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disorders of sex development

James B Kirkbride, Yasir Hameed, Gayatri Ankireddypalli, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Carolyn M Crane, Mukhtar Nasir, Nikolett Kabacs, Antonio Metastasio, Oliver Jenkins, Ashkan Espandian, Styliani Spyridi, Danica Ralevic, Suneetha Siddabattuni, Ben Walden, Adewale Adeoye, Jesus Perez, Peter B Jones
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have characterized the epidemiology of first-episode psychoses in rural or urban settings since the introduction of early intervention psychosis services. To address this, the authors conducted a naturalistic cohort study in England, where such services are well established. METHOD: All new first-episode psychosis cases, 16-35 years old, presenting to early intervention psychosis services in the East of England were identified during 2 million person-years follow-up...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
K P Wolffenbuttel, R Hersmus, H Stoop, K Biermann, P Hoebeke, M Cools, L H J Looijenga
Recent studies on gonadal histology have improved the understanding of germ cell malignancy risk in patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), and evidence-based gonadal management strategies are gradually emerging. Especially in 46,XY DSD and 45,X/46,XY DSD, which are characterized by gonadal dysgenesis, the risk of germ cell malignancy is significantly increased. This paper summarized the progress over the past 10 years in malignancy risk assessment in patients with DSD, and its implications for optimal surgical handling of the involved gonads...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Andrea Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Giuseppe Talani, Francesca Santoru, Roberta Berretti, Elisa Giunti, Valentina Licheri, Enrico Sanna, Alessandra Concas
Exposure of female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period has profound effects on GABAergic neurotransmission that are crucial to establish sexually dimorphic brain characteristics. We previously showed that neonatal β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB) treatment decreases brain concentrations of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, a potent positive modulator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR). We thus evaluated whether neonatal EB treatment affects GABAAR expression and function in the hippocampus of adult female rats...
October 18, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Aoife O'Donovan, Ashkan J Ahmadian, Thomas C Neylan, Mark A Pacult, Donald Edmondson, Beth E Cohen
[OBJECTIVE]: Elevated inflammation has been repeatedly observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and it may drive the development of both psychiatric symptoms and physical comorbidities. However, it is not clear if elevated inflammation is a feature of both remitted and current PTSD, and little is known about relationships between specific clusters of PTSD symptoms and inflammation. Exaggerated threat sensitivity, as indexed by threat reactivity and avoidance of perceived threats, may be particularly closely associated with inflammation...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Fumi Matsumoto, Futoshi Matsui, Koji Yazawa, Kenji Shimada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Urology
Jiunn-Wei Wang, Chien-Ning Hsu, Wei-Chen Tai, Ming-Kun Ku, Tsung-Hsing Hung, Kuo-Lun Tseng, Lan-Ting Yuan, Seng-Howe Nguang, Chih-Ming Liang, Shih-Cheng Yang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Pin-I Hsu, Deng-Chyang Wu, Seng-Kee Chuah
The association of Helicobacter pylori eradication with the occurrence of renal dysfunction in patients with peptic ulcer diseases is still unclear. This study aimed to clarify the relevance of H. pylori eradication to the occurrence of chronic kidney diseases in patients with peptic ulcer diseases. Data that were available from 2000-2011 were extracted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, and all patients with peptic ulcer diseases (n = 208 196) were screened for eligibility. We divided randomly selected patients into an H...
2016: PloS One
Shirin Masjedi, Ying Lei, Jenny Patel, Zannatul Ferdous
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder in the developed countries. Male is a known risk factor in this disease; unfortunately, how sex contributes to CAVD is mostly unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from male versus female aortic valves demonstrate difference in osteogenic differentiation and/or extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. VICs were isolated from male and female rat or porcine aortic valves and cultured in osteogenic media for 10, 15 and 20 days...
October 19, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Jens Bohlken, Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev
The goal of this study was to estimate the rate of the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia and identify the potential risk factors in German specialist practices from 2005 to 2015. This study included 4633 patients aged 40 years and over from 203 neuropsychiatric practices, who were initially diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment between 2005 and 2013. The primary outcome was diagnosis of all-cause dementia recorded in the database until the end of the five-year follow-up period. Cox regression models were used to examine mild cognitive impairment progression to dementia when adjusted for confounders (age, sex, and health-insurance type)...
October 7, 2016: Dementia
Yasmeen Ganie, Colleen Aldous, Yusentha Balakrishna, Rinus Wiersma
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and aetiological diagnosis in children with disorders of sex development (DSDs) presenting to a tertiary referral centre. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all cases of DSD referred to the Paediatric Endocrine Unit in Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH) from January 1995 to December 2014. RESULTS: A total of 416 children (15...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Tanima Banerjee, Somaditya Mukherjee, Sudip Ghosh, Monodeep Biswas, Santanu Datta, Sanjib Pattari, Shelly Chatterjee, Arun Bandyopadhyay
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), a chronic acquired heart disorder results from Acute Rheumatic Fever. RHD is mostly prevalent in developing nations which is mainly diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography. Till date, there is no biochemical marker for disease management. In the present study we aim to investigate whether mitral valve remodeling contributes to altered levels of circulating biomarkers of collagen metabolism in rheumatic heart disease. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study involved RHD subjects with before and after valve replacement surgery which includes age and sex matched controls...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Drew A Kingston, Franklyn J Graham, Raymond A Knight
Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Richard Quinton, Yaasir Mamoojee, Channa N Jayasena, Jacques Young, Sasha Howard, Leo Dunkel, Tim Cheetham, Neil Smith, Andrew A Dwyer
The recent Society for Endocrinology (SFE) UK Guidance on the Initial Evaluation of an Infant or an Adolescent with a Suspected Disorder of Sex Development (DSD) provides invaluable advice for clinicians treating affected patients (Ahmed, et al., 2016). Such reports are key to synthesizing evidence, sharing expert opinion and emphasizing the importance of supporting patients and families with rare disorders within the context of a multidisciplinary approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Jennifer C Reneker, Vinay Cheruvu, Jingzhen Yang, Chad E Cook, Mark A James, M Clay Moughiman, Joseph A Congeni
BACKGROUND: Dizziness is often reported after a sports-related concussion. Forces experienced at the time of the concussion can cause an injury to multiple anatomical areas, including the central nervous system, the vestibular system, and the cervical spine, each of which is sufficient to cause dizziness. Medical professionals routinely use the subjective history to develop hypotheses about what may be causing a patient's dizziness. No previous studies have attempted to differentiate the source of the dizziness through precise patient descriptors or the triggers of dizziness...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Lauren B Alloy, Jessica L Hamilton, Elissa J Hamlat, Lyn Y Abramson
Adolescence marks the emergence of sex differences in internalizing symptoms and disorders, with girls at increased risk for depression and anxiety during the pubertal transition. However, the mechanisms through which puberty confers risk for internalizing psychopathology for girls, but not boys, remain unclear. We examined two pubertal indicators (pubertal status and timing) as predictors of the development of emotion regulation styles (rumination and emotional clarity) and depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in a three-wave study of 314 adolescents...
September 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Xiaojuan Dan, Chaodong Wang, Jinglin Zhang, Zhuqin Gu, Yongtao Zhou, Jinghong Ma, Piu Chan
INTRODUCTION: Prediction of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remains challenging. We investigated whether the common susceptible genetic variants for PD are associated with the risk and improves prediction of development of depression in PD (dPD). METHODS: 1134 individuals with a primary diagnosis of PD were recruited. Demographic information, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) were obtained...
September 29, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Divya Srinivasan, Kathryn E Sinden, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Julie N Côté
PURPOSE: Epidemiological research has identified women to be more susceptible to developing neck-shoulder musculoskeletal disorders when performing low-force, repetitive work tasks. Whether this is attributable to gender differences in fatigability and motor control is currently unclear. This study investigated the extent to which women differ from men in fatigability and motor control while performing a short-cycle repetitive task. METHODS: 113 healthy young adults (58 women, 55 men) performed a standardized repetitive pointing task...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Veronica Gomez-Lobo, Anne-Marie Amies Oelschlager
Disorders (differences) of sexual development encompass a variety of conditions with atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex. Three of the most common differences of sex development conditions include congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete androgen insensitivity, and Turner syndrome. Obstetrician-gynecologists who care for affected individuals in their practice must be familiar with the genetic, endocrine, and anatomic considerations of the most common conditions to provide optimal care...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Wenchao Qiu, Yuan Gao, Chuanyong Yu, Ailiang Miao, Lu Tang, Shuyang Huang, Zheng Hu, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang
Purpose: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. However, little is known about the brain structural changes in this type of epilepsy, especially in the default mode network (DMN) regions. This study aims at using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique to quantify structural abnormalities of DMN nodes in CAE patients. Method: DTI data were acquired in 14 CAE patients (aged 8.64 ± 2.59 years, seven females and seven males) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
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