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Protein synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812932/celebrating-wobble-decoding-half-a-century-and-still-much-is-new
#1
Paul F Agris, Emily R Eruysal, Amithi Narendran, Ville Y P Väre, Sweta Vangaveti, Srivathsan V Ranganathan
A simple post-transcriptional modification of tRNA, deamination of adenosine to inosine at the first, or wobble, position of the anticodon, inspired Francis Crick's Wobble Hypothesis 50 years ago. Many more naturally-occurring modifications have been elucidated and continue to be discovered. The post-transcriptional modifications of tRNA's anticodon domain are the most diverse and chemically complex of any RNA modifications. Their contribution with regards to chemistry, structure and dynamics reveal individual and combined effects on tRNA function in recognition of cognate and wobble codons...
August 16, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812173/melatonin-attenuates-pain-hypersensitivity-and-decreases-astrocyte-mediated-spinal-neuroinflammation-in-a-rat-model-of-oxaliplatin-induced-pain
#2
Ye-Song Wang, Yuan-Yuan Li, Wei Cui, Li-Bin Li, Zhao-Cai Zhang, Bao-Ping Tian, Gen-Sheng Zhang
Neuroinflammatory response in spinal dorsal horn has been demonstrated to be a critical factor in oxaliplatin-induced pain. Melatonin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-allodynia effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, we investigated the role of systemic administration of melatonin on oxaliplatin-induced pain. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with oxaliplatin induced significantly mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Melatonin (i.p.) significantly alleviated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in the oxaliplatin but not sham-treated rats...
August 15, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811616/synthesis-free-pet-imaging-of-brown-adipose-tissue-and-tspo-via-combination-of-disulfiram-and-64-cucl2
#3
Jing Yang, Jian Yang, Lu Wang, Anna Moore, Steven H Liang, Chongzhao Ran
PET imaging is a widely applicable but a very expensive technology. On-site synthesis is one important contributor to the high cost. In this report, we demonstrated the feasibility of a synthesis-free method for PET imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) via a combination of disulfiram, an FDA approved drug for alcoholism, and (64)CuCl2 (termed (64)Cu-Dis). In this method, a step-wise injection protocol of (64)CuCl2 and disulfiram was used to accomplish the purpose of synthesis-free...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811502/sex-steroid-hormones-regulate-leptin-transcript-accumulation-and-protein-secretion-in-3t3-l1-cells
#4
Mónica Z Jenks, Heather E Fairfield, Erik C Johnson, Ron F Morrison, Gloria K Muday
Leptin is an adipokine produced by fat cells that regulates food consumption and metabolic activity. Sexual dimorphism in leptin and fat stores have been observed in humans and rodents with females having more leptin and greater levels of subcutaneous fat than males. One potential mechanism leading to this dimorphism is steroid hormone regulated synthesis of transcripts encoding leptin. Identification of direct regulatory mechanisms is difficult in animals or primary adipocytes due to these intertwined dimorphisms...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811499/the-role-of-dermcidin-isoform-2-in-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-diabetes
#5
Suman Bhattacharya, Md Mobidullah Khan, Chandradipa Ghosh, Sarbashri Bank, Smarajit Maiti
Diabetes is now epidemic worldwide. Several hundred-million peoples are presently suffering from this disease with other secondary-disorders. Stress, hypertension, sedentary life-style, carbohydrate/lipid metabolic-disorders due to genetic or environmental factors attributes to type-1 and/or type-2 diabetes. Present investigation demonstrates that stress-induced protein dermcidin isoform-2 (DCN-2) which appears in the serum of diabetic-patients play a key-role in this disease pathogenesis/severity. DCN-2 suppresses insulin production-release from liver/pancreas...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811467/the-mtorc1-4e-bp-eif4e-axis-controls-de-novo-bcl6-protein-synthesis-in-t-cells-and-systemic-autoimmunity
#6
Woelsung Yi, Sanjay Gupta, Edd Ricker, Michela Manni, Rolf Jessberger, Yurii Chinenov, Henrik Molina, Alessandra B Pernis
Post-transcriptional modifications can control protein abundance, but the extent to which these alterations contribute to the expression of T helper (TH) lineage-defining factors is unknown. Tight regulation of Bcl6 expression, an essential transcription factor for T follicular helper (TFH) cells, is critical as aberrant TFH cell expansion is associated with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we show that lack of the SLE risk variant Def6 results in deregulation of Bcl6 protein synthesis in T cells as a result of enhanced activation of the mTORC1-4E-BP-eIF4E axis, secondary to aberrant assembly of a raptor-p62-TRAF6 complex...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811318/the-%C3%AE-cell-assassin-iapp-cytotoxicity
#7
Daniel Raleigh, Xiaoxue Zhang, Benoit Hastoy, Anne Clark
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) forms cytotoxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils in islets in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The causal factors for amyloid formation are largely unknown. Mechanisms of molecular folding and assembly of human IAPP (hIAPP) into β-sheets, oligomers and fibrils have been assessed by detailed biophysical studies of hIAPP and non-fibrillogenic, rodent IAPP (rIAPP); cytotoxicity is associated with the early phases (oligomers/multimers) of fibrillogenesis. Interaction with synthetic membranes promotes β-sheet assembly possibly via a transient α-helical molecular conformation...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811070/evaluation-of-sequence-variability-in-hiv-1-gp41-c-peptide-helix-grafted-proteins
#8
Rachel L Tennyson, Susanne N Walker, Terumasa Ikeda, Reuben S Harris, Brian R McNaughton
Many therapeutically-relevant protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been reported that feature a helix and helix-binding cleft at the interface. Given this, different approaches to disrupting such PPIs have been developed. While short peptides (<15 amino acids) typically do not fold into a stable helix, researchers have reported chemical approaches to constraining helix structure. However, these approaches rely on laborious, and often expensive, chemical synthesis and purification. Our premise is that protein-based solutions that stabilize a therapeutically-relevant helix offer a number of advantages...
August 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811037/effects-of-metal-contamination-on-the-gene-expression-profile-of-two-benthic-species-cerastoderma-edule-and-ruditapes-philippinarum
#9
Raquel Rodrigues, Joana Lourenço, Patrícia Pereira, Susana Carvalho, Sonia Mendo
This study aimed to identify new biomarkers for metal exposure in two bivalve species. Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was employed to evaluate the transcriptomic response of Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum to metal pollution. Protein synthesis and catalytic activity were the most affected metabolic processes in C. edule and R. philippinarum, respectively. Also, different genes responded to the effect of contamination in each species. The different response observed in both species reinforces the importance of including more than one bioindicator species in risk assessment studies...
August 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810621/effect-of-isopsoralen-on-smad7-in-osteoblastic-mc3t3-e1-cells
#10
Huicun Zhang, Na Ta
The primary pathological change in postmenopausal osteoporosis (PM-OP) is bone collagen loss caused by estrogen depletion. Osteoblasts synthesize type I collagen, which composes the organic matrix of bone. Although isopsoralen stimulates osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is an important cell signaling factor for stimulating collagen synthesis. To explore the association between isopsoralen and the synthesis of collagen in vitro, the molecular and biological association between isopsoralen and TGF-β signaling was examined...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809922/increased-signaling-by-the-autism-related-engrailed-2-protein-enhances-dendritic-branching-and-spine-density-alters-synaptic-structural-matching-and-exaggerates-protein-synthesis
#11
Asma Soltani, Solène Lebrun, Gilles Carpentier, Giulia Zunino, Sandrine Chantepie, Auriane Maïza, Yuri Bozzi, Claire Desnos, François Darchen, Olivier Stettler
Engrailed 1 (En1) and 2 (En2) code for closely related homeoproteins acting as transcription factors and as signaling molecules that contribute to midbrain and hindbrain patterning, to development and maintenance of monoaminergic pathways, and to retinotectal wiring. En2 has been suggested to be an autism susceptibility gene and individuals with autism display an overexpression of this homeogene but the mechanisms remain unclear. We addressed in the present study the effect of exogenously added En2 on the morphology of hippocampal cells that normally express only low levels of Engrailed proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809830/overexpression-and-purification-of-human-cis-prenyltransferase-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Ilan Edri, Michal Goldenberg, Michal Lisnyansky, Roi Strulovich, Hadas Newman, Anat Loewenstein, Daniel Khananshvili, Moshe Giladi, Yoni Haitin
Prenyltransferases (PT) are a group of enzymes that catalyze chain elongation of allylic diphosphate using isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) via multiple condensation reactions. DHDDS (dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase) is a eukaryotic long-chain cis-PT (forming cis double bonds from the condensation reaction) that catalyzes chain elongation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP, an allylic diphosphate) via multiple condensations with isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). DHDDS is of biomedical importance, as a non-conservative mutation (K42E) in the enzyme results in retinitis pigmentosa, ultimately leading to blindness...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809486/assembling-glycan-charged-dolichol-phosphates-chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-a-haloferax-volcanii-n-glycosylation-pathway-intermediate
#13
Yifat Elharar, Ananda R Podilapu, Ziqiang Guan, Suvarn S Kulkarni, Jerry Eichler
N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select protein target Asn residues, is a post-translational modification performed by all three domains of life. In the halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii, where understanding of this universal protein-processing event is relatively well-advanced, genes encoding the components of the Agl (archaeal glycosylation) pathway responsible for the assembly and attachment of an N-linked pentasaccharide have been identified. As elsewhere, the N-linked glycan is assembled on phosphodolichol carriers before transfer to target Asn residues...
August 15, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809482/structural-dynamics-of-15-lipoxygenase-2-via-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange
#14
Kristin Diane Droege, Mary E Keithly, Charles R Sanders, Richard N Armstrong, Matthew K Thompson
Eicosanoids are inflammatory signaling lipids that are biosynthesized in response to cellular injury or threat. They were originally thought to be pro-inflammatory molecules, but at least one sub-class, the lipoxins, are able to resolve inflammation. The first step in lipoxin synthesis is the oxygenation of arachidonic acid by 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX). 15-LOX contains two domains: a Ca2+ binding PLAT domain and a catalytic domain. 15-LOX is a soluble cytosolic protein until Ca2+ binding to the PLAT domain promotes translocation to the membrane surface...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809472/real-time-tracking-the-synthesis-and-degradation-of-albumin-in-complex-biological-systems-with-a-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe
#15
Qiang Jin, Lei Feng, Shui-Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Fangjun Wang, Yi Zhang, Jing-Nan Cui, Wen-Zhi Guo, Guang-Bo Ge, Ling Yang
In this study, a novel fluorescent detection system for biological sensing of human albumin (HA) was developed on the basis of the pseudo-esterase activity and substrate preference of HA. The designed near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (DDAP) could be effectively hydrolyzed by HA, accompanied with significant changes in both colour and fluorescence spectrum. The sensing mechanism was fully investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, NMR and mass spectra. DDAP exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward HA over a variety of human plasma proteins, hydrolases, and abundant biomolecules found in human body...
August 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809431/transdifferentiation-of-myoblasts-into-osteoblasts-possible-use-for-bone-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Daphne P L Lin, Revathy Carnagarin, Arun Dharmarajan, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: Transdifferentiation is defined as the conversion of one cell type to another and is an ever-expanding field with a growing number of cells found to be capable of such a process. To date, the fact remains that there are limited treatment options for fracture healing, osteoporosis and bone repair post-destruction by bone tumours. Hence, this review focuses on the transdifferentiation of myoblast to osteoblast as a means to further understand the transdifferentiation process and to investigate a potential therapeutic option if successful...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809062/carbon-nitrogen-and-sulphur-isotopic-fractionation-in-captive-juvenile-hooded-seal-cystophora-cristata-application-for-diet-analysis
#17
Marianna Pinzone, Mario Acquarone, Loreen Huyghebaert, Nicolas Sturaro, Loïc N Michel, Ursula Siebert, Krishna Das
RATIONALE: Intrinsic biogeochemical markers, such as stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur are increasingly used to trace the trophic ecology of marine top predators. However, insufficient knowledge of fractionation processes in tissues continues to hamper the use of these markers. METHODS: We performed a controlled feeding experiment with eight juvenile hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) that were held on a herring-based diet (Clupea harengus) for two years...
August 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808882/-1-h-13-c-and-15-n-chemical-shift-assignments-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-type-1-thioredoxin-in-the-oxidized-state-by-solution-nmr-spectroscopy
#18
Anwar Iqbal, Fabio C L Almeida
Thioredoxins (Trx) are ubiquitous proteins that regulate several biochemical processes inside the cell. Trx is an important player, displaying oxidoreductase activity and helping to keep and regulate the oxidative state of the cellular environment. Trx also participates in the regulation of many cellular functions, such as DNA synthesis, protection against oxidative stress, cell cycle and signal transduction. The oxidized Trx is the target for another set of proteins, such as thioredoxin reductase (TrR), which used the reductive potential of NADPH...
August 14, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808804/identification-of-a-new-liver-specific-c-type-mrna-transcriptional-variant-for-mouse-st3gal5-gm3-gm4-synthase
#19
Fumi Shishido, Satoshi Uemura, Takahiro Nitta, Jin-Ichi Inokuchi
GM3, a major lipid component of the plasma membrane outer leaflet in mammalian cells, is synthesized in the luminal side of Golgi by ST3GAL5 protein (ST3G5), a type II membrane protein. Two strains of St3Gal5 knockout mice have been established for studies of GM3 physiological function: St3Gal5-Ex5-KO (lacking exon 5, which contains the catalytic domain of ST3G5), and St3Gal5-Ex3-KO (lacking exon 3, which contains the initiation codons). Results of the present study demonstrate that GM3 synthesis is still present, at a low level, in liver of St3Gal5-Ex3-KO mice...
August 14, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808769/the-genetic-characteristics-in-cytology-and-plant-physiology-of-two-wheat-triticum-aestivum-near-isogenic-lines-with-different-freezing-tolerances
#20
Wenqiang Wang, Qunqun Hao, Wenlong Wang, Qinxue Li, Wei Wang
Freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines (NIL) named tafs (freezing sensitivity) and taft (freezing tolerance) were isolated in the laboratory and their various cytological and physiological characteristics under freezing conditions were studied. Proplastid, cell membrane, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were less damaged by freezing treatment in taft than tafs plants. Chlorophyll, ATP, and thylakoid membrane protein contents were significantly higher, but malondialdehyde content was significantly lower in taft than tafs plants under freezing condition...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
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