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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726492/does-cognition-specific-computer-training-have-better-clinical-outcomes-than-non-specific-computer-training-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Ji-Hyuk Park, Jin-Hyuck Park
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between non-specific computer training (NCT) and cognition-specific computer training (CCT). DESIGN: Randomized controlled experimental study. SETTING: Local community welfare center. SUBJECTS: A total of 78 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were randomly assigned to the NCT ( n = 39) or CCT group ( n = 39). INTERVENTION: The NCT group underwent NCT using Nintendo Wii for improving functional performance, while the CCT group underwent CCT using CoTras for improving function of the cognitive domain specifically...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726307/naturally-occurring-circadian-rhythm-and-sleep-duration-are-related-to-executive-functions-in-early-adulthood
#2
Liisa Kuula, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Kati Heinonen, Eero Kajantie, Johan Gunnar Eriksson, Sture Andersson, Aulikki Lano, Jari Lahti, Dieter Wolke, Katri Räikkönen
Experimental sleep deprivation studies suggest that insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment associates with poorer executive function. It is not known whether this association translates to naturally occurring sleep patterns. A total of 512 of full-term-born members of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study [mean age = 25.3, standard deviation (SD) = 0.65] (44.3% men) wore actigraphs to define sleep duration, its irregularity and circadian rhythm (sleep mid-point) during a 1-week period (mean 6.9 nights, SD = 1...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722315/association-between-chronic-musculoskeletal-pain-and-executive-function-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#3
S Murata, R Sawa, N Nakatsu, T Saito, T Sugimoto, R Nakamura, S Misu, Y Ueda, R Ono
BACKGROUND: We examined the association of chronic musculoskeletal pain with executive function in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: This cross-sectional study recruited 234 community-dwelling older adults in Japan (mean age: 72.7, women: 62.8%). Chronic musculoskeletal pain was defined as having moderate or more severe pain lasting ≥ 3 months. Executive function was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B, Letter Verbal Fluency Test (LVFT) and Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT)...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718755/preliminary-evidence-for-the-effects-of-aging-and-multiple-sclerosis-on-cognitive-performance-an-analysis-based-on-effect-size-estimates
#4
Rachel E Bollaert, Julia M Balto, Brian M Sandroff, Gioella Chaparro, Manuel E Hernandez, Robert W Motl
Background/Study Context: Although cognitive impairment is common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), there are limited data on older adults with MS. The current pilot study involved a preliminary examination of cognitive impairments across a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in older adults with MS compared with older adults without MS. METHODS: Twenty older adults with MS and 20 older adults without MS (≥60 years of age) underwent cognitive assessments, including the Trail Making Test (TMT) and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713264/white-matter-changes-related-gait-and-executive-function-deficits-associations-with-age-and-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Jennifer Sartor, Kristina Bettecken, Felix P Bernhard, Marc Hofmann, Till Gladow, Tobias Lindig, Meltem Ciliz, Mara Ten Kate, Johanna Geritz, Sebastian Heinzel, Marije Benedictus, Philip Scheltens, Markus A Hobert, Walter Maetzler
Background: White matter changes (WMC) are a common finding among older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and have been associated with, e.g., gait deficits and executive dysfunction. How the factors age and PD influence WMC-related deficits is, to our best knowledge, not investigated to date. We hypothesized that advanced age and presence of PD leads to WMC-related symptoms while practicing tasks with a low complexity level, and low age and absence of PD leads to WMC-related symptoms while practicing tasks with a high complexity level...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710968/enduring-changes-in-brain-metabolites-and-executive-functioning-in-abstinent-cocaine-users
#6
Candice E Crocker, Scot E Purdon, Christopher C Hanstock, Bonnie Lakusta, Peter Seres, Philip G Tibbo
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data connecting the metabolic and cognitive functioning of abstinent cocaine users. This is a pressing public health concern as approximately 1% of the Canadian population and 0.4% of the global population is estimated to have used cocaine in the past year. METHODS: Our clinical study compared the in vivo neurochemical profiles in the prefrontal cortex to cognitive tests associated with the same region in 21 moderate term abstinent cocaine users (average 187days abstinent, range 15-1432days), and 30 healthy controls using 3T (1)H MRS...
June 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710215/a-study-protocol-for-an-observational-cohort-investigating-cognitive-outcomes-and-wellness-in-survivors-of-critical-illness-the-cogwell-study
#7
M Elizabeth Wilcox, Andrew S Lim, Mary P McAndrews, Richard A Wennberg, Ruxandra L Pinto, Sandra E Black, Karolina D Walczak, Jan O Friedrich, Michael S Taglione, Gordon D Rubenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Up to 9 out of 10 intensive care unit (ICU) survivors will suffer some degree of cognitive impairment at hospital discharge and approximately half will have decrements that persist for years. The mechanisms for this newly acquired brain injury are poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of sleep abnormalities and their association with cognitive impairment, examine a well-known genetic risk factor for dementia (Apolipoprotein E ε4) that may allow for genetic risk stratification of ICU survivors at greatest risk of cognitive impairment and determine if electroencephalography (EEG) is an independent predictor of long-term cognitive impairment and possibly a candidate intermediate end point for future clinical trials...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707283/multimodal-physical-activity-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-improves-cognition-in-institutionalized-older-women
#8
Kelem Vedovelli, Bruno Lima Giacobbo, Márcio Silveira Corrêa, Andréa Wieck, Irani Iracema de Lima Argimon, Elke Bromberg
Physical activity has been proposed as a promising intervention to improve cognition and decrease the risk of dementia in older adults. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to mediate, at least partially, these effects of exercise. However, intervention studies of the effects of multimodal exercises on cognition and BDNF levels are scarce and composed by small samples. Thus, the generalization of the conclusions of these studies depends on the reproducibility of the results. In order to contribute to the knowledge on the field, the present study evaluated the effects of a physical activity intervention composed by muscle strengthening and aerobic conditioning on BDNF levels and cognition in older women...
July 13, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707213/non-dominant-hand-use-increases-completion-time-on-part-b-of-the-trail-making-test-but-not-on-part-a
#9
Laura Klaming, Björn N S Vlaskamp
The Trail Making Test (TMT) is used in neuropsychological clinical practice to assess aspects of attention and executive function. The test consists of two parts (A and B) and requires drawing a trail between elements. Many patients are assessed with their non-dominant hand because of motor dysfunction that prevents them from using their dominant hand. Since drawing with the non-dominant hand is not an automatic task for many people, we explored the effect of hand use on TMT performance. The TMT was administered digitally in order to analyze new outcome measures in addition to total completion time...
July 13, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702308/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-implementation-in-middle-income-countries
#10
REVIEW
Serena Tricarico, Hannah C McNeil, David W Cleary, Michael G Head, Victor Lim, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Chong Chun Wie, Cheng Siang Tan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Ismail Aziah, Eddy Seong Guan Cheah, Saul N Faust, Johanna M C Jefferies, Paul J Roderick, Michael Moore, Ho Ming Yuen, Marie-Louise Newell, Nuala McGrath, C Patrick Doncaster, Alex R Kraaijeveld, Jeremy S Webb, Stuart C Clarke
BACKGROUND: Since 2000, the widespread adoption of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has had a major impact in the prevention of pneumonia. Limited access to international financial support means some middle-income countries (MICs) are trailing in the widespread use of PCVs. We review the status of PCV implementation, and discuss any needs and gaps related to low levels of PCV implementation in MICs, with analysis of possible solutions to strengthen the PCV implementation process in MICs...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701553/walking-like-an-ant-a-quantitative-and-experimental-approach-to-understanding-locomotor-mimicry-in-the-jumping-spider-myrmarachne-formicaria
#11
Paul S Shamble, Ron R Hoy, Itai Cohen, Tsevi Beatus
Protective mimicry, in which a palatable species avoids predation by being mistaken for an unpalatable model, is a remarkable example of adaptive evolution. These complex interactions between mimics, models and predators can explain similarities between organisms beyond the often-mechanistic constraints typically invoked in studies of convergent evolution. However, quantitative studies of protective mimicry typically focus on static traits (e.g. colour and shape) rather than on dynamic traits like locomotion...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697504/effects-of-a-training-program-involving-body-cooling-on-physical-and-cognitive-capacities-and-quality-of-life-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-pilot-study
#12
Benoit Gonzales, Gilles Chopard, Benjamin Charry, Eric Berger, Julien Tripard, Eloi Magnin, Alain Groslambert
OBJECTIVE: Two methods using exercise and body cooling could influence the well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The aim of this study was to determine whether wearing a cooling vest during a physical training program could increase the cognitive and physical capacities and quality of life in PwMS. METHODS: Eighteen PwMS (49.6 ± 8 years; Expanded Disability Status Score 5.0 ± 1.0) were randomly assigned to a cooling or control group. PwMS underwent a 7-week physical training program...
July 12, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684776/computerized-cognitive-remediation-therapy-effects-on-resting-state-brain-activity-and-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#13
Fengmei Fan, Yizhuang Zou, Yunlong Tan, L Elliot Hong, Shuping Tan
This study aimed to test how an 8-week training using computerized cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) would modify resting brain functional activity and improve cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia were recruited and randomized into two groups: CCRT or treatment-as-usual (TAU). The CCRT group received 40 sessions of computerized cognitive training over an eight-week period. There was a significant treatment group × time interaction on the processing speed (trail making test: F = 8...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682652/effects-of-water-based-exercise-training-on-the-cognitive-function-and-quality-of-life-of-healthy-adult-women
#14
Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela, José María Cancela
BACKGROUND: Research regarding the impact of aquatic exercise on cognition is scarce. This study aimed at identifying the effects of water-based exercise training on the cognitive function and quality of life of healthy adult women. METHODS: Fifty-one healthy women (mean age: 46.5 ± 12.3 years) were assigned to group A or B and followed a water-based exercise program for six months. During the first three months, the sessions performed by group A were focused on stimulating cognitive function...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682124/motor-cognitive-effects-of-a-computerized-game-based-training-method-in-people-with-dementia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Stefanie Wiloth, Christian Werner, Nele Christin Lemke, Jürgen Bauer, Klaus Hauer
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of a computerized, game-based training on motor-cognitive performances, the transfer of training effects on untrained tasks, and the sustainability of training gains in people with dementia. METHOD: Ninety-nine individuals with a mean age of 82.9 (5.8) and dementia participated in a 10-week randomized controlled trial with three-month follow-up. The intervention group (IG) received a motor-cognitive training on (Physiomat®) including concurrent dual-tasks of balance control with cognitive demands (Physiomat®-Trail Making Tasks (PTMTs))...
July 6, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681715/motor-cortex-trns-improves-pain-affective-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-preliminary-results-of-a-randomised-sham-controlled-trial
#16
Massimiliano Curatolo, Giuseppe La Bianca, Giuseppe Cosentino, Roberta Baschi, Giuseppe Salemi, Rossella Talotta, Marcello Romano, Giovanni Triolo, Marina De Tommaso, Brigida Fierro, Filippo Brighina
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain, chronic fatigue, cognitive deficits, and sleep and mood disorders. The effectiveness of most pharmacological treatments is limited, and there is a need for new, effective and well-tolerated therapies. It has recently been shown that transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) of the motor cortex reduces pain, and that tDCS of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) improves anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment in FM patients...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676771/differences-in-executive-functioning-in-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#17
M Rosa Elosúa, Sandra Del Olmo, María José Contreras
In recent years, the interest in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its relation to deficits in working memory (WM) and more specifically the different executive functions (EFs) has grown, to the point of confirming that these are quite frequent in this disorder. The aim of this study was precisely to explore differences in executive functioning of WM in fourth grade Primary school children with and without ADHD (26 and 29 children, respectively), introducing rigorous control measures in the tests used...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675607/comparison-of-the-mini-mental-state-examination-and-montreal-cognitive-assessment-executive-subtests-in-detecting-post-stroke-cognitive-impairment
#18
Chen Fu, Xianglan Jin, Baoxin Chen, Feiran Xue, Huanmin Niu, Rongjuan Guo, Zhigang Chen, Hong Zheng, Le Wang, Yunling Zhang
AIM: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been shown to be more sensitive in detecting executive dysfunction than the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). However, it is still not known whether all the MoCA executive subtests contribute to the superior sensitivity. Thus, the present study aimed to determine how much executive abnormality was detected by the MMSE and MoCA executive subtests in a population-based cohort of Chinese post-stroke patients. METHODS: The MMSE and MoCA were collected from post-stroke patients (within 15 days to 1 month after stroke, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke) in 14 hospitals of northern and southern China (including 10 top-graded hospitals and 4 community hospitals) between June 2011 and September 2013...
July 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669574/could-high-mental-demands-at-work-offset-the-adverse-association-between-social-isolation-and-cognitive-functioning-results-of-the-population-based-life-adult-study
#19
Francisca S Rodriguez, Matthias L Schroeter, A Veronica Witte, Christoph Engel, Markus Löffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVES: The study investigated whether high mental demands at work, which have shown to promote a good cognitive functioning in old age, could offset the adverse association between social isolation and cognitive functioning. METHODS: Based on data from the population-based LIFE-Adult-Study, the association between cognitive functioning (Verbal Fluency Test, Trail Making Test B) and social isolation (Lubben Social Network Scale) as well as mental demands at work (O*NET database) was analyzed via linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, and sampling weights...
May 29, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661714/early-initiation-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-ats-use-associated-with-lowered-cognitive-performance-among-individuals-with-co-occurring-opioid-and-ats-use-disorders-in-malaysia
#20
Weng-Tink Chooi, Norzarina Mohd Zaharim, Alethea Desrosiers, Imran Ahmad, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin, Sharifah Z Syed Jaapar, Richard S Schottenfeld, Balasingam K Vicknasingam, Marek C Chawarski
Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use is increasingly prevalent in Malaysia, including among individuals who also use opioids. We evaluated cognitive functioning profiles among individuals with co-occurring opioid and ATS dependence and their lifetime patterns of drug use. Participants (N = 50) enrolling in a clinical trial of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment with or without atomoxetine completed the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Digit Span, Trail Making and Symbol Digit Substitution tasks...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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