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Carolyn H Tuohy
As the National Health Service (NHS) turns 70, it bears comparison with another universal system celebrating an anniversary this year: Canada's 50-year-old medicare model. Each system is iconically popular, and each revolves around a profession-state accommodation. Both the popularity and the central axis of each system have been tested by external shocks in the form of periodic fiscal cycles of investment and austerity, and internal stresses generating organizational cycles of centralization and decentralization...
March 16, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
James L Januzzi, Annabel A Chen-Tournoux, Robert H Christenson, Gheorghe Doros, Judd E Hollander, Phillip D Levy, John T Nagurney, Richard M Nowak, Peter S Pang, Darshita Patel, W Franklin Peacock, E Joy Rivers, Elizabeth L Walters, Hanna K Gaggin
BACKGROUND: Contemporary reconsideration of diagnostic N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) cutoffs for diagnosis of heart failure (HF) is needed. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP for acute HF in patients with dyspnea in the emergency department (ED) setting. METHODS: Dyspneic patients presenting to 19 EDs in North America were enrolled and had blood drawn for subsequent NT-proBNP measurement...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Dennis F A E Voeten, Jorge Cubo, Emmanuel de Margerie, Martin Röper, Vincent Beyrand, Stanislav Bureš, Paul Tafforeau, Sophie Sanchez
Archaeopteryx is an iconic fossil taxon with feathered wings from the Late Jurassic of Germany that occupies a crucial position for understanding the early evolution of avian flight. After over 150 years of study, its mosaic anatomy unifying characters of both non-flying dinosaurs and flying birds has remained challenging to interpret in a locomotory context. Here, we compare new data from three Archaeopteryx specimens obtained through phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography to a representative sample of archosaurs employing a diverse array of locomotory strategies...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Tao Wang, Yue Xie, Youle Zheng, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Anson V Koehler, Robin B Gasser
The giant panda, with an estimated population size of 2239 in the world (in 2015), is a global symbol of wildlife conservation that is threatened by habitat loss, poor reproduction and limited resistance to some infectious diseases. Of these factors, some diseases caused by parasites are considered as the foremost threat to its conservation. However, there is surprisingly little published information on the parasites of the giant panda, most of which has been disseminated in the Chinese literature. Herein, we review all peer-reviewed publications (in English or Chinese language) and governmental documents for information on parasites of the giant pandas, with an emphasis on the intestinal nematode Baylisascaris schroederi (McIntosh, 1939) as it dominates published literature...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Brady S Moffett, Charissa Kam, Marianne Galati, Lindsay Schmees, Gideon A Stitt, Paula A Revell, Debra L Palazzi
BACKGROUND: Obese pediatric patients often require dose reductions when initiating gentamicin therapy. An appropriate method for calculating ideal body weight for dosing gentamicin in pediatric patients has not been validated. METHODS: A retrospective, population pharmacokinetic study was designed and included non-intensive care pediatric patients who received gentamicin and had serum gentamicin concentrations sampled. Actual body weight, adjusted body weight, and fat-free mass were used to describe the pharmacokinetic variables...
March 6, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Tracey Russell, Simeon Lisovski, Mats Olsson, Gregory Brown, Rebecca Spindler, Amanda Lane, Tamara Keeley, Chris Hibbard, Carolyn J Hogg, Frédéric Thomas, Katherine Belov, Beata Ujvari, Thomas Madsen
Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), a highly contagious cancer, has decimated Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) numbers in the wild. To ensure its long-term survival, a captive breeding program was implemented but has not been as successful as envisaged at its launch in 2005. We therefore investigated the reproductive success of 65 captive devil pair combinations, of which 35 produced offspring (successful pairs) whereas the remaining 30 pairs, despite being observed mating, produced no offspring (unsuccessful pairs)...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Josephine M E Gibson, Lois H Thomas, J J Harrison, Caroline Leigh Watkins
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the views and experiences of stroke survivors and carers about a systematic voiding programme for post-stroke incontinence. BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence after stroke is common and associated with poorer functional outcome. Structured assessment and management are potentially effective interventions but it is important that there is a good understanding of stroke survivors' and carers' views of their acceptability and implementation...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Axel H Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A Hipsley, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jorge Espigares, Juri Hayashi, Yasushi Shimada, Junji Tagami, Alireza Sadr
This study evaluated low-viscosity resin potential as enamel marginal gap sealant for existing composite restoration. Standard restorations with marginal gaps were created in bovine teeth; gaps were resealed using G-Bond Plus (GB, GC, Tokyo, Japan) or Icon (ICN, DMG, Hamburg, Germany) with or without HCl pretreatment (n=8). Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) images were taken before and after resealing of the margin and thermal cycling to calculate enamel marginal gap extent. Cross-sectional microscopy was performed to confirm SS-OCT findings...
March 6, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
Pierce Edmiston, Marcus Perlman, Gary Lupyan
People have long pondered the evolution of language and the origin of words. Here, we investigate how conventional spoken words might emerge from imitations of environmental sounds. Does the repeated imitation of an environmental sound gradually give rise to more word-like forms? In what ways do these forms resemble the original sounds that motivated them (i.e. exhibit iconicity)? Participants played a version of the children's game 'Telephone'. The first generation of participants imitated recognizable environmental sounds (e...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Laura Casas, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Xabier Irigoien
Clownfishes are an excellent model system for investigating the genetic mechanism governing hermaphroditism and socially-controlled sex change in their natural environment because they are broadly distributed and strongly site-attached. Genomic tools, such as genetic linkage maps, allow fine-mapping of loci involved in molecular pathways underlying these reproductive processes. In this study, a high-density genetic map of Amphiprion bicinctus was constructed with 3146 RAD markers in a full-sib family organized in 24 robust linkage groups which correspond to the haploid chromosome number of the species...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard Horton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Lancet
Caitlin Hilverman, Susan Wagner Cook, Melissa C Duff
Co-speech hand gesture facilitates learning and memory, yet the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. One possibility is that motor information in gesture may engage procedural memory representations. Alternatively, iconic information from gesture may contribute to declarative memory representations mediated by the hippocampus. To investigate these alternatives, we examined gesture's effects on word learning in patients with hippocampal damage and declarative memory impairment, with intact procedural memory, and in healthy and in brain-damaged comparison groups...
March 5, 2018: Hippocampus
Hyun-Tai Chung, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Wook Kim, Sun Ha Paek, Dong Gyu Kim, Kook Jin Chun, Tae Hoon Kim, Yong Kyun Kim
Image co-registration is used in frameless gamma knife radiosurgery (GKSRS) to assign a stereotactic coordinate system and verify patient setup before irradiation. The accuracy of co-registration with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of a Gamma Knife IconTM (GK Icon) was assessed, and the effects of the region of co-registration (ROC) were studied. CBCT-to-CBCT co-registration is used for patient setup verification, and its accuracy was examined by co-registering CBCT images taken at various configurations with a reference CBCT series...
2018: PloS One
Angel L Ball, Michael de Riesthal, Richard D Steele
Purpose: Current computer technologies permit independent practice for people with cognitive-communicative disorders. Previous research has investigated compliance rates and outcome changes but not treatment fidelity per se during practice. Our aim was to examine adherence to procedures (treatment fidelity) and accuracy while persons with aphasia independently practiced word production using interactive, multimodal, user-controlled, word-level icons on computers. Method: Four persons with aphasia independently practiced single-word production after stimulation via user-initiated interactions in 3 conditions: (I) auditory stimulus with static representational drawing; (II) auditory stimulus with synchronized articulation video; and (III) users' choice between the 2 prior conditions...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Emil Sandoz-Rosado, Todd D Beaudet, Jan W Andzelm, Eric D Wetzel
The linear polymer poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide), better known by its tradename Kevlar, is an icon of modern materials science due to its remarkable strength, stiffness, and environmental resistance. Here, we propose a new two-dimensional (2D) polymer, "graphamid", that closely resembles Kevlar in chemical structure, but is mechanically advantaged by virtue of its 2D structure. Using atomistic calculations, we show that graphamid comprises covalently-bonded sheets bridged by a high population of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marcia Rodrigues Franco, Rafael Zambelli Pinto, Kim Delbaere, Bianca Yumie Eto, Maíra Sgobbi Faria, Giovana Ayumi Aoyagi, Daniel Steffens, Carlos Marcelo Pastre
BACKGROUND: The Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES) is an innovative tool to assess concern of falling that uses pictures as visual cues to provide more complete environmental contexts. Advantages of Icon-FES over previous scales include the addition of more demanding balance-related activities, ability to assess concern about falling in highly functioning older people, and its normal distribution. OBJECTIVE: To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to assess the measurement properties of the 30-item and 10-item Icon-FES in a community-dwelling Brazilian older population...
February 14, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Mark Lipson, Swapan Mallick, Svend Nielsen, Nadin Rohland, Sina Baleka, Emil Karpinski, Atma M Ivancevic, Thu-Hien To, R Daniel Kortschak, Joy M Raison, Zhipeng Qu, Tat-Jun Chin, Kurt W Alt, Stefan Claesson, Love Dalén, Ross D E MacPhee, Harald Meller, Alfred L Roca, Oliver A Ryder, David Heiman, Sarah Young, Matthew Breen, Christina Williams, Bronwen L Aken, Magali Ruffier, Elinor Karlsson, Jeremy Johnson, Federica Di Palma, Jessica Alfoldi, David L Adelson, Thomas Mailund, Kasper Munch, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Michael Hofreiter, Hendrik Poinar, David Reich
Elephantids are the world's most iconic megafaunal family, yet there is no comprehensive genomic assessment of their relationships. We report a total of 14 genomes, including 2 from the American mastodon, which is an extinct elephantid relative, and 12 spanning all three extant and three extinct elephantid species including an ∼120,000-y-old straight-tusked elephant, a Columbian mammoth, and woolly mammoths. Earlier genetic studies modeled elephantid evolution via simple bifurcating trees, but here we show that interspecies hybridization has been a recurrent feature of elephantid evolution...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jocalyn Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: Lancet
Jessica Greene, Rebecca M Sacks
OBJECTIVE: To identify approaches to presenting cost and resource use measures that support consumers in selecting high-value hospitals. DATA SOURCES: Survey data were collected from U.S. employees of Analog Devices (n = 420). STUDY DESIGN: In two online experiments, participants viewed comparative data on four hospitals. In one experiment, participants were randomized to view one of five versions of the same comparative cost data, and in the other experiment they viewed different versions of the same readmissions data...
February 25, 2018: Health Services Research
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