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Sonia M Hernandez, Catharine N Welch, Valerie E Peters, Erin K Lipp, Shannon Curry, Michael J Yabsley, Susan Sanchez, Andrea Presotto, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Kelley B Hise, Elizabeth Hammond, Whitney M Kistler, Marguerite Madden, April L Conway, Tiffany Kwan, John J Maurer
Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed...
2016: PloS One
Elena Dukhovny, YanYan Zhou
Increasing speed and accuracy of communication via a speech-generating device (SGD) is an important clinical goal in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The current study, conducted with adults without disabilities using a within-subject experimental design, compared the effects of two different SGD trainings on speed and accuracy of locating words via an SGD interface. During size-centered training, participants were introduced to six large icons that completely filled an SGD screen. During location-centered training, participants were introduced to six small icons on a 40-location screen where other icons were hidden...
October 20, 2016: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
Kesaban S Roychoudhuri, Seema G Prasad, Ramesh K Mishra
We examined if iconic pictures belonging to one's native culture interfere with second language production in bilinguals in an object naming task. Bengali-English bilinguals named pictures in both L1 and L2 against iconic cultural images representing Bengali culture or neutral images. Participants named in both "Blocked" and "Mixed" language conditions. In both conditions, participants were significantly slower in naming in English when the background was an iconic Bengali culture picture than a neutral image...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Chang Amber Liu, Jinghu Sui, Charles J Coté, Thomas A Anderson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Caudal anesthesia is a common and effective regional anesthesia technique in pediatric patients. The addition of epinephrine to local anesthetics in caudal anesthesia is a frequent practice; however, changes in hemodynamic and cardiac parameters produced by epinephrine in caudal anesthesia are not well studied. Using data collected with the ICON noninvasive cardiac output monitor, we examined the hemodynamic changes associated with the administration of epinephrine containing local anesthetics during caudal anesthesia in children...
October 11, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Amal A Wanigatunga, Paul V Nickerson, Todd M Manini, Parisa Rashidi
The objective of this analysis was to apply symbolic aggregate approximation (SAX) time-series analysis to accelerometer data for activity pattern visualization stratified by self-reported mobility difficulty. A total of 2393 (71.6  ±  7.9 years old) participants wore an accelerometer on the hip (4  +  d; 10  +  h) during the national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES), a biannual series of health assessments of the US population. One minute epoch data was used to perform SAX, which converted accelerometry time series data into four activity levels...
October 18, 2016: Physiological Measurement
Víctor López-Jaquero, Arturo C Rodríguez, Miguel A Teruel, Francisco Montero, Elena Navarro, Pascual Gonzalez
Tele-rehabilitation is one of the main domains where Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been proven useful to move healthcare from care centers to patients' home. Moreover, patients, especially those carrying out a physical therapy, cannot use a traditional Window, Icon, Menu, Pointer (WIMP) system, but they need to interact in a natural way, that is, there is a need to move from WIMP systems to Post-WIMP ones. Moreover, tele-rehabilitation systems should be developed following the context-aware approach, so that they are able to adapt to the patients' context to provide them with usable and effective therapies...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Rachel Barr, Alecia Moser, Sylvia Rusnak, Laura Zimmermann, Kelly Dickerson, Herietta Lee, Peter Gerhardstein
Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Fawaz L Almutairi, Samantha J Hodges, Nigel P Hunt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the treatment outcome in terms of the malocclusion features and the changes in the occlusion of patients undergoing orthodontic/orthognathic treatment using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) and to test the application of the Index of Orthognathic Functional Treatment Need (IOFTN) on this sample as a measure of orthognathic pre-treatment need. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal cohort study...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthodontics
Zain A Husain, Tiange Chen, Christopher D Corso, Zoheng Wang, Henry Park, Benjamin Judson, Wendell Yarbrough, Hari Deshpande, Saral Mehra, Phoebe Kuo, Roy H Decker, Barbara A Burtness
Importance: The current American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) staging system, developed for human papillomavirus (HPV)-unrelated disease, discriminates poorly when applied to HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC), leading to calls for a new staging system. Objective: To compare the prognostic ability of the AJCC/UICC seventh edition staging system; a recently proposed system, the International Collaboration on Oropharyngeal Cancer Network for Staging (ICON-S); and a novel objectively derived system for HPV-related OPSCC using a national database of patients primarily treated with either radiation or surgery...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Paul Grouchy, Gabriele M T D'Eleuterio, Morten H Christiansen, Hod Lipson
The emergence of symbolic communication is often cited as a critical step in the evolution of Homo sapiens, language, and human-level cognition. It is a widely held assumption that humans are the only species that possess natural symbolic communication schemes, although a variety of other species can be taught to use symbols. The origin of symbolic communication remains a controversial open problem, obfuscated by the lack of a fossil record. Here we demonstrate an unbroken evolutionary pathway from a population of initially noncommunicating robots to the spontaneous emergence of symbolic communication...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katrina M Morris, Denis O'Meally, Thiri Zaw, Xiaomin Song, Amber Gillett, Mark P Molloy, Adam Polkinghorne, Katherine Belov
Production of milk is a key characteristic of mammals, but the features of lactation vary greatly between monotreme, marsupial and eutherian mammals. Marsupials have a short gestation followed by a long lactation period, and milk constituents vary greatly across lactation. Marsupials are born immunologically naïve and rely on their mother's milk for immunological protection. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are an iconic Australian species that are increasingly threatened by disease. Here we use a mammary transcriptome, two milk proteomes and the koala genome to comprehensively characterise the protein components of koala milk across lactation, with a focus on immune constituents...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Iris Yuwen Zhou, Yingkun Guo, Takahiro Igarashi, Yu Wang, Emiri Mandeville, Suk-Tak Chan, Lingyi Wen, Mark Vangel, Eng H Lo, Xunming Ji, Phillip Zhe Sun
Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has been shown to augment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the definition of irreversible ischemic injury. However, the complexity of cerebral structure/composition makes the kurtosis map heterogeneous, limiting the specificity of kurtosis hyperintensity to acute ischemia. We propose an Inherent COrrelation-based Normalization (ICON) analysis to suppress the intrinsic kurtosis heterogeneity for improved characterization of heterogeneous ischemic tissue injury. Fast DKI and relaxation measurements were performed on normal (n = 10) and stroke rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) (n = 20)...
October 3, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Mónica Lopes-Marques, Rodrigo Ozório, Ricardo Amaral, Douglas R Tocher, Óscar Monroig, L Filipe C Castro
The Brazilian teleost Arapaima gigas is an iconic species of the Amazon. In recent years a significant effort has been put into the farming of arapaima to mitigate overfishing threats. However, little is known regarding the nutritional requirements of A. gigas in particular those for essential fatty acids including the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ability to biosynthesize LC-PUFA is dependent upon the gene repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads) and elongases (Elovl), as well as their fatty acid specificities...
September 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Esber Caglar, Ozgur Onder Kuscu, Dorian Hysi
AIM: Resin infiltration of proximal lesions is a new approach to stopping caries progression. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate four-year efficacy of proximal infiltrates in adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In ten adolescents, a total of 21 proximal infiltrates (ICON® (DMG, Germany) were applied to initial proximal lesions of permanent incisors and premolars according to the manufacturer's instruction. The clinical quality of resin infiltration was assessed at 1 week, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years after the treatment and the evaluation of the therapeutic effect was analyzed by radiographs...
December 2015: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
Maris Hindrikson, Jaanus Remm, Malgorzata Pilot, Raquel Godinho, Astrid Vik Stronen, Laima Baltrūnaité, Sylwia D Czarnomska, Jennifer A Leonard, Ettore Randi, Carsten Nowak, Mikael Åkesson, José Vicente López-Bao, Francisco Álvares, Luis Llaneza, Jorge Echegaray, Carles Vilà, Janis Ozolins, Dainis Rungis, Jouni Aspi, Ladislav Paule, Tomaž Skrbinšek, Urmas Saarma
The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is an iconic large carnivore that has increasingly been recognized as an apex predator with intrinsic value and a keystone species. However, wolves have also long represented a primary source of human-carnivore conflict, which has led to long-term persecution of wolves, resulting in a significant decrease in their numbers, genetic diversity and gene flow between populations. For more effective protection and management of wolf populations in Europe, robust scientific evidence is crucial...
September 28, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Stephen C Dreskin, Neal A Halsey, John M Kelso, Robert A Wood, Donna S Hummell, Kathryn M Edwards, Jean-Christoph Caubet, Renata J M Engler, Michael S Gold, Claude Ponvert, Pascal Demoly, Mario Sanchez-Borges, Antonella Muraro, James T Li, Menachem Rottem, Lanny J Rosenwasser
BACKGROUND: Routine immunization, one of the most effective public health interventions, has effectively reduced death and morbidity due to a variety of infectious diseases. However, allergic reactions to vaccines occur very rarely and can be life threatening. Given the large numbers of vaccines administered worldwide, there is a need for an international consensus regarding the evaluation and management of allergic reactions to vaccines. METHODS: Following a review of the literature, and with the active participation of representatives from the World Allergy Organization (WAO), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI), the final committee was formed with the purpose of having members who represented a wide-range of countries, had previously worked on vaccine safety, and included both allergist/immunologists as well as vaccinologists...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
Julann A Spromberg, David H Baldwin, Steven E Damm, Jenifer K McIntyre, Michael Huff, Catherine A Sloan, Bernadita F Anulacion, Jay W Davis, Nathaniel L Scholz
Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Mitzy Pepper, David G Hamilton, Thomas Merkling, Nina Svedin, Bori Cser, Renee A Catullo, Sarah R Pryke, J Scott Keogh
The spectacular threat display of the savannah specialist Australo-Papuan frilled lizards has made them one of the world's most iconic reptiles. They are increasingly used as a model system for research in evolutionary biology and ecology but little is known of their population structure. Their distribution across northern Australia and southern New Guinea also provides an opportunity to examine biogeographic patterns as they relate to the large-scale movement of savannah habitat during the Plio/Pleistocene and the associated increase in aridity...
September 21, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Janine Aucamp, Abel J Bronkhorst, Christoffel P S Badenhorst, Piet J Pretorius
The discovery of quantitative and qualitative differences of the circulating DNA (cirDNA) between healthy and diseased individuals inclined researchers to investigate these molecules as potential biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis of various pathologies. However, except for some prenatal tests, cirDNA analyses have not been readily translated to clinical practice due to a lack of knowledge regarding its composition, function, and biological and evolutionary origins. We believe that, to fully grasp the nature of cirDNA and the extracellular vesicles (EVs) and protein complexes with which it is associated, it is necessary to probe the early and badly neglected work that contributed to the discovery and development of these concepts...
September 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Joel I Cohen
INTRODUCTION: In 1836, Charles Darwin returned to England with finches classified and seemingly showing little resemblance. However, subsequent examination by John Gould revealed 13 closely related species endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Despite initial confusion, and Darwin's overlooking to label these birds by island, some 100 years later they had become evolution's icon. The same could be said of Darwin's education and scientific pursuits, beginning in a rough, trial and error manner, lacking direction, but eventually benefitting from an unexpected opportunity that would lead to his theory of natural selection...
2016: SpringerPlus
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