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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149641/site-closure-management-strategies-and-the-responsiveness-of-conservation-outcomes-in-recreational-fishing
#1
Lei Gao, Atakelty Hailu
We develop and use an empirically based model, which integrates fishing behaviour and a coral reef system, to evaluate outcomes from site closure strategies to manage the effects of recreational fishing. The model is designed to estimate management effects in complex settings with two-way feedback effects (between fishing and ecosystem dynamics) as well as spillover effects where the closure of a site (or sites) leads to the redistribution of fishing effort. An iconic coral reef system is used as a case study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148600/new-evidence-for-the-recent-divergence-of-devil-s-hole-pupfish-and-the-plausibility-of-elevated-mutation-rates-in-endangered-taxa
#2
Christopher H Martin, Sebastian Höhna
Saglam et al. (2016) recently argued that the Devil's Hole Pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis), a conservation icon with the smallest known species range, was isolated 60 kya based on a new genomic dataset. If true, this would be a radically long timescale for any species to persist at population sizes less than 500 individuals, in contrast to conservation genetics theory. However, here we argue that their analyses and interpretation are inappropriate. They placed highly restrictive prior distributions on divergence times, which do not appropriately model the large uncertainty and result in removing nearly all uncertainty from their analyses, and chose among models by assuming that pupfishes exhibit human mutation rates...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145629/the-reactome-pathway-knowledgebase
#3
Antonio Fabregat, Steven Jupe, Lisa Matthews, Konstantinos Sidiropoulos, Marc Gillespie, Phani Garapati, Robin Haw, Bijay Jassal, Florian Korninger, Bruce May, Marija Milacic, Corina Duenas Roca, Karen Rothfels, Cristoffer Sevilla, Veronica Shamovsky, Solomon Shorser, Thawfeek Varusai, Guilherme Viteri, Joel Weiser, Guanming Wu, Lincoln Stein, Henning Hermjakob, Peter D'Eustachio
The Reactome Knowledgebase (https://reactome.org) provides molecular details of signal transduction, transport, DNA replication, metabolism, and other cellular processes as an ordered network of molecular transformations-an extended version of a classic metabolic map, in a single consistent data model. Reactome functions both as an archive of biological processes and as a tool for discovering unexpected functional relationships in data such as gene expression profiles or somatic mutation catalogues from tumor cells...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134102/imperial-trophy-or-island-relict-a-new-extinction-paradigm-for-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-a-chinese-conservation-icon
#4
Samuel T Turvey, Ian Barnes, Melissa Marr, Selina Brace
Determining the 'dynamic biogeography' of range collapse in threatened species is essential for effective conservation, but reconstruction of spatio-temporal patterns of population vulnerability and resilience can require use of non-standard ecological data such as historical archives. Père David's deer or milu, one of the few living mammal species that has become extinct in the wild, is historically known only from a small captive herd of unknown provenance that survived until 1900 in the Imperial Hunting Park near Beijing, from which all living individuals are descended...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132079/absence-of-delay-in-spontaneous-use-of-gestures-in-spoken-narratives-among-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Miranda Kit-Yi Wong, Wing-Chee So
BACKGROUND: Gestures are spontaneous hand movements produced when speaking. Despite gestures being of communicative significance, little is known about the gestural production in spoken narratives in six- to 12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). AIMS: The present study examined whether six- to 12-year-old children with ASD have a delay in gestural production in a spoken narrative task, in comparison to their typically-developing (TD) peers. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Six- to-12-year-old children with ASD (N=14) and their age- and IQ-matched TD peers (N=12) narrated a story, which could elicit spontaneous speech and gestures...
November 10, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122203/accident-ahead-difficulties-of-drivers-with-and-without-reading-impairment-recognising-words-and-pictograms-in-variable-message-signs
#6
J Roca, P Tejero, B Insa
A timely and accurate acquisition of the information provided by variable message signs (VMS) can be crucial while driving. In the current study, we assess the difficulties of adults with dyslexia acquiring the information shown in VMS and provide evidence to discuss the controversial use of pictograms as potential countermeasures. Twenty-two adults with dyslexia and 22 matched controls completed a simulated driving session. The legibility of 12 VMS was assessed, including six text messages (e.g. "ACCIDENT") and six single pictograms (e...
February 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115673/seeing-iconic-gestures-while-encoding-events-facilitates-children-s-memory-of-these-events
#7
Suzanne Aussems, Sotaro Kita
An experiment with 72 three-year-olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control conditions. Iconic gestures were categorized based on how much of the actors was represented by the hands (feet, legs, or body)...
November 8, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105308/first-encounters-repair-sequences-in-cross-signing
#8
Kang-Suk Byun, Connie de Vos, Anastasia Bradford, Ulrike Zeshan, Stephen C Levinson
Most human communication is between people who speak or sign the same languages. Nevertheless, communication is to some extent possible where there is no language in common, as every tourist knows. How this works is of some theoretical interest (Levinson, ). A nice arena to explore this capacity is when deaf signers of different languages meet for the first time and are able to use the iconic affordances of sign to begin communication. Here we focus on other-initiated repair (OIR), that is, where one signer makes clear he or she does not understand, thus initiating repair of the prior conversational turn...
November 3, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105292/ediacaran-developmental-biology
#9
Frances S Dunn, Alexander G Liu, Philip C J Donoghue
Rocks of the Ediacaran System (635-541 Ma) preserve fossil evidence of some of the earliest complex macroscopic organisms, many of which have been interpreted as animals. However, the unusual morphologies of some of these organisms have made it difficult to resolve their biological relationships to modern metazoan groups. Alternative competing phylogenetic interpretations have been proposed for Ediacaran taxa, including algae, fungi, lichens, rhizoid protists, and even an extinct higher-order group (Vendobionta)...
November 3, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104335/how-what-we-see-and-what-we-know-influence-iconic-gesture-production
#10
Ingrid Masson-Carro, Martijn Goudbeek, Emiel Krahmer
In face-to-face communication, speakers typically integrate information acquired through different sources, including what they see and what they know, into their communicative messages. In this study, we asked how these different input sources influence the frequency and type of iconic gestures produced by speakers during a communication task, under two degrees of task complexity. Specifically, we investigated whether speakers gestured differently when they had to describe an object presented to them as an image or as a written word (input modality) and, additionally, when they were allowed to explicitly name the object or not (task complexity)...
2017: Journal of Nonverbal Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104142/objective-and-subjective-aesthetic-performance-of-icon-%C3%A2-treatment-for-enamel-hypomineralization-lesions-in-young-adolescents-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#11
Marta Mazur, Stephen Westland, Fabrizio Guerra, Denise Corridore, Maurizio Vichi, Atonello Maruotti, Gianna Maria Nardi, Livia Ottolenghi
OBJECTIVES: An evaluation method is proposed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the clinical outcome of the enamel hypomineralization treatment with infiltrative resin in young adolescents. The aesthetic outcome is assessed before and after treatment by visual evaluation using FDI-colour match criteria and by spectrophotometric analysis using the CIEDE2000 colour difference formula. The visual (subjective) results are compared with the spectrophotometric (objective) approach...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098283/with-some-help-from-others-hands-iconic-gesture-helps-semantic-learning-in-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#12
Susanne S Vogt, Christina Kauschke
Purpose: Semantic learning under 2 co-speech gesture conditions was investigated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Learning was analyzed between conditions. Method: Twenty children with SLI (aged 4 years), 20 TD children matched for age, and 20 TD children matched for language scores were taught rare nouns and verbs. Children heard the target words while seeing either iconic gestures illustrating a property of the referent or a control gesture focusing children's attention on the word...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093478/wild-captive-interactions-and-economics-drive-dynamics-of-asian-elephants-in-laos
#13
Gilles Maurer, Benjamin S Rashford, Vatsana Chanthavong, Baptiste Mulot, Olivier Gimenez
The interactions between wild and captive populations of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) persist in most countries of the species distribution, notably through the reproduction between captive females and wild males. However, these complex interactions have been poorly studied, despite their relevance for conservation of this endangered species. Laos has a centuries-long tradition of raising Asian elephants. Besides being cultural icons, captive elephants are inextricably linked to economics through their work in forestry...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091943/sound-iconicity-of-abstract-concepts-place-of-articulation-is-implicitly-associated-with-abstract-concepts-of-size-and-social-dominance
#14
Jan Auracher
The concept of sound iconicity implies that phonemes are intrinsically associated with non-acoustic phenomena, such as emotional expression, object size or shape, or other perceptual features. In this respect, sound iconicity is related to other forms of cross-modal associations in which stimuli from different sensory modalities are associated with each other due to the implicitly perceived correspondence of their primal features. One prominent example is the association between vowels, categorized according to their place of articulation, and size, with back vowels being associated with bigness and front vowels with smallness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089497/transformation-of-doped-graphite-into-cluster-encapsulated-fullerene-cages
#15
Marc Mulet-Gas, Laura Abella, Maira R Cerón, Edison Castro, Alan G Marshall, Antonio Rodríguez-Fortea, Luis Echegoyen, Josep M Poblet, Paul W Dunk
An ultimate goal in carbon nanoscience is to decipher formation mechanisms of highly ordered systems. Here, we disclose chemical processes that result in formation of high-symmetry clusterfullerenes, which attract interest for use in applications that span biomedicine to molecular electronics. The conversion of doped graphite into a C80 cage is shown to occur through bottom-up self-assembly reactions. Unlike conventional forms of fullerene, the iconic Buckminsterfullerene cage, I h-C60, is entirely avoided in the bottom-up formation mechanism to afford synthesis of group 3-based metallic nitride clusterfullerenes...
October 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078296/extensive-gene-tree-discordance-and-hemiplasy-shaped-the-genomes-of-north-american-columnar-cacti
#16
Dario Copetti, Alberto Búrquez, Enriquena Bustamante, Joseph L M Charboneau, Kevin L Childs, Luis E Eguiarte, Seunghee Lee, Tiffany L Liu, Michelle M McMahon, Noah K Whiteman, Rod A Wing, Martin F Wojciechowski, Michael J Sanderson
Few clades of plants have proven as difficult to classify as cacti. One explanation may be an unusually high level of convergent and parallel evolution (homoplasy). To evaluate support for this phylogenetic hypothesis at the molecular level, we sequenced the genomes of four cacti in the especially problematic tribe Pachycereeae, which contains most of the large columnar cacti of Mexico and adjacent areas, including the iconic saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) of the Sonoran Desert. We assembled a high-coverage draft genome for saguaro and lower coverage genomes for three other genera of tribe Pachycereeae (Pachycereus, Lophocereus, and Stenocereus) and a more distant outgroup cactus, Pereskia We used these to construct 4,436 orthologous gene alignments...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070590/modelling-the-effects-of-short-and-random-proto-neural-elongations
#17
Oltman O de Wiljes, R A J van Elburg, Fred A Keijzer
To understand how neurons and nervous systems first evolved, we need an account of the origins of neural elongations: why did neural elongations (axons and dendrites) first originate, such that they could become the central component of both neurons and nervous systems? Two contrasting conceptual accounts provide different answers to this question. Braitenberg's vehicles provide the iconic illustration of the dominant input-output (IO) view. Here, the basic role of neural elongations is to connect sensors to effectors, both situated at different positions within the body...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060709/iquant%C3%A2-analyser-a-rapid-quantitative-immunoassay-reader
#18
Jayaraj Joseph, Jayaraman Kiruthi Vasan, Malay Shah, Mohansankar Sivaprakasam, Lalit Mahajan
Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) used in rapid quantitative point of care testing require an accurate, reliable and easy to operate instrument to read the LFIA kit and calculate the quantitative result value. We present iQuant® Analyser, an immunoassay reader designed for reading the Quanti® range of LFIA test kits for key markers such as HbA1C, Vitamin D, TSH etc. The instrument utilizes a laser based confocal optics system to capture the test and control lines from the LFIA kit, digitizes the fluorescent signal with high spatiotemporal resolution, computes necessary peak area ratios, applies calibration curves and declares the final result in an automated manner with minimal operator input...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059831/real-time-gait-analysis-with-accelerometer-based-smart-shoes
#19
R Delgado-Gonzalo, J Hubbard, Ph Renevey, A Lemkaddem, Q Vellinga, D Ashby, J Willardson, M Bertschi
In this paper, we present the evaluation of a new smart shoe capable of performing gait analysis in real time. The system is exclusively based on accelerometers which minimizes the power consumption. The estimated parameters are activity class (rest/walk/run), step cadence, ground contact time, foot impact (zone, strength, and balance), forward distance, and speed. The different parameters have been validated with a customized database of 26 subjects on a treadmill and video data labeled manually. Key measures for running analysis such as the cadence is retrieved with a maximum error of 2%, and the ground contact time with an average error of 3...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056140/introduction-to-northeast-pacific-shark-biology-research-and-conservation-part-b
#20
Shawn E Larson, Dayv Lowry
Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean. Because of their ecological role as predators and concern over the stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation around the world in recent decades. The populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific (NEP) Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States reside in one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world. Volume 78 of Advances in Marine Biology (AMB) is a companion to Volume 77, which focused primarily on NEP shark biodiversity, organismal biology, and ecology...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
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