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Lauren E Woodard, Laura M Downes, Yi-Chien Lee, Aparna Kaja, Eyuel S Terefe, Matthew H Wilson
Transposons are highly abundant in eukaryotic genomes, but their mobilization must be finely tuned to maintain host organism fitness and allow for transposon propagation. Forty percent of the human genome is comprised of transposable element sequences, and the most abundant cut-and-paste transposons are from the hAT superfamily. We found that the hAT transposase TcBuster from Tribolium castaneum formed filamentous structures, or rodlets, in human tissue culture cells, after gene transfer to adult mice, and ex vivo in cell-free conditions, indicating that host co-factors or cellular structures were not required for rodlet formation...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Lace Padilla, P Samuel Quinan, Miriah Meyer, Sarah H Creem-Regehr
The expressiveness principle for visualization design asserts that a visualization should encode all of the available data, and only the available data, implying that continuous data types should be visualized with a continuous encoding channel. And yet, in many domains binning continuous data is not only pervasive, but it is accepted as standard practice. Prior work provides no clear guidance for when encoding continuous data continuously is preferable to employing binning techniques or how this choice affects data interpretation and decision making...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Nardia-Rose Klem, Catherine Y Wild, Sian A Williams, Leo Ng
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of lower extremity injuries in female basketball players as well as a high proportion of athletes who wear ankle braces, there is a paucity of research pertaining to the effects of ankle bracing on ankle and knee biomechanics during basketball-specific tasks. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a lace-up brace (ASO), a hinged brace (Active T2), and no ankle bracing (control) on ankle and knee joint kinematics and joint reaction forces in female basketball athletes during a cutting maneuver...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Anamika Shrivastava, Anil Barla, Surjit Singh, Shivanand Mandraha, Sutapa Bose
In the Bengal deltaic region, the shallow groundwater laced with arsenic is used for irrigation frequently and has elevated the soil arsenic in agricultural soil. However, the areas with seasonal flooding reduce arsenic in top layers of the soils. Study shows arsenic accumulation in the deeper soil layers with time in the contaminated agricultural soil (19.40±0.38mg/kg in 0-5cm, 27.17±0.44mg/kg in 5-10cm and 41.24±0.48mg/kg in 10-15cm) in 2013 whereas depletion in 2014 and its buildup in different parts of monsoon rice plant in Nadia, India...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Patricia L Jones, Anurag A Agrawal
Attraction of mutualists and defense against antagonists are critical challenges for most organisms and can be especially acute for plants with pollinating and non-pollinating flower visitors. Secondary compounds in flowers have been hypothesized to adaptively mediate attraction of mutualists and defense against antagonists, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. The tissues of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) contain toxic cardenolides that have long been studied as chemical defenses against herbivores. Milkweed nectar also contains cardenolides, and we have examined the impact of manipulating cardenolides in nectar on the foraging choices of two flower visitors: generalist bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, which are mutualistic pollinators, and specialist monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, which are herbivores as larvae and ineffective pollinators as adults...
October 2016: Ecology
Zachary C Merz, Ryan Van Patten, John Lace
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess current broad traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related knowledge in the general public, as well as understanding regarding specific TBI-related conditions including post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). METHODS: Data were collected from 307 domestic and 73 international individuals via online researcher-developed survey instrumentation utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk marketplace, a recently developed website that allows for a streamlined process of survey-based participant recruitment and data collection...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Lace M Padilla, Sarah H Creem-Regehr, Jeanine K Stefanucci, Elizabeth A Cashdan
The Morris water maze is a spatial abilities test adapted from the animal spatial cognition literature and has been studied in the context of sex differences in humans. This is because its standard design, which manipulates proximal (close) and distal (far) cues, applies to human navigation. However, virtual Morris water mazes test navigation skills on a scale that is vastly smaller than natural human navigation. Many researchers have argued that navigating in large and small scales is fundamentally different, and small-scale navigation might not simulate natural human navigation...
October 6, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Gregory M Garrison, Paul M Robelia, Jennifer L Pecina, Nancy L Dawson
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge occurs in almost 20% of US Medicare patients and may be a marker of poor quality inpatient care, ineffective hospital to home transitions, or disease severity. Within a patient centered medical home, care transition interventions may only be practical from cost and staffing perspectives if targeted at patients with the greatest risk of readmission. Various scoring algorithms attempt to predict patients at risk for 30-day readmission, but head-to-head comparison of performance is lacking...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Le Liu, Alexander Boone, Ian Ruginski, Lace Padilla, Mary Hegarty, Sarah H Creem-Regehr, William B Thompson, Cem Yuksel, Donald H House
Data ensembles are often used to infer statistics to be used for a summary display of an uncertain prediction. In a spatial context, these summary displays have the drawback that when uncertainty is encoded via a spatial spread, display glyph area increases in size with prediction uncertainty. This increase can be easily confounded with an increase in the size, strength or other attribute of the phenomenon being presented. We argue that by directly displaying a carefully chosen subset of a prediction ensemble, so that uncertainty is conveyed implicitly, such misinterpretations can be avoided...
September 8, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Nicole A Lloyd, Sarah E Janssen, John R Reinfelder, Tamar Barkay
The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria is currently one of the most serious challenges to human health. To combat this problem, it is critical to understand the processes and pathways that result in the creation of antibiotic resistance gene pools in the environment. In this study, we examined the effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on the co-selection of Hg and antibiotic-resistant bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), a small, estuarine fish...
December 2016: Current Microbiology
Tomohide Yasunaga, Kazutaka Yamada, Zayar Soe, Shine Shane Naing
Two oriine flower bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) genera, Bilia Distant, 1904 and Wollastoniella Reuter, 1884 are reported from Myanmar for the first time, diagnosed, and discussed. A new species, Bilia burma Yasunaga & Yamada sp. nov., is described, with information on the immature form, habitat and assumed prey; its closest sister species, B. castanea (Carvalho, 1951), is also re-diagnosed. Wollastoniella rotunda Yasunaga & Miyamoto, 1993 originally described from northern Thailand, is also documented along with its immature form and new host association...
2016: Zootaxa
Joshua B Smith, Kelsey L Turner, James C Beasley, Travis L DeVault, William C Pitt, Olin E Rhodes
Mass aerial delivery of dead mouse baits treated with acetaminophen has been evaluated as a means to reduce brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) populations over large areas, increasing the likelihood of wide-scale eradication on Guam. Given the high density of snakes in some areas of their invasive range, eradication efforts could result in a resource pulse that may influence food web dynamics and the indirect transport of acetaminophen among trophic levels. We evaluated abundance, habitat type, and snake size (i...
September 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Ashley Sweeney, Richard Hammer, Andrea Evenski, Julia Crim
We report a case of fulminant sarcoidosis in a 28-year-old man presenting with skin nodules, multifocal small and large joint arthralgias, and blurred vision. Characteristic bone, soft tissue, articular, and CNS findings were evident on multimodality imaging. Bony abnormalities included near-complete destruction of a distal phalanx, "lace-like" lucent lesions, erosive arthritis, lytic lesions with and without sclerotic margins, and bone marrow replacement visible only on MRI. The extent of bony disease at time of presentation was unusual...
November 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Payam Yazdan-Ashoori, Shun Fu Lee, Quazi Ibrahim, Harriette G C Van Spall
UNLABELLED: The Length of stay, Acuity, Comorbidities, Emergency department visits in prior 6 months (LACE) index threshold of 10 predicts readmission or death in general medical patients in administrative databases. We assessed whether the unadjusted LACE index, computed at the bedside, can predict 30-day outcomes in patients hospitalized for heart failure. METHODS: We used logistic regression with LACE as the continuous predictor and 30-day readmissions and 30-day readmission or death as outcomes...
September 2016: American Heart Journal
Georgia Ward-Fear, Jai Thomas, Jonathan K Webb, David J Pearson, Richard Shine
Conditioned Taste Aversion (CTA) is an adaptive learning mechanism whereby a consumer associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic substance, and thereafter avoids eating that type of food. Recently, wildlife researchers have employed CTA to discourage native fauna from ingesting toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina Linnaeus, 1758), a species that is invading tropical Australia. In this paper, we compare the results of two sets of CTA trials on large varanid lizards ('goannas', Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980)...
August 31, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Yancey Wilson, Chrianna Bharat, Maxine L Crook, Ai Rene Kee, Joanne Peverall, Sukeerat Ruba, Colin J R Stewart
The distinction between partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and trisomy gestation is not always straightforward histologically and it is unclear which morphological features, alone or in combination, provide the greatest diagnostic accuracy. We performed a comparative review of 89 products of conception (POC) specimens including 54 PHMs and 35 trisomy gestations, assessing the following in each case: trophoblastic atypia, cistern formation, multifocal trophoblast proliferation, lace-like trophoblast, villous enlargement, large trophoblast inclusions, scalloped villous shape, stromal apoptosis, small round villous inclusions, and fibrillary stromal collagen...
October 2016: Pathology
Jessica M Carpenter, Mary K Jourdan, Emily M Fountain, Zulfiqar Ali, Naohito Abe, Ikhlas A Khan, Kenneth J Sufka
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br. has been reported to elevate mood, reduce anxiety and stress and alleviate pain. AIM OF STUDY: This study sought to examine the effects of an S. tortuosum alkaloid enriched fraction in the chick anxiety-depression model, a model that shows high predictive validity as a pharmacological screening assay. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Socially-raised male Silver Laced Wyandotte chicks (4-6 days old) were given IP vehicle, imipramine (10mg/kg), or S...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
José A Jiménez-Heffernan, Carmen Bárcena, Carlos Gordillo, José M Cañizal
Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a rare neuroepithelial tumor of the pineal region of adults. We herein describe on a 34-year-old female the cytologic features of a PTPR studied using Diff-Quik stain. The patient presented hydrocephalia secondary to a pineal tumor. During surgery an intraoperative pathologic consultation was requested. Smears were hypercellular with numerous papillary tissue fragments and single cells. Papillary fragments had an evident inner vascular core. Neoplastic cells displayed moderate pleomorphism, plasmocytoid morphology, and cytoplasmic fragility...
December 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Mareta Audere, Katrina Rutka, Inna Inaskina, Raitis Peculis, Svetlana Sepetiene, Sandra Valeina, Baiba Lāce
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: North Carolina macular dystrophy (NCMD) is a very rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease. Up to date there are three types of NCMD described and consequently named macular dystrophy, retinal: MCDR1, MCDR2 and MCDR3. The aim of this study was to perform linkage and copy number variation analysis for the family affected by NCMD followed by the selected candidate gene sequencing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study concerned a 3-generation, non-consanguineous Latvian family with NCMD...
2016: Medicina
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