Read by QxMD icon Read

Protein synthesis

L J Gu, Y Y Zhang, L Wang, J L Wang, X Wang, W J Yuan
Objective: To investigate the changes of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its role in skeletal muscle atrophy. Methods: A total of 240 patients with CKD stage 1-5 (without dialysis treatment) were included between August 2016 and February 2017. Serum IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were measured using chemiluminescence, and the influencing factors of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were analyzed. Besides, male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly assigned to the sham-operated control group (Control, n =15) and the 5/6 nephrectomy group ( n =15) as CKD animal model...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Mitsuko Kishi-Kaboshi, Shigemi Seo, Akira Takahashi, Hirohiko Hirochika
Phenylpropanoids including diverse compounds, such as monolignols and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAAs), are essential for land plants to protect them against abiotic stresses, and create physical and chemical barriers to pathogen infection. However, the production control of these compounds against to pathogens has been poorly understood. Previously we showed that a MAMP (microbe-associated molecular pattern) -responsive MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade (MKK4-MPK3/MPK6) comprehensively induced the expression of cinnamate/monolignol synthesis genes in rice cells...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Walderik W Zomerman, Sabine L A Plasschaert, Siobhan Conroy, Frank J Scherpen, Tiny G J Meeuwsen-de Boer, Harm J Lourens, Sergi Guerrero Llobet, Marlinde J Smit, Lorian Slagter-Menkema, Annika Seitz, Corrie E M Gidding, Esther Hulleman, Pieter Wesseling, Lisethe Meijer, Leon C van Kempen, Anke van den Berg, Daniël O Warmerdam, Frank A E Kruyt, Floris Foijer, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Wilfred F A den Dunnen, Eelco W Hoving, Victor Guryev, Eveline S J M de Bont, Sophia W M Bruggeman
The brain cancer medulloblastoma consists of different transcriptional subgroups. To characterize medulloblastoma at the phosphoprotein-signaling level, we performed high-throughput peptide phosphorylation profiling on a large cohort of SHH (Sonic Hedgehog), group 3, and group 4 medulloblastomas. We identified two major protein-signaling profiles. One profile was associated with rapid death post-recurrence and resembled MYC-like signaling for which MYC lesions are sufficient but not necessary. The second profile showed enrichment for DNA damage, as well as apoptotic and neuronal signaling...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Chunyang Bao, Yueheng Yin, Qiang Zhang
Covalent coupling of hydrophobic polymers to the exterior of hydrophilic proteins would mediate unique macroscopic assembly of bioconjugates to generate amphiphilic superstructures as novel nanoreactors or biocompatible drug delivery system. The main objective of this study was to develop novel strategy for the synthesis of protein-polymer giant amphiphiles by the combination of copper mediated living radical polymerization and azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC). Azide-functionalized succinimidyl ester was first synthesized for the facile introduction of azide group to proteins such as albumin from bovine serum (BSA) and laccase from Trametes versicolor...
March 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Wing Lee Chan, Magdalena Steiner, Tomasz Witkos, Johannes Egerer, Björn Busse, Shuji Mizumoto, Jan M Pestka, Haikuo Zhang, Ingrid Hausser, Layal Abo Khayal, Claus-Eric Ott, Mateusz Kolanczyk, Bettina Willie, Thorsten Schinke, Chiara Paganini, Antonio Rossi, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Michael Amling, Petra Knaus, Danny Chan, Martin Lowe, Stefan Mundlos, Uwe Kornak
Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is characterized by skin laxity and early-onset osteoporosis. GORAB, the responsible disease gene, encodes a small Golgi protein of poorly characterized function. To circumvent neonatal lethality of the GorabNull full knockout, Gorab was conditionally inactivated in mesenchymal progenitor cells (Prx1-cre), pre-osteoblasts (Runx2-cre), and late osteoblasts/osteocytes (Dmp1-cre), respectively. While in all three lines a reduction in trabecular bone density was evident, only GorabPrx1 and GorabRunx2 mutants showed dramatically thinned, porous cortical bone and spontaneous fractures...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Daniela Hulcová, Kateřina Breiterová, Tomáš Siatka, Kamila Klímová, Lara Davani, Marcela Šafratová, Anna Hošťálková, Angela De Simone, Vincenza Andrisano, Lucie Cahlíková
Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that was originally identified as an enzyme involved in the control of glycogen metabolism. It plays a key role in diverse physiological processes including metabolism, the cell cycle, and gene expression by regulating a wide variety of well-known substances like glycogen synthase, tau-protein, and β-catenin. Recent studies have identified GSK-3β as a potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer´s disease, bipolar disorder, stroke, more than 15 types of cancer, and diabetes...
March 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Koichi Ojima, Emi Ichimura, Takahiro Suzuki, Mika Oe, Susumu Muroya, Takanori Nishimura
Myosin is a major myofibrillar component in skeletal muscles. In myofibrils, approximately 300 myosin molecules form a single thick filament in which there is constant turnover of myosin. Our previous study demonstrated that the myosin replacement rate is reduced by inhibition of protein synthesis (Ojima K. et al. 2015 Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 309, C669-679); however, additional factors influencing myosin replacement were unknown. Here, we showed that rapid myosin replacement requires heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) activity...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Masahiro Ikejiri, Haruka Kojima, Yuumi Fugono, Aki Fujisaka, Yoshiko Chihara, Kazuyuki Miyashita
We have developed a novel analog of the GFP chromophore: geo-DAIN. Since geo-DAIN is equipped with an E/Z-photoisomerizable geometrical diarylmethylene moiety instead of benzylidene of the GFP chromophore, different-colored reversible emissions are expected. We synthesized geo-DAIN by a condensation with methyl imidate and N-(diarylmethylene)glycinate. We found the emission from geo-DAIN to be different from that of benzylidene-type analogs; in the powder state, the E- and Z-isomers of geo-DAIN emitted different fluorescence colors...
March 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Raghav R Poudyal, Fatma Pir Cakmak, Christine D Keating, Philip C Bevilacqua
This Perspective focuses on RNA in biological and nonbiological compartments resulting from liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), with an emphasis on origins of life. In extant cells, intracellular liquid condensates, many of which are rich in RNAs and intrinsically disordered proteins, provide spatial regulation of biomolecular interactions that can result in altered gene expression. Given the diversity of biogenic and abiogenic molecules that undergo LLPS, such membraneless compartments may have also played key roles in prebiotic chemistries relevant to the origins of life...
March 21, 2018: Biochemistry
Larissa Bueno Tofani, Lívia Vieira Depieri, Patrícia Mazureki Campos, Thalita Bachelli Riul, Kamilla Swiech Antonietto, Márcia Carvalho de Abreu Fantini, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley
PURPOSE: Vitiligo is a skin disease characterized by depigmentation and the presence of white patches that are associated with the loss of melanocytes. The most common explanation for the cause of this condition is that it is an autoimmune condition. TyRP-1 is involved in melanin pigment synthesis but can also function as a melanocyte differentiation antigen. This protein plays a role in the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, which results in the depigmentation, characteristic of this disease...
March 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Amanda C Smith, Yoko Ito, Afsana Ahmed, Jeremy A Schwartzentruber, Chandree L Beaulieu, Erika Aberg, Jacek Majewski, Dennis E Bulman, Karina Horsting-Wethly, Diana Vermunt-de Koning, Richard J Rodenburg, Kym M Boycott, Lynette S Penney
Primary CoQ10 deficiency is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in genes involved in the synthesis of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ). To date, mutations in nine proteins required for the biosynthesis of CoQ10 cause CoQ10 deficiency with varying clinical presentations. In 2009 the first patient with mutations in COQ9 was reported in an infant with a neonatal-onset, primary CoQ10 deficiency with multi-system disease. Here we describe four siblings with a previously undiagnosed lethal disorder characterized by oligohydramnios and intrauterine growth restriction, variable cardiomyopathy, anemia, and renal anomalies...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Yawei Xu, Yan Zhou, Rui Yin, Cheng Wang, Haijiao Chu, Junling Wang
The balance of oxidation and reduction in the body requires the synergistic effect of various antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the construction of enzyme mimics with multiple antioxidant activities is important and beneficial for further research on the synergistic effects of antioxidant enzymes and their mechanism of action. To explore the synergistic effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a 76-mer selenium-containing peptide (Se-76P) mimic containing the active SOD and GPx centers was designed...
March 20, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Marcin Krupka, William Margolin
To generate two cells from one, bacteria such as Escherichia coli use a complex of membrane-embedded proteins called the divisome that synthesize the division septum. The initial stage of cytokinesis requires a tubulin homolog, FtsZ, which forms polymers that treadmill around the cell circumference. The attachment of these polymers to the cytoplasmic membrane requires an actin homolog, FtsA, which also forms dynamic polymers that directly bind to FtsZ. Recent evidence indicates that FtsA and FtsZ regulate each other's oligomeric state in E...
2018: F1000Research
Chien-Liang Fang, Yiwei Wang, Kevin H-Y Tsai, Hsin-I Chang
The dermis of human skin contains large numbers of fibroblasts that are responsible for the production of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that supporting skin integrity, elasticity and wound healing. Previously, an in vivo study demonstrated that dermal fibroblasts siting in the lower dermis are capable to convert into skin adipose layer and hence fibroblast lipogenesis may vary the structure and elasticity of dermis. In the present study, Hs68 human dermal fibroblasts were utilized as an in vitro model to study the lipogenesis via using adipogenic differentiation medium (ADM)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Umberto Crisafulli, André M Xavier, Fabiana B Dos Santos, Tavane D Cambiaghi, Seo Y Chang, Marimélia Porcionatto, Beatriz A Castilho, Bettina Malnic, Isaias Glezer
Chronic inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa is correlated with poor smell perception. Over-activation of immune cells in the olfactory epithelium (OE) is generally associated with loss of olfactory function, and topical steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been largely used for treating such condition. Whether this therapeutic strategy could directly affect the regenerative process in the OE remains unclear. In this study, we show that nasal topical application of dexamethasone (DEX; 200 or 800 ng/nostril), a potent synthetic anti-inflammatory steroid, attenuates OE lesion caused by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intranasal infusion...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Fabricio Castro Machado, Caio Haddad Franco, Jose Vitorino Dos Santos Neto, Karina Luiza Dias-Teixeira, Carolina Borsoi Moraes, Ulisses Gazos Lopes, Bertal Huseyin Aktas, Sergio Schenkman
Some 1,3-diarylureas and 1-((1,4-trans)-4-aryloxycyclohexyl)-3-arylureas (cHAUs) activate heme-regulated kinase causing protein synthesis inhibition via phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in mammalian cancer cells. To evaluate if these agents have potential to inhibit trypanosome multiplication by also affecting the phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha subunit (eIF2α), we tested 25 analogs of 1,3-diarylureas and cHAUs against Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease. One of them (I-17) presented selectivity close to 10-fold against the insect replicative forms and also inhibited the multiplication of T...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew E Falagas, Tilemachos Skalidis, Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Georgios L Voulgaris, Georgios Papanikolaou, Nicholas Legakis
BACKGROUND: TP-6076 is a synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. METHODS: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates from 13 Greek hospitals were tested for susceptibility to TP-6076 and comparator antibiotics. Broth microdilution plates were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. RESULTS: 121 A. baumannii non-duplicate isolates were tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 of TP-6076 were 0...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Rajesh Sinha, Pooja Singh, Neeraj K Saini, Ajit Kumar, Rakesh Pathak, Amita Chandolia, Kushal Garima, Gaurav Tyagi, Madhu Chopra, Ashok Kumar Prasad, Hanumantharao G Raj, Mridula Bose
Cholesterol, an essential cellular component in macrophages, is exploited for entry and long-term survival of Mycobacterium inside the host. Cholesterol-deficient macrophages can restrict the cholesterol-dependent entry of Mycobacterium. Rv3499c protein in Mycobacterium has high binding affinity for cholesterol. Rv3499c gene is a part of mce4 operon which is reported to act as cholesterol transport system in mycobacteria. Earlier we reported Rv3499c protein to localise on cell wall and facilitate entry of Mycobacterium inside macrophages...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Jiawei Liu, Mian Zu, Kaotan Chen, Li Gao, Huan Min, Weiling Zhuo, Weiwen Chen, Ailin Liu
BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase (NA) is one of the key surface protein of the influenza virus, and has been established as a primary drug target for anti-influenza therapies. This study aimed to screen bioactive herbal extracts from some medicinal plants traditionally used in Lingnan Chinese Medicines by NA activity high-throughput screening assay. METHODS: One hundred ninety herbal extracts from 95 medicinal plants collected in Guangzhou were screened for their potential inhibitory activities against A (H1N1) influenza neuraminidase, and the most active extracts were further evaluated for their anti-influenza virus activities using virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"