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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812623/a-thousand-empirical-adaptive-landscapes-and-their-navigability
#1
José Aguilar-Rodríguez, Joshua L Payne, Andreas Wagner
The adaptive landscape is an iconic metaphor that pervades evolutionary biology. It was mostly applied in theoretical models until recent years, when empirical data began to allow partial landscape reconstructions. Here, we exhaustively analyse 1,137 complete landscapes from 129 eukaryotic species, each describing the binding affinity of a transcription factor to all possible short DNA sequences. We find that the navigability of these landscapes through single mutations is intermediate to that of additive and shuffled null models, suggesting that binding affinity-and thereby gene expression-is readily fine-tuned via mutations in transcription factor binding sites...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811884/factors-contributing-to-the-accumulation-of-reproductive-isolation-a-mixed-model-approach
#2
Dean M Castillo
The analysis of large datasets describing reproductive isolation between species has been extremely influential in the study of speciation. However, the statistical methods currently used for these data limit the ability to make direct inferences about the factors predicting the evolution of reproductive isolation. As a result, our understanding of iconic patterns and rules of speciation rely on indirect analyses that have clear statistical limitations. Phylogenetic mixed models are commonly used in ecology and evolution, but have not been applied to studies of reproductive isolation...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807934/a-novel-bounding-gait-in-swimming-turtles-implications-for-aquatic-locomotor-diversity
#3
Christopher J Mayerl, Richard W Blob
Turtles are an iconic lineage in studies of animal locomotion, typifying the use of slow, alternating footfalls during walking. Alternating movements of contralateral limbs are also typical during swimming gaits for most freshwater turtles. Here, we report a novel gait in turtles, in which the pleurodire Emydura subglobosa swims using a bounding gait that coordinates bilateral protraction of both forelimbs with bilateral retraction of both hindlimbs. Use of this bounding gait is correlated with increased limb excursion and decreased stride frequency, but not increased velocity when compared to standard swimming strokes...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802460/are-the-warning-icons-more-attentional
#4
Jin Tao, Niu Yafeng, Zhou Lei
The rapid growth of attention to visual warnings is a representation of the adaptive behavior of humans. However, the ways warning icons attract attention in the cognition context has yet to be clarified. This research aims to investigate cognitive mechanism of warning icons under various perceptual loads. The results of Experiment A, whose average attentional capture effect of the warning icons (69 ms) was significantly higher than that of the ordinary icons (35 ms), show that compared with ordinary icons, warning icons are prioritized in processing under both high and low perceptual loads...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802458/semantic-distance-as-a-critical-factor-in-icon-design-for-in-car-infotainment-systems
#5
Johanna M Silvennoinen, Tuomo Kujala, Jussi P P Jokinen
In-car infotainment systems require icons that enable fluent cognitive information processing and safe interaction while driving. An important issue is how to find an optimised set of icons for different functions in terms of semantic distance. In an optimised icon set, every icon needs to be semantically as close as possible to the function it visually represents and semantically as far as possible from the other functions represented concurrently. In three experiments (N = 21 each), semantic distances of 19 icons to four menu functions were studied with preference rankings, verbal protocols, and the primed product comparisons method...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802453/the-effects-of-luminance-contrast-colour-combinations-font-and-search-time-on-brand-icon-legibility
#6
Ya-Hsien Ko
This study explored and identified the effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility. A total of 108 participants took part in the experiment. As designed, legibility was measured as a function of the following independent variables: four levels of luminance contrast, sixteen target/background colour combinations, two fonts, and three search times. The results showed that a luminance contrast of 18:1 provided readers with the best legibility. Yellow on black, yellow on blue, and white on blue were the three most legible colour combinations...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802442/the-duration-perception-of-loading-applications-in-smartphone-effects-of-different-loading-types
#7
Wenguo Zhao, Yan Ge, Weina Qu, Kan Zhang, Xianghong Sun
The loading time of a smartphone application is an important issue, which affects the satisfaction of phone users. This study evaluated the effects of black loading screen (BLS) and animation loading screen (ALS) during application loading on users' duration perception and satisfaction. A total of 43 volunteers were enrolled. They were asked to complete several tasks by clicking the icons of each application, such as camera or message. The duration of loading time for each application was manipulated. The participants were asked to estimate the duration, evaluate the loading speed and their satisfaction...
November 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781999/accelerating-electron-tomography-reconstruction-algorithm-icon-with-gpu
#8
Yu Chen, Zihao Wang, Jingrong Zhang, Lun Li, Xiaohua Wan, Fei Sun, Fa Zhang
Electron tomography (ET) plays an important role in studying in situ cell ultrastructure in three-dimensional space. Due to limited tilt angles, ET reconstruction always suffers from the "missing wedge" problem. With a validation procedure, iterative compressed-sensing optimized NUFFT reconstruction (ICON) demonstrates its power in the restoration of validated missing information for low SNR biological ET dataset. However, the huge computational demand has become a major problem for the application of ICON...
2017: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776012/dna-s-chiral-spine-of-hydration
#9
M Luke McDermott, Heather Vanselous, Steven A Corcelli, Poul B Petersen
The iconic helical structure of DNA is stabilized by the solvation environment, where a change in the hydration state can lead to dramatic changes to the DNA structure. X-ray diffraction experiments at cryogenic temperatures have shown crystallographic water molecules in the minor groove of DNA, which has led to the notion of a spine of hydration of DNA. Here, chiral nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy of two DNA sequences shows that not only do such structural water molecules exist in solution at ambient conditions but that they form a chiral superstructure: a chiral spine of hydration...
July 26, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772269/effects-of-self-assembling-peptide-p11-4-fluorides-and-caries-infiltration-on-artificial-enamel-caries-lesions-in-vitro
#10
Richard J Wierichs, Julian Kogel, Julian Lausch, Marcella Esteves-Oliveira, Hendrik Meyer-Lueckel
The application of a self-assembling peptide on noncavitated caries lesions is supposed to be a feasible approach to facilitate remineralization and mask their unfavorable appearance. However, demineralizing conditions are common in the oral environment, so the aim of this pH-cycling study was to compare recommended and novel treatment methods regarding their ability to hamper demineralization and as a consequence mask artificial enamel caries lesions. Artificial caries lesions were prepared in bovine enamel and randomly allocated to 11 groups (n = 22)...
August 4, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770082/lazarus-ecology-recovering-the-distribution-and-migratory-patterns-of-the-extinct-carolina-parakeet
#11
Kevin R Burgio, Colin J Carlson, Morgan W Tingley
The study of the ecology and natural history of species has traditionally ceased when a species goes extinct, despite the benefit to current and future generations of potential findings. We used the extinct Carolina parakeet as a case study to develop a framework investigating the distributional limits, subspecific variation, and migratory habits of this species as a means to recover important information about recently extinct species. We united historical accounts with museum collections to develop an exhaustive, comprehensive database of every known occurrence of this once iconic species...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761579/a-bayesian-approach-for-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-alcohol-in-japanese-individuals
#12
Asuka Nemoto, Matsuura Masaaki, Kazue Yamaoka
BACKGROUND: Blood alcohol concentration data that were previously obtained from 34 healthy Japanese subjects with limited sampling times were reanalyzed. Characteristics of the data were that the concentrations were obtained from only the early part of the time-concentration curve. OBJECTIVE: To explore significant covariates for the population pharmacokinetic analysis of alcohol by incorporating external data using a Bayesian method, and to estimate effects of the covariates...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759323/designing-home-based-telemedicine-systems-for-the-geriatric-population-an-empirical-study
#13
Shraddhaa Narasimha, Sruthy Agnisarman, Kapil Chalil Madathil, Anand Gramopadhye, James T McElligott
Background and Introduction: Telemedicine, the process of providing healthcare remotely using communication devices, has the potential to be useful for the geriatric population when specifically designed for this age group. This study explored the design of four video telemedicine systems currently available and outlined issues with these systems that impact usability among the geriatric population. Based on the results, design suggestions were developed to improve telemedicine systems for this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a between-subjects experimental design, the study considered four telemedicine systems used in Medical University of South Carolina...
July 31, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758195/the-impact-of-traditionality-modernity-on-identification-and-calculus-based-trust
#14
Na Zhao, Yuanyuan Shi, Ziqiang Xin, Jianxin Zhang
We conducted three studies to explore how trust is perceived, displayed or changed by participants in China, which as a country has undergone substantial cultural and historical transition. Traditionality showed a significant positive correlation with identification-based trust (IBT) and modernity was significantly associated with calculus-based trust (CBT; Study 1). Compared to those primed with modern Chinese culture stimuli, participants primed with traditional icons exhibited a higher level of IBT and a lower level of CBT (Study 2)...
July 30, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755726/the-underappreciated-doctors-of-the-american-civil-rights-movement-part-i-theodore-roosevelt-mason-howard-md
#15
EDITORIAL
Richard D deShazo, Sara B Parker
During the fight to end segregation in the United States, most of the 25 or so black physicians who had not already left Mississippi took risks to become active in civil rights locally and nationally. One of the first was T.R.M. Howard, MD, whose life story is both an encouragement and warning for today's physicians. Howard, the protégé of a white Adventist physician, became active in civil rights during medical school. While serving as chief surgeon of the all-black hospital in Mississippi, he formed his own civil rights organization in 1951 and worked to solve the shootings of 2 of its members, George Lee and Gus Courts, and the murder of Emmett Till in 1955...
July 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754965/reconstructing-the-historical-synthesis-of-mauveine-from-perkin-and-caro-procedure-and-details
#16
Tânia F G G Cova, Alberto A C C Pais, J Sérgio Seixas de Melo
Mauveine, an iconic dye, first synthesised in 1856 still has secrets to unveil. If nowadays one wanted to prepare the original Perkin's mauveine, what would be the procedure? It will be described in this work and lies on the use of a 1:2:1 (mole) ratio of aniline, p-toluidine and o-toluidine. This was found from a comparison of a series of products synthesized from different proportions of these starting materials, with a set of historical samples of mauveine and further analysed with two unsupervised chemometrics methods...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749996/misinformation-lingers-in-memory-failure-of-three-pro-vaccination-strategies
#17
Sara Pluviano, Caroline Watt, Sergio Della Sala
People's inability to update their memories in light of corrective information may have important public health consequences, as in the case of vaccination choice. In the present study, we compare three potentially effective strategies in vaccine promotion: one contrasting myths vs. facts, one employing fact and icon boxes, and one showing images of non-vaccinated sick children. Beliefs in the autism/vaccines link and in vaccines side effects, along with intention to vaccinate a future child, were evaluated both immediately after the correction intervention and after a 7-day delay to reveal possible backfire effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747476/ancient-dna-and-morphometric-analysis-reveal-extinction-and-replacement-of-new-zealand-s-unique-black-swans
#18
Nicolas J Rawlence, Afroditi Kardamaki, Luke J Easton, Alan J D Tennyson, R Paul Scofield, Jonathan M Waters
Prehistoric human impacts on megafaunal populations have dramatically reshaped ecosystems worldwide. However, the effects of human exploitation on smaller species, such as anatids (ducks, geese, and swans) are less clear. In this study we apply ancient DNA and osteological approaches to reassess the history of Australasia's iconic black swans (Cygnus atratus) including the palaeo-behaviour of prehistoric populations. Our study shows that at the time of human colonization, New Zealand housed a genetically, morphologically, and potentially ecologically distinct swan lineage (C...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746407/prehistoric-mitochondrial-dna-of-domesticate-animals-supports-a-13th-century-exodus-from-the-northern-us-southwest
#19
Brian M Kemp, Kathleen Judd, Cara Monroe, Jelmer W Eerkens, Lindsay Hilldorfer, Connor Cordray, Rebecca Schad, Erin Reams, Scott G Ortman, Timothy A Kohler
The 13th century Puebloan depopulation of the Four Corners region of the US Southwest is an iconic episode in world prehistory. Studies of its causes, as well as its consequences, have a bearing not only on archaeological method and theory, but also social responses to climate change, the sociology of social movements, and contemporary patterns of cultural diversity. Previous research has debated the demographic scale, destinations, and impacts of Four Corners migrants. Much of this uncertainty stems from the substantial differences in material culture between the Four Corners vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744759/do-verbal-children-with-autism-comprehend-gesture-as-readily-as-typically-developing-children
#20
Nevena Dimitrova, Şeyda Özçalışkan, Lauren B Adamson
Gesture comprehension remains understudied, particularly in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have difficulties in gesture production. Using a novel gesture comprehension task, Study 1 examined how 2- to 4-year-old typically-developing (TD) children comprehend types of gestures and gesture-speech combinations, and showed better comprehension of deictic gestures and reinforcing gesture-speech combinations than iconic/conventional gestures and supplementary gesture-speech combinations at each age...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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