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Polybacterial infection

Chung-Ching Lee, Wing-Kei Choi, Jimmy Yu-Wai Chan
BACKGROUND: This report presents an immunocompetent lady suffering from Candida parapsilosis associated with polybacterial cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis. A literature review and management of invasive candidiasis is discussed. METHODS: A 57-year-old healthy lady presented with cervical necrotizing fasciitis and descending mediastinitis. She was promptly managed with emergency debridement. Both blood and tissue culture yielded multiple microorganisms including C...
April 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Vicky Jespers
The most common dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome (defined here as a vaginal microbiome not dominated by lactobacilli) is bacterial vaginosis, an anaerobic polybacterial dysbiosis. Other dysbiotic states of importance to global health are vaginal microbiota with a high abundance of streptococci, staphylococci or Enterobacteriaceae, vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Knowledge about the different types of dysbiosis and their relationship to urogenital and reproductive disease burden has increased in recent years by applying non-culture-based techniques, but is far from complete...
March 1, 2017: Research in Microbiology
Hila Mizrahi, Avi Peretz, René Lesnik, Yana Aizenberg-Gershtein, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Yehonatan Sharaby, Nina Pastukh, Ingrid Brettar, Manfred G Höfle, Malka Halpern
Bacteria of the genus Legionella cause water-based infections resulting in severe pneumonia. Here we analyze and compare the bacterial microbiome of sputum samples from pneumonia patients in relation to the presence and abundance of the genus Legionella. The prevalence of Legionella species was determined by culture, PCR, and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Nine sputum samples out of the 133 analyzed were PCR-positive using Legionella genus-specific primers. Only one sample was positive by culture. Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses of Legionella-positive and Legionella-negative sputum samples, confirmed that indeed, Legionella was present in the PCR-positive sputum samples...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nathalia Mayumi Noda-Nicolau, Jossimara Polettini, Morgan R Peltier, Márcia Guimarães da Silva, Ramkumar Menon
PROBLEM: The polybacterial invasion and inflammation of the amniotic cavity is a common scenario in PTB, and then, we analyzed the cytokine production by human fetal membranes to better understand the host response to polybacterial infections. METHOD OF STUDY: Fetal membranes were treated by heat-inactivated genital mycoplasmas and Gardnerella vaginalis at 10(3) or 10(6) colony/color-forming units/mL alone or in combination. Cytokines/receptors were measured in the medium by immunoassays...
December 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Marta Tejera-Alhambra, Oscar Palomares, Rebeca Pérez de Diego, Ignacio Díaz-Lezcano, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón
A main focus in healthcare is the active search for alternative strategies to antibiotics, both for prophylactic and therapeutical interventions, due to the accelerated and widespread increase in antibiotic resistance. This problem is more marked for patients with recurrent infections, in which the risk for antibiotic resistance and adverse effects is higher and can be life-threatening. Although antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment for infectious diseases, prophylactic vaccines via the mucosal route in defined populations of patients with recurrent infections has gained use in recent years...
August 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Gaby Jabbour, Ayman El-Menyar, Ruben Peralta, Nissar Shaikh, Husham Abdelrahman, Insolvisagan Natesa Mudali, Mohamed Ellabib, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a fatal aggressive infectious disease. We aimed to assess the major contributing factors of mortality in NF patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a single surgical intensive care unit between 2000 and 2013. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on their in-hospital outcome (survivors versus non-survivors). RESULTS: During a14-year period, 331 NF patients were admitted with a mean age of 50...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Sasanka Chukkapalli, Mercedes Rivera-Kweh, Prashasnika Gehlot, Irina Velsko, Indraneel Bhattacharyya, S John Calise, Minoru Satoh, Edward K L Chan, Joseph Holoshitz, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
BACKGROUND: It has been previously hypothesized that oral microbes may be an etiological link between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal disease. However, the mechanistic basis of this association is incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of periodontal bacteria in induction of joint inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in B10.RIII mice. METHODS: CIA-prone B10.RIII mice were infected orally with a polybacterial mixture of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia for 24 weeks before induction of CIA...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
S S Chukkapalli, I M Velsko, M F Rivera-Kweh, H Larjava, A R Lucas, L Kesavalu
Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) play a significant role in the generation of a specific innate immune response against invading pathogens. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling contributes to infection-induced inflammation in periodontal disease (PD) and atherosclerosis. Observational studies point towards a relationship between PD and atherosclerosis, but the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the recognition of multiple oral pathogens and their modulation of host response leading to atherosclerosis are not clear. We evaluated the role of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in the induction of both PD and atherosclerosis in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice to polymicrobial infection with periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum...
June 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Sasanka S Chukkapalli, Irina M Velsko, Mercedes F Rivera-Kweh, Donghang Zheng, Alexandra R Lucas, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
Periodontal disease (PD) develops from a synergy of complex subgingival oral microbiome, and is linked to systemic inflammatory atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD). To investigate how a polybacterial microbiome infection influences atherosclerotic plaque progression, we infected the oral cavity of ApoE null mice with a polybacterial consortium of 4 well-characterized periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerealla forsythia and Fusobacterium nucleatum, that have been identified in human atherosclerotic plaque by DNA screening...
2015: PloS One
Jennifer H Wilson-Welder, David P Alt, Jarlath E Nally
Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development...
2015: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
R A G Khammissa, R Ciya, T I Munzhelele, M Altini, E Rikhotso, J Lemmer, L Feller
Necrotising stomatitis is a fulminating anaerobic polybacterial infection affecting predominantly the oral mucosa of debilitated malnourished children or immunosuppressed HIV-seropositive subjects. It starts as necrotising gingivitis which progresses to necrotising periodontitis and subsequently to necrotising stomatitis. In order to prevent the progression of necrotising stomatitis to noma (cancrum oris), affected patients should be vigorously treated and may require admission to hospital. Healthcare personnel should therefore be familiar with the signs and symptoms of necrotising gingivitis/necrotising periodontitis, of their potential sequelae and of the need for immediate therapeutic intervention...
November 2014: SADJ: Journal of the South African Dental Association
Richard Blomfeldt, Piotr Kasina, Carin Ottosson, Anders Enocson, Lasse J Lapidus
PURPOSE: Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) occur on a regular basis and with an increasing incidence. Under reporting of complications to national registries and unreliable ICD-10 coding increases the risk of under estimating the true rate of PJIs after hip arthroplasty. Also, the microbiology and final outcome is less well described, especially for hip-fracture patients operated upon with primary and secondary fracture prostheses. Our aim was to analyse re-operation rate, outcome and microbiology of PJIs following hip arthroplasty in patients operated upon due to hip fractures and degenerative hip disorders...
November 2015: International Orthopaedics
Irina M Velsko, Sasanka S Chukkapalli, Mercedes F Rivera-Kweh, Donghang Zheng, Ikramuddin Aukhil, Alexandra R Lucas, Hannu Larjava, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
The American Heart Association supports an association between periodontal diseases and atherosclerosis but not a causal association. This study explores the use of the integrin β6(-/-) mouse model to study the causality. We investigated the ability of a polymicrobial consortium of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum to colonize the periodontium and induce local and systemic inflammatory responses. Polymicrobially infected Itgβ6(-/-) mice demonstrate greater susceptibility to gingival colonization/infection, with severe gingival inflammation, apical migration of the junctional epithelium, periodontal pocket formation, alveolar bone resorption, osteoclast activation, bacterial invasion of the gingiva, a greater propensity for the bacteria to disseminate hematogenously, and a strong splenic T cell cytokine response...
December 2015: Infection and Immunity
Pandu Gangula, Kalpana Ravella, Sasanka Chukkapalli, Mercedes Rivera, Shanthi Srinivasan, Ashley Hale, Keith Channon, Janet Southerland, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease and is associated with complex microbial infection in the subgingival cavity. Recently, American Heart Association supported a century old association between periodontal disease and atherosclerotic vascular disease. We have recently shown that polybacterial periodontal infection led to aortic atherosclerosis and modulation of lipid profiles; however the underlying mechanism(s) has not been yet demonstrated. Altered nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for nitric oxide synthases (NOS) has long been shown to be associated with vascular dysfunction and gastrointestinal motility disorders...
2015: PloS One
Akshat Malik, Swagnik Chakrabarty, Sudhir Nair, Deepa Nair, Pankaj Chaturvedi
Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe polybacterial infection characterized by necrosis of the fascia and adjacent soft tissues with rapid expansion of the infection along the fascial planes. It is a rare and potentially fatal entity in the head and neck region. We present 2 patients with head and neck cancers who developed necrotizing fasciitis during the postoperative period.
April 1, 2015: American Journal of Infection Control
J E Wikstén, S Laakso, M Mäki, A A Mäkitie, A Pitkäranta, K Blomgren
Peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is the most common otorhinolaryngological infection, requiring management at the special healthcare level. The microbiological findings vary due to geographical, etiological, and methodological factors. This study aimed to identify the bacterial species of PTAs by using a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and microarray-based assay, and to find causative cofactors among patients with different pathogens. We determined the bacterial findings of aspirates of pus prospectively collected from 180 PTA patients...
May 2015: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Rebeca Pérez de Diego, Romina Dieli-Crimi, José-Luis Subiza
Antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment for infectious diseases, but the growing frequency of antibiotic resistance represents a major concern for healthcare worldwide. The use of antibiotics in recurrent infections raises other issues, such as their limitations for treating diverse microorganisms, deleterious effects on the microbiota of the patient and potential adverse effects. In recent years, progress has been made towards the development of novel polybacterial vaccines administered via the mucosal route...
2014: Current Drug Targets
Akhil K Seth, Aimei Zhong, Khang T Nguyen, Seok J Hong, Kai P Leung, Robert D Galiano, Thomas A Mustoe
The importance of bacterial biofilms to chronic wound pathogenesis is well established. Different treatment modalities, including topical dressings, have yet to show consistent efficacy against wound biofilm. This study evaluates the impact of a novel, antimicrobial Test Dressing on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-infected wounds. Six-mm dermal punch wounds in rabbit ears were inoculated with 10(6) colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa. Biofilm was established in vivo using our published model. Dressing changes were performed every other day with either Active Control or Test Dressings...
November 2014: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Hanneke Borgdorff, Rita Verhelst, Tania Crucitti, Suzanna Francis, Hans Verstraelen, Vicky Jespers
We conducted a systematic review of the Medline database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, U.S.A) to determine if consistent molecular vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition patterns can be discerned after a decade of molecular testing, and to evaluate demographic, behavioral and clinical determinants of VMB compositions. Studies were eligible when published between 1 January 2008 and 15 November 2013, and if at least one molecular technique (sequencing, PCR, DNA fingerprinting, or DNA hybridization) was used to characterize the VMB...
2014: PloS One
Sehkar Oktay, Sasanka S Chukkapalli, Mercedes F Rivera-Kweh, Irina M Velsko, L Shannon Holliday, Lakshmyya Kesavalu
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic, polymicrobial inflammatory disease that degrades connective tissue and alveolar bone and results in tooth loss. Oxidative stress has been linked to the onset of periodontal tissue breakdown and systemic inflammation, and the success of antiresorptive treatments will rely on how effectively they can ameliorate periodontal disease-induced oxidative stress during oral infection. METHODS: Rats were infected with polybacterial inoculum consisting of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia, as an oral lavage every other week for 12 weeks...
January 2015: Journal of Periodontology
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