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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908662/too-cool-symbolic-but-not-iconic-stimuli-impair-4-year-old-children-s-performance-on-the-delay-of-gratification-choice-paradigm
#1
Lisa G Labuschagne, Taylor-Jane Cox, Kaitlyn Brown, Damian Scarf
A common method of improving the performance of children and non-human primates on the delay-of-gratification maintenance paradigm and measures of executive function (e.g., the Less is More task) is to represent the rewards subjects can acquire symbolically. This method, known as symbolic distancing, is thought to lower activation of the "hot" impulsive system and allow the "cool" rational system to dominate processing. Surprisingly, in contrast to its impact on the measures noted above, recent developmental and comparative studies have reported that symbolic distancing has a null or negative impact on performance on the delay-of-gratification choice paradigm...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903969/targeting-tissue-factor-as-a-novel-therapeutic-oncotarget-for-eradication-of-cancer-stem-cells-isolated-from-tumor-cell-lines-tumor-xenografts-and-patients-of-breast-lung-and-ovarian-cancer
#2
Zhiwei Hu, Jie Xu, Jijun Cheng, Elizabeth McMichael, Lianbo Yu, William E Carson Iii
Targeting cancer stem cell (CSC) represents a promising therapeutic approach as it can potentially fight cancer at its root. The challenge is to identify a surface therapeutic oncotarget on CSC. Tissue factor (TF) is known as a common yet specific surface target for cancer cells and tumor neovasculature in several solid cancers. However, it is unknown if TF is expressed by CSCs. Here we demonstrate that TF is constitutively expressed on CD133 positive (CD133+) or CD24-CD44+ CSCs isolated from human cancer cell lines, tumor xenografts from mice and breast tumor tissues from patients...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899113/collapse-of-an-iconic-conifer-long-term-changes-in-the-demography-of-widdringtonia-cedarbergensis-using-repeat-photography
#3
J D M White, S L Jack, M T Hoffman, J Puttick, D Bonora, V Visser, E C February
BACKGROUND: Conifer populations appear disproportionately threatened by global change. Most examples are, however, drawn from the northern hemisphere and long-term rates of population decline are not well documented as historical data are often lacking. We use a large and long-term (1931-2013) repeat photography dataset together with environmental data and fire records to account for the decline of the critically endangered Widdringtonia cedarbergensis. Eighty-seven historical and repeat photo-pairs were analysed to establish 20th century changes in W...
November 30, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896479/body-size-drives-allochthony-in-food-webs-of-tropical-rivers
#4
Timothy D Jardine, Thomas S Rayner, Neil E Pettit, Dominic Valdez, Douglas P Ward, Garry Lindner, Michael M Douglas, Stuart E Bunn
Food web subsidies from external sources ("allochthony") can support rich biological diversity and high secondary and tertiary production in aquatic systems, even those with low rates of primary production. However, animals vary in their degree of dependence on these subsidies. We examined dietary sources for aquatic animals restricted to refugial habitats (waterholes) during the dry season in Australia's wet-dry tropics, and show that allochthony is strongly size dependent. While small-bodied fishes and invertebrates derived a large proportion of their diet from autochthonous sources within the waterhole (phytoplankton, periphyton, or macrophytes), larger animals, including predatory fishes and crocodiles, demonstrated allochthony from seasonally inundated floodplains, coastal zones or the surrounding savanna...
November 28, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895614/mimological-reveries-disconfirming-the-hypothesis-of-phono-emotional-iconicity-in-poetry
#5
Maria Kraxenberger, Winfried Menninghaus
The present study retested previously reported empirical evidence suggesting an iconic relation between sound and emotional meaning in poetry. To this end, we analyzed the frequency of certain phoneme classes in 48 German poems and correlated them with ratings for emotional classification. Our analyses provide evidence for a link between the emotional classification of poems (joyful vs. sad) and the perception of tonal contrast as reflected in the attribution of phenomenological sound qualia (bright vs. dark)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891216/evolution-of-the-elaborate-male-intromittent-organ-of-xiphophorus-fishes
#6
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Anja Keller, Manfred Schartl, Axel Meyer
Internally fertilizing animals show a remarkable diversity in male genital morphology that is associated with sexual selection, and these traits are thought to be evolving particularly rapidly. Male fish in some internally fertilizing species have "gonopodia," highly modified anal fins that are putatively important for sexual selection. However, our understanding of the evolution of genital diversity remains incomplete. Contrary to the prediction that male genital traits evolve more rapidly than other traits, here we show that gonopodial traits and other nongonopodial traits exhibit similar evolutionary rates of trait change and also follow similar evolutionary models in an iconic genus of poeciliid fish (Xiphophorus spp...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890150/assessing-ergonomic-risks-of-software-development-of-the-seat
#7
S Camille Peres, Ranjana K Mehta, Paul Ritchey
Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing)...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876800/rapid-laccolith-intrusion-driven-by-explosive-volcanic-eruption
#8
Jonathan M Castro, Benoit Cordonnier, C Ian Schipper, Hugh Tuffen, Tobias S Baumann, Yves Feisel
Magmatic intrusions and volcanic eruptions are intimately related phenomena. Shallow magma intrusion builds subsurface reservoirs that are drained by volcanic eruptions. Thus, the long-held view is that intrusions must precede and feed eruptions. Here we show that explosive eruptions can also cause magma intrusion. We provide an account of a rapidly emplaced laccolith during the 2011 rhyolite eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. Remote sensing indicates that an intrusion began after eruption onset and caused severe (>200 m) uplift over 1 month...
November 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873444/the-effects-of-menstrual-phase-on-orthodontic-pain-following-initial-archwire-engagement
#9
Hu Long, Meiya Gao, Yafen Zhu, He Liu, Yang Zhou, Lina Liao, Wenli Lai
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of menstrual cycle on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement. METHODS: Female participants with regular menstrual cycles were recruited and assigned into follicular group or luteal group. Demographical and baseline variables were collected: age, education, menstrual duration, anxiety, oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) and index of complexity outcome and need (ICON). Following initial archwire engagement, orthodontic pain was determined through visual analogue scale (VAS) on 1(st) day, 2(nd) day and 3(rd) day...
November 22, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853622/tool-bending-in-new-caledonian-crows
#10
Christian Rutz, Shoko Sugasawa, Jessica E M van der Wal, Barbara C Klump, James J H St Clair
'Betty' the New Caledonian crow astonished the world when she 'spontaneously' bent straight pieces of garden wire into hooked foraging tools. Recent field experiments have revealed that tool bending is part of the species' natural behavioural repertoire, providing important context for interpreting Betty's iconic wire-bending feat. More generally, this discovery provides a compelling illustration of how natural history observations can inform laboratory-based research into the cognitive capacities of non-human animals...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853573/a-new-miocene-baleen-whale-from-the-peruvian-desert
#11
Felix G Marx, Naoki Kohno
The Pisco-Ica and Sacaco basins of southern Peru are renowned for their abundance of exceptionally preserved fossil cetaceans, several of which retain traces of soft tissue and occasionally even stomach contents. Previous work has mostly focused on odontocetes, with baleen whales currently being restricted to just three described taxa. Here, we report a new Late Miocene rorqual (family Balaenopteridae), Incakujira anillodefuego gen. et sp. nov., based on two exceptionally preserved specimens from the Pisco Formation exposed at Aguada de Lomas, Sacaco Basin, southern Peru...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853226/i-can-haz-more-science-emoji-host-of-nerd-icons-proposed
#12
Katherine Bourzac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853113/ancient-human-parasites-in-ethnic-chinese-populations
#13
REVIEW
Hui-Yuan Yeh, Piers D Mitchell
Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852780/functional-organization-of-flash-induced-v1-offline-reactivation
#14
Kenta Funayama, Nobuhiro Hagura, Hiroshi Ban, Yuji Ikegaya
: The primary visual cortex exhibits a late, long response with a latency of >300 ms and an immediate early response that occurs ∼100 ms after a visual stimulus. The late response is thought to contribute to visual functions such as sensory perception, iconic memory, working memory, and forming connections between temporally separated stimuli. However, how the visual late response is generated and organized is not completely understood. In the mouse primary visual cortex in vivo, we isolated long-delayed responses by using a brief light-flash stimulus for which the stimulus late response occurred long after the stimulus offset and was not contaminated by the instantaneous response evoked by the stimulus...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846424/scene-incongruity-and-attention
#15
Arien Mack, Jason Clarke, Muge Erol, John Bert
Does scene incongruity, (a mismatch between scene gist and a semantically incongruent object), capture attention and lead to conscious perception? We explored this question using 4 different procedures: Inattention (Experiment 1), Scene description (Experiment 2), Change detection (Experiment 3), and Iconic Memory (Experiment 4). We found no differences between scene incongruity and scene congruity in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, although in Experiment 3 change detection was faster for scenes containing an incongruent object...
November 12, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843621/does-clinical-trial-participation-improve-outcomes-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#16
L Khoja, L Horsley, A Heesters, J D Machin, C Mitchell, A R Clamp, G C Jayson, J Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Treatment on a clinical trial is considered to be beneficial to oncology patients. However, supportive evidence for this is scarce. Trial effect describes the phenomenon of improved health outcomes in patients treated with standard of care (SOC) on trial compared to those receiving SOC outside of a clinical trial. We evaluated trial effect in patients with ovarian cancer treated at our tertiary cancer centre. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with ovarian cancer treated at The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833619/translating-the-banana-genome-to-delineate-stress-resistance-dwarfing-parthenocarpy-and-mechanisms-of-fruit-ripening
#17
REVIEW
Prasanta K Dash, Rhitu Rai
Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit "Banana" remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832454/a-tale-of-two-biographies-the-myth-and-truth-of-barbara-mcclintock
#18
Esha Shah
Evelyn Fox Keller wrote first biography of the Nobel Prize winning geneticist Barbara McClintock in which Keller discussed how McClintock felt being rejected by her peers in the 1950s because she questioned the dominant idea of the particulate gene and instead proposed that the genetic material jumped positions on the chromosome which indicated that the gene did not control but was controlled by the cellular environment. Keller's story of McClintock's life is an account of a woman scientist's conception of science and how her unorthodox views isolated her from the main stream science...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822850/population-pharmacokinetics-pk-and-pharmacodynamics-pd-analysis-of-ly3015014-a-monoclonal-antibody-to-protein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-pcsk9-in-healthy-subjects-and-hypercholesterolemia-patients
#19
Tong Shen, Douglas E James, Kathryn A Krueger
PURPOSE: LY3015014 is a humanized immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody that binds to the catalytic domain of PCSK9 and reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with hypercholesterolemia that is poorly controlled by maximally tolerated statin therapy. The objective of this pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) analysis was to characterize the PK and PD properties of LY3015014 and assess the effect of covariates on the LY3015014 PK-PD profiles. METHODS: Single and multiple dose data from three phase1 studies in healthy subjects (n = 133), as well as a phase 2 study in hypercholesterolemia patients (n = 527) were combined into a single dataset for analysis...
November 7, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821625/hippocrates-ca-460-375-bc-introducing-thoracotomy-combined-with-a-tracheal-intubation-for-the-parapneumonic-pleural-effusions-and-empyema-thoracis
#20
Gregory Tsoucalas, Markos Sgantzos
Hippocrates was the first physician to describe in accuracy pleural effusion and pneumonia. To treat empyema thoracis he had introduced a combined method of tracheal intubation with a simultaneously thoracotomy. The surgical incision was used for the pus to be progressively drainaged. If the patient was too weak to eat, he had suggested for nutritional mixtures to be administered through an oral-gastric tube. Thus Hippocrates composed in his operating theatre, an icon similar to modern surgical operations.
December 2016: Surgical Innovation
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