encouraging declarative memory built-up, results are mixed in the case of procedural sensorimotor tasks. Eye-guidance to manual targets in complete darkness was observed in a task practiced for days beforehand, while investigations using only a single session did not find fixations to remembered action targets...
February 9, 2018: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428957/associations-of-near-miss-traffic-incidents-with-attention-and-executive-function-among-older-japanese-drivers
#5
Hyuma Makizako, Hiroyuki Shimada, Ryo Hotta, Takehiko Doi, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Sho Nakakubo, Keitaro Makino
BACKGROUND: Attention and executive function may play an important role in ensuring safe driving as they involve paying attention to complex information and making an instantaneous judgment during driving. We hypothesized that poor performance in attention and executive function may increase the risk of near-miss incidents among older drivers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine associations of current experience of near-miss traffic incidents with attention and executive function among older Japanese drivers...
February 9, 2018: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428192/expanding-access-to-primary-healthcare-for-women-through-a-microfinance-institution-a-case-study-from-rural-guatemala
#6
Marcela Colom, Kirsten Austad, Neftali Sacuj, Karen Larson, Peter Rohloff
The utilization of existing social networks is increasingly being recognized as a powerful strategy for delivering healthcare services to underserved populations in low- and middle-income countries. In Guatemala, multiple barriers prevent access to healthcare services for rural and indigenous populations, and strategies for delivering healthcare in more efficient ways are needed. The case study we describe here is a unique collaboration between a microfinance institution (Friendship Bridge) and a primary care organization (Wuqu' Kawoq | Maya Health Alliance) to scale up healthcare through an existing lending-borrowing social network...
February 7, 2018: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426384/development-of-internet-based-tasks-for-the-executive-function-performance-test
#7
Debbie Rand, Keren Lee Ben-Haim, Rachel Malka, Sigal Portnoy
OBJECTIVE: The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based tool to assess executive functions (EFs). This study's objective was to develop and verify two Internet-based tasks for the EFPT. METHOD: A cross-sectional study assessed the alternate-form reliability of the Internet-based bill-paying and telephone-use tasks in healthy adults and people with subacute stroke (Study 1). It also sought to establish the tasks' criterion reliability for assessing EF deficits by correlating performance with that on the Trail Making Test in five groups: healthy young adults, healthy older adults, people with subacute stroke, people with chronic stroke, and young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Study 2)...
March 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407717/everyday-false-memories-in-older-persons-with-depressive-disorder
#8
Karolina Sejunaite, Claudia Lanza, Matthias W Riepe
Generally we tend to think that memory in daily living is complete and accurate in healthy persons. However, current memory research has revealed inconspicuous memory faults. Rarely omissions and distortions of memory are researched with tasks resembling everyday life. We investigated healthy older control subjects (HC) and patients with depressive disorder (DD). Cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and mood with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS)...
January 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407659/errors-versus-speed-on-the-trail-making-test-relevance-to-driving-performance
#9
Haley Duncanson, Ann M Hollis, Margaret G O'Connor
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many studies have demonstrated that speed to complete items on the Trail Making Tests (TMT A and TMT B) is useful in the prediction of driving safety. However, there is no consensus regarding optimal "cut scores" to discriminate between safe and unsafe drivers. In this study, we examine TMT speed and errors in drivers referred for a road test. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Patients referred for a DriveWise® evaluation at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts...
January 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404829/polymorphic-nuclear-markers-for-coastal-plant-species-with-dynamic-geographic-distributions-the-rock-samphire-crithmum-maritimum-and-the-vulnerable-dune-pansy-viola-tricolor-subsp-curtisii
#10
Mathilde Latron, Jean-François Arnaud, Héloïse Ferla, Cécile Godé, Anne Duputié
Identifying spatial patterns of genetic differentiation across a species range is critical to set up conservation and restoration decision-making. This is especially timely, since global change triggers shifts in species' geographic distribution and in the geographical variation of mating system and patterns of genetic differentiation, with varying consequences at the trailing and leading edges of a species' distribution. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we developed nuclear microsatellite loci for two plant species showing a strictly coastal geographical distribution and contrasting range dynamics: the expanding rock samphire (Crithmum maritimum, 21 loci) and the highly endangered and receding dune pansy (Viola tricolor subsp...
February 5, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400120/clinical-correlates-of-longitudinal-mri-changes-in-cadasil
#11
Yifeng Ling, François De Guio, Eric Jouvent, Marco Duering, Dominique Hervé, Jean Pierre Guichard, Ophélia Godin, Martin Dichgans, Hugues Chabriat
Previous studies showed that various types of cerebral lesions, as assessed on MRI, largely contribute to the clinical severity of CADASIL. However, the clinical impact of longitudinal changes of classical markers of small vessel disease on conventional MRI has been only poorly investigated. One hundred sixty NOTCH3 mutation carriers (mean age ± SD, 49.8 ± 10.9 years) were followed over three years. Validated methods were used to determine the percent brain volume change (PBVC), number of incident lacunes, change of volume of white matter hyperintensities and change of number of cerebral microbleeds...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396870/trajectories-of-change-in-cognitive-function-in-people-with-copd
#12
Soo Kyung Park
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to describe changes in cognitive function, as measured by the Trail Making Test; to identify distinct patterns of change in cognitive function; and to examine predictors of change in cognitive function in people with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). BACKGROUND: How cognitive function changes in people with COPD and what factors influence those changes over time is not well-known, despite the fact that it declines rapidly in this population and significantly impacts functional decline in healthy older adults...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389676/decreased-cognitive-functioning-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-is-related-to-increased-hippocampal-volume-exploring-the-role-of-brain-plasticity
#13
Iris van Oostrom, Philip van Eijndhoven, Elke Butterbrod, Maria H van Beek, Joost Janzing, Rogier Donders, Aart Schene, Indira Tendolkar
OBJECTIVE: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still the most effective treatment of severe and therapy-refractory major depressive disorder. Cognitive side effects are the major disadvantage of ECT. Cognitive deficits are generally temporary in nature and may be mediated by the hippocampus. Recent studies have shown a temporary increase in hippocampal volume and a temporary decrease in cognitive functioning post-ECT compared with pre-ECT. This study investigates whether these volumetric changes are related to changes in cognitive functioning after ECT...
January 31, 2018: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384421/relation-of-serum-levels-of-homocysteine-vitamin-b12-and-folate-to-cognitive-functions-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#14
Ebtesam Mohamed Fahmy, Nervana Mohamed Elfayoumy, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelalim, Sahar Abdel-Aaty Sharaf, Rania Shehata Ismail, Haidy Elshebawy
BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia, vitamin B12 and folate deficiency have been linked to cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relation of serum homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B12 and folate to cognitive functions in MS patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-five MS patients and twenty matched healthy controls were included. Subjects were submitted to cognitive assessment using a selected psychometric battery and measurement of serum levels of homocysteine, B12 and folic acid...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381375/heart-rate-variability-biofeedback-implications-for-cognitive-and-psychiatric-effects-in-older-adults
#15
Dylan J Jester, Ellen K Rozek, Ryan A McKelley
OBJECTIVES: Two decades of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback research have focused on adolescent and adult populations with a variety of symptoms and conditions at the exclusion of older adults. This study explores HRV biofeedback as a novel treatment to decrease psychiatric symptoms and improve cognitive functioning in older adults. METHODS: Participants enrolled in a three-week intervention that included six 30-min biofeedback sessions. Neuropsychological and psychiatric measures were administered before and after the intervention...
January 30, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373617/determinants-of-cognitive-function-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-meta-analysis
#16
Rodrigo B Mansur, Yena Lee, Aileen J Zhou, Nicole E Carmona, Danielle S Cha, Joshua D Rosenblat, Robert Bruins, Ron Kakar, Natalie L Rasgon, Julie A Lovshin, Tonita E Wroolie, Kang Sim, Elisa Brietzke, Hertzel C Gerstein, Carola Rong, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with deficits across multiple cognitive domains; however, the determinants of cognitive impairment in T2DM are not well characterized. We aimed to evaluate body mass index (BMI), glycemic control, and T2DM duration as moderators of cognitive dysfunction in T2DM. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analytic review of the literature reporting data on BMI, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), T2DM duration, and validated measures of processing speed (ie, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Trail Making Test [TMT]-A), verbal learning and memory (ie, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), and working memory/executive function (ie, TMT-B) among individuals with vs without T2DM...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354568/anatomical-correlates-of-neuropsychological-deficits-among-patients-with-the-cerebellar-stroke
#17
Min A Shin, Oak Tae Park, Joon-Ho Shin
Objective: To investigate the anatomical correlates of the neuropsychological deficits in patients with the cerebellar stroke. Methods: We screened patients who were admitted to the National Rehabilitation Center with the cerebellar stroke between October 2012 and November 2016. The patients with the cerebellar stroke who underwent neuropsychological testing for which the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) or the SNSB-II were enrolled. The neuropsychological function capacities were compared in accordance with the stroke type (hemorrhagic vs...
December 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354217/a-continuum-of-executive-function-deficits-in-early-subcortical-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Felipe Kenji Sudo, Patricia Amado, Gilberto Sousa Alves, Jerson Laks, Eliasz Engelhardt
Background: Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder...
October 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353543/tai-chi-improves-cognition-and-plasma-bdnf-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Somporn Sungkarat, Sirinun Boripuntakul, Sirinart Kumfu, Stephen R Lord, Nipon Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Effects of Tai Chi (TC) on specific cognitive function and mechanisms by which TC may improve cognition in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of TC on cognitive functions and plasma biomarkers (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], and interleukin-10 [IL-10]) in a-MCI. METHODS: A total of 66 older adults with a-MCI (mean age = 67...
January 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342226/don-t-judge-a-book-by-its-cover-examiner-expectancy-effects-predict-neuropsychological-performance-for-individuals-judged-as-chronic-cannabis-users
#20
Louise M Sodos, Rayna B Hirst, Jessica Watson, Dylan Vaughn
Objective: The experimenter expectancy effect confound remains largely unexplored in neuropsychological research and has never been investigated among cannabis users. This study investigated whether examiner expectancies of cannabis user status affected examinees' neuropsychological performance. Method: Participants included 41 cannabis users and 20 non-users. Before testing, examiners who were blind to participant user status privately rated whether they believed the examinee was a cannabis user or non-user...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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