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Trails making

Knut A Hestad, Knut Engedal, Jon E Whist, Per G Farup
It has been suggested that the metabolic enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a biological mediator of inflammation related to the psychopathology of depression, with a Kynurenine (KYN) increase in the Tryptophan (TRP) metabolic pathway, resulting in reduced Serotonin. In this study, we examined KYN, TRP, and the ratio of KYN to TRP concentrations × 10(3) (KT Ratio) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in (a) a group of depressed patients and (b) a control group of patients referred to a neurologic outpatient clinic for whom no specific diagnosis could be established...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Denise Neumann, Wilfried Mau, Andreas Wienke, Matthias Girndt
Impaired cognitive functioning in patients with end-stage renal disease may reduce their capabilities to adhere to complex medical or dietary regimens and to fully participate in medical decisions. With decreasing renal function, cognitive abilities are likely to decline, with cognitive dysfunction improving after initiation of dialysis and even being generally reversible after successful renal transplantation. However, little is known about cognitive changes particularly regarding different treatment modalities...
October 14, 2017: Kidney International
J C Arango-Lasprilla, D Rivera, D Ramos-Usuga, E Vergara-Moragues, E Montero-López, L A Adana Díaz, A Aguayo Arelis, C E García-Guerrero, C García de la Cadena, X Llerena Espezúa, L Lara, A Padilla-López, W Rodriguez-Irizarry, C Alcazar Tebar, M J Irías Escher, J J Llibre Guerra, N Torales Cabrera, Y Rodríguez-Agudelo, R Ferrer-Cascales
OBJECTIVE: To generate normative data for the Trail Making Test (TMT) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. METHOD: The sample consisted of 3,337 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the TMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The TMT-A and TMT-B scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values...
October 11, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Sandra E Rakers, Myrthe E Scheenen, Herma J Westerhof-Evers, Myrthe E de Koning, Harm J van der Horn, Joukje van der Naalt, Jacoba M Spikman
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between executive functioning (EF) and coping styles, separately for mild and moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the chronic phase postinjury. METHOD: Patients with mild (n = 47) and moderate-severe TBI (n = 59) were included, in addition to healthy controls (HCs; n = 51). Assessment consisted of EF tests (Trail Making Test, Zoo Map Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test) and questionnaires examining EF (Dysexecutive Questionnaire) and coping styles (Utrecht Coping List)...
October 16, 2017: Neuropsychology
Madison Bertolin, Ryan Van Patten, Taylor Greif, Robert Fucetola
Objective: Predicting neurocognitive and functional outcomes in stroke is an important clinical task, especially in rehabilitation settings. We assessed acute predictors of cognitive and functional outcomes 6 months after mild to moderate stroke. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of acute clinical data and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews for 498 mild to moderate stroke patients. Predictors were sociodemographic variables, the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), basic physical measures, the Mesulam Cancellation Test, the Short Blessed Test (SBT), Trails A/B, and the Boston Naming Test...
September 25, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Megan R Williams, Christopher M Murphy, Gregory A Dore, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is associated with a wide range of mental and physical health problems, but little is known about the effect of IPV on cognitive decline. Previous research suggests an association between IPV victimization and cognitive dysfunction, but the few studies that have examined this phenomenon were cross-sectional in design and focused only on female victims of IPV. This study examined cognitive function over time among a diverse population of both male and female victims of IPV...
October 11, 2017: Violence and Victims
Jong-Sung Park, Yumin Oh, Ogyi Park, Catherine A Foss, Sung Mook Lim, Dong-Gyu Jo, Dong Hee Na, Martin G Pomper, Kang Choon Lee, Seulki Lee
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand that can induce apoptosis in cells expressing its cognate death receptors (DRs). Previously, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of recombinant human TRAIL in experimental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) models. However, the mechanisms of how DR-mediated apoptosis elicits these actions is not known. Here, we show that systemically administering a potent, long-acting PEGylated TRAIL (TRAILPEG) is profoundly anti-rheumatic against two complementary experimental RA mouse models, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), via targeting IL-17 secreting Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg)...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Marcus Schiltenwolf, Michael Akbar, Eva Neubauer, Simone Gantz, Herta Flor, Andreas Hug, Haili Wang
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the affected cognitive problems in chronic low back pain patients. For this patient cohort research mostly focused on memory of pain, rather than cognitive difficulties related to pain. Chronic pain may be associated with specific (yet undefined) cognitive deficits that affect everyday behaviour. We set out to compare the cognitive function of patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in the course of multidisciplinary pain treatments before and after therapy...
October 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Judit Málly, Noemi Geisz, Elek Dinya
BACKGROUND: rTMS may influence on both cognitive and motor function in PD but the daily routine and the predictors of responders to rTMS are not known. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that the frequency and intensity of stimulation somehow relate to each other. Our goal was to select the optimal frequency with low intensity for PD. We clarified the importance of age in the effect of rTMS. METHODS: A total sixty-six patients with PD were included in the study...
October 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Marta Gawłowska-Sawosz, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Piotr Gębski, Tomasz Pawełczyk, Dominik Strzelecki, Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the project was to assess the differences in the white matter (WM) fiber structure between patients with early onset schizophrenia (EOS), their first degree relatives and controls using Fractional Anisotropy (FA), and an independent evaluation of the severity of working memory disturbances in the study groups. METHODS: The study included 20 patients diagnosed with paranoid EOS (diagnosed before the age of 18), a group of 20 parents of patients, matched for gender, and 18 healthy controls...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Anna Rajtar-Zembaty, Andrzej Sałakowski, Jakub Rajtar-Zembaty, Anna Starowicz-Filip
OBJECTIVES: Nowadays there are numerous reports stressing the occurrence of cognitive functions disorders in late-life depression (LLD). More and more frequently the studies stress the role of executive dysfunctions in LLD. The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the components of executive functions in non-demented LLD patients, as well as an evaluation of the relation between the individual components of executive functions and the level of depressiveness. METHODS: The study included 87 persons with depression and 100 persons in the control group...
August 29, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Anna Torrens-Burton, Nasreen Basoudan, Antony J Bayer, Andrea Tales
This study examines the relationships between two measures of information processing speed associated with executive function (Trail Making Test and a computer-based visual search test), the perceived difficulty of the tasks, and perceived memory function (measured by the Memory Functioning Questionnaire) in older adults (aged 50+ y) with normal general health, cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 26+), and mood. The participants were recruited from the community rather than through clinical services, and none had ever sought or received help from a health professional for a memory complaint or mental health problem...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nicolle Zimmermann, Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso, Christian Haag Kristensen, Rochele Paz Fonseca
OBJECTIVES: To describe normative data for the Hayling Test and the Trail Making Test (TMT) in a sample of Brazilian adults, and to investigate the effects of age and education on test performance. METHOD: A total of 313 (TMT) and 364 (Hayling) individuals with age ranges of 19-39, 40-59, and 60-75 years, and with at least 5 years of formal education, participated in this study. The tests were administered as part of a large battery of a normative project. Individuals were evaluated individually in silent, ventilated rooms at a university clinic...
July 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Mi-Seung Shin, Minjeong An, Sunhwa Kim, Jae Lan Shim, Jin-Kyu Park, JinShil Kim
BACKGROUND: Studies of the relevance of cardiac functional markers to cognitive performance in heart failure (HF) have primarily focused on systolic markers. In this study, we examine whether concomitant diastolic dysfunction further interferes with cognitive performance in memory, attention, and executive function in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this cross-sectional correlational study, 82 patients completed face-to-face interviews for neuropsychological testing for cognitive evaluation...
2017: PloS One
Kunlin Zhang, Zili Fan, Yufeng Wang, Stephen V Faraone, Li Yang, Suhua Chang
OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the genetic basis of endophenotype and analysis the pathways with multiple genes of small effects might increase the understanding of the genetic basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here we aimed to explore the genetic basis of cognitive flexibility in ADHD at SNP, gene and pathway level. METHODS: The Trail-Making Test (TMT) was used to test the cognitive flexibility of 788 ADHD patients. A genome-wide association analysis of cognitive flexibility was conducted for 644,166 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
October 3, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Soo Yung Jo, Jeong-Won Hwang, Sung-Bom Pyun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of cognitive deficits in patients with post-stroke dysphagia, and to analyze the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and severity of dysphagia in supratentorial stroke. METHODS: A total of 55 patients with first-ever supratentorial lesion stroke were enrolled retrospectively, within 3 months of onset. We rated dysphagia from 0 (normal) to 4 (severe) using the dysphagia severity scale (DSS) through clinical examinations and videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS)...
August 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Matthew R Feeback, Yongsuk Seo, Matthew Dancy, Ellen L Glickman
To further elucidate physiological and cognitive performance differences between African-American (AA) and Caucasian individuals (CAU) before, during or after hypoxic and normoxic exercise. Twelve college aged (18-25) apparently healthy African-American (six volunteers) and Caucasian (six subjects) males took part in two trials consisting of normobaric normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (12% oxygen). Each subject cycled at 50% of their altitude adjusted VO2max (-26% of normoxia VO2max) for one hour after a two-hour baseline...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
Bindu Thapa, Remant Bahadur Kc, Hasan Uludağ
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in variety of cancer cells without affecting most normal cells, which makes it a promising agent for cancer therapy. However, TRAIL therapy is clinically not effective due to resistance induction. To identify novel regulators of TRAIL that can aid in therapy, protein targets whose silencing sensitized breast cancer cells against TRAIL were screened with an siRNA library against 446 human apoptosis-related proteins in MDA-231 cells...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Akemi Hioka, Yoshifumi Mizobuchi, Yoshiteru Tada, Kyoko Nishi, Yasuhiko Shirayama, Shinsuke Katoh, Naoki Akazawa, Ryuji Kaji, Yutaka Ojima, Shinji Nagahiro
To accurately and rapidly screen for higher brain dysfunction, we developed a screening test named the "higher brain dysfunction screening test" (HIBRID-ST). Previous studies have reported a decrease in higher brain function with age. However, whether HIBRID-ST can detect a decrease in higher brain function in healthy persons remains unclear. We aimed to assess the usefulness of HIBRID-ST for evaluating higher brain function in healthy persons. We recruited 60 persons without physiological abnormalities and divided them into six equal groups based on their age (20s-70s)...
2017: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
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