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Volatile sulfur compounds

Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Fang Yan, Zifeng Lu, David Streets
Emissions from the transportation sector are rapidly changing worldwide; however, the interplay of such emission changes in the face of climate change are not as well understood. This two-part study examines the impact of projected emissions from the U.S. transportation sector (Part I) on ambient air quality in the face of climate change (Part II). In Part I of this study, we describe the methodology and results of a novel Technology Driver Model (see graphical abstract) that includes 1) transportation emission projections (including on-road vehicles, non-road engines, aircraft, rail, and ship) derived from a dynamic technology model that accounts for various technology and policy options under an IPCC emission scenario, and 2) the configuration/evaluation of a dynamically downscaled Weather Research and Forecasting/Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Brian J Kerr, Steven L Trabue, Mark B van Weelden, Daniel S Andersen, Laura M Pepple
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with or without a growth-promoting ionophore (0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet), has on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions. Two separate groups of 24 gilts (initial BW = 145.1 kg, SD = 7.8 kg) were allotted to individual metabolism crates that allowed for total but separate collection of feces and urine during the 48-d collection period...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jia-Wei Yan, Zhao-Jun Ban, Hong-Yan Lu, Dong Li, Elena Poverenov, Li Li, Zi-Sheng Luo
Aroma significantly contributes to flavor, which directly affects commercial quality of strawberry. Strawberry aroma is complex as many kinds of volatile compounds are found in strawberries. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of constituents and biosynthesis of strawberry volatile compounds, and the effect of postharvest treatments on aroma profiles. The characteristic strawberry volatile compounds consist of furanones, such as 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 4-methoxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone; esters including ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methyl butanoate, and methyl hexanoate; sulfur compounds such as methanethiol, and terpenoids including linalool and nerolidol...
March 30, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yonathan Asikin, Kusumiyati, Eizo Taira, Koji Wada
Petai seeds are one of the well-known strong-smelling foods of the Southeast Asian region that have been harvested and commercially offered in different ripening forms. The current study focused on alterations in the size, color, sugar composition, and volatile flavor properties of petai seeds in the four ripening stages (unripe, mid ripe, ripe, and over-ripe). The ripening process was mainly indicated by the increase in size and weight as seed color turned paler and less greenish. The total sugar content gradually increased during ripening, and then elevated from 1...
April 2018: Food Research International
Luke Bell, Omobolanle O Oloyede, Stella Lignou, Carol Wagstaff, Lisa Methven
Brassicaceae plants are renowned for their taste, aroma and trigeminal characteristics; predominantly bitter taste, sulfurous aroma and pungency. Compounds responsible for these sensations include the glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products, particularly isothiocyanates (ITCs), but also sulfur-containing volatile compounds. This article reviews the relative importance of taste and flavour perceptions resulting from such compounds; collating evidence from papers where findings are based on sensory analytical correlations, and those that have extracted specific compounds prior to sensory evaluation...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Robert J Cannon, Chi-Tang Ho
Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Qian Gao, Xuemei Li, Haitao Huang, Ying Guan, Qili Mi, Jianhua Yao
Phyllanthus emblica: (PE) fruit extract has pharmacological activity and exert anti-bacterial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, but few study exist for evaluating its improved effects on the imbalance of oral ecology, which may contribute to series of oral diseases. In this study, an examiner-blinded, randomized, and gum-base-controlled crossover manner was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a sugar-free chewing gum containing PE fruit extract in changing the oral microbiome. Twenty healthy young adults were randomly instructed to chew either PE gum or placebo gum...
March 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Masoud Ghader, Nader Shokoufi, Ali Es-Haghi, Kazem Kargosha
Vaccine production is a biological process in which variation in time and output is inevitable. Thus, the application of Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) will be important in this regard. Headspace solid - phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS can be used as a PAT for process monitoring. This method is suitable to chemical profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from microorganisms. Tetanus is a lethal disease caused by Clostridium tetani (C. tetani) bacterium and vaccination is an ultimate way to prevent this disease...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Chuandong Wu, Jiemin Liu, Shihua Liu, Wenhui Li, Luchun Yan, Mushui Shu, Peng Zhao, Peng Zhou, Wenbin Cao
Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are a source of odorous and toxic compounds. In this work, we present an integrated assessment of the odor concentration and human health risks of volatile compounds to evaluate the environmental quality at a MSW landfill. Air samples were collected seasonally from six areas of the landfill with different functions. The total concentrations of the compounds ranged from 204.0 to 7426.7 μg m-3 , and the concentrations in temporarily and permanently capped areas were 50...
March 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Daniele Castagnolo, Kate Lauder, Anita Toscani, Yuyin Qi, Jesmine Lim, Simon Charnock, Krupa Korah
1,3-Mercaptoalkanols constitute an important class of volatile sulfur compounds and contribute to both agreeable and disagreeable flavours and fragrances of many foods and beverages. Most mercaptoalkanols exist as chiral isomers and their olfactory perception may depend on their diastereomeric and enantiomeric configuration. A number of mercaptoalkanols bear a chiral hydroxyl group whose configuration is strictly related to their olfactory properties. To date, few synthetic methods have been described for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure mercaptoalkanols bearing a chiral hydroxyl-moiety...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
U Kandalam, N Ledra, H Laubach, K V Venkatachalam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pathogenic infections caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia can result in the production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC's) and other toxic compounds from methionine catabolism that can lead to halitosis and periodontitis. Our aim is to block the activity of methionine gammalyase-deaminase (Mgld) of methionine catabolism to prevent halitosis/periodontitis. DESIGNS: Cloned, expressed, Mgld protein was tested for purity by SDS-PAGE and western blotting...
March 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Y Jo, D M Benoist, D M Barbano, M A Drake
Typical high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization encompasses a lower heat treatment and shorter refrigerated shelf life compared with ultra-pasteurization (UP) achieved by direct steam injection (DSI-UP) or indirect heat (IND-UP). A greater understanding of the effect of different heat treatments on flavor and flavor chemistry of milk is required to characterize, understand, and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the flavor and volatile compound profiles of milk subjected to HTST, DSI-UP, or IND-UP using sensory and instrumental techniques...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yan-Xiang Cui, Di Wu, Hamish R Mackey, Ho-Kwong Chui, Guang-Hao Chen
Sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification (SO-AD) was investigated in a laboratory-scale moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at a sewage temperature of 22 °C. A synthetic wastewater with nitrate, sulfide and thiosulfate was fed into the MBBR. After 20 days' acclimation, the reduced sulfur compounds were completely oxidized and nitrogen removal efficiency achieved up to 82%. The operation proceeded to examine the denitrification by decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 12 to 4 h in stages. At steady state, this laboratory-scale SO-AD MBBR achieved the nitrogen removal efficiency of 94% at the volumetric loading rate of 0...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Yaqin Wang, Xinxin Xu, Wei Lu, Yuqiu Huo, Lijun Bian
By calcination, a sulfur vacancy rich CdS based composite photocatalyst with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) as a matrix has been synthesized successfully from a tetranuclear Cd-S cluster assembled supramolecular network. In this photocatalyst (CdS@g-C3 N4 ), CdS nanoparticles with a size of about 5 to 8 nm disperse homogenously in the g-C3 N4 matrix. During calcination, some coordinated nitrogen atoms dope in the lattice of CdS and replace sulfur atoms, which generates a large number of sulfur vacancies...
February 26, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
M Bergamaschi, G Bittante
The role of each step of cheese and ricotta making in development of flavor of cheese and other dairy products is not yet well known. The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOC) in cheese and ricotta making with bulk milk from cows grazing in a highland area and to evaluate their evolution in the various dairy products and by-products obtained during the production processes. A group of 148 cows was grazed day and night on pasture from June to September. A total of 7 cheese-making sessions were carried out using the bulk milk collected every 2 wk during summer pasturing according to the artisanal procedure used for Malga cheese production...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Gal Y Kreitman, Ryan J Elias, David W Jeffery, Gavin L Sacks
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), particularly low molecular weight sulfhydryls like hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and methanethiol (MeSH), are often observed in wines with sulfurous off-aromas. Recent work has shown both H2 S and MeSH can increase up to a few µM (> 40 µg/L) during anoxic storage, but the identity of the latent sources of these sulfhydryls is still disputed. This review critically evaluates the latent precursors and pathways likely to be responsible for the loss and formation of these sulfhydryls during wine storage based on the existing enology literature as well as studies from food chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and synthetic chemistry...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Ana Caroliny Vieira da Costa, Janaína Maria Batista Sousa, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira da Silva, Deborah Dos Santos Garruti, Marta Suely Madruga
Monofloral honeys produced by stingless bees M. subnitida Ducke and M. scutellaris Latrelle in typical flowering of the Brazilian semi-arid Ziziphus juazeiro Mart (juazeiro), Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (velame branco) and Mimosa arenosa willd Poir (jurema branca) were characterized in relation to volatile and sensorial profile. It identified 11 sensory descriptors and 96 volatile compounds. It was noticed a strong effect of flowering in sensorial profile and volatile of honeys. Juazeiro honey stood out with a higher characteristic aroma, taste sweet, caramel flavor and levels of aromatic aldehydes; jurema honey has been described with herb and beeswax aroma and the presence of sulfur compounds and ketones; volatile acids associated with acid taste, medicinal taste and clove aroma characterized the velame branco honey...
March 2018: Food Research International
A S Bertuzzi, A M Walsh, J J Sheehan, P D Cotter, F Crispie, P L H McSweeney, K N Kilcawley, M C Rea
In this study, a young Cheddar curd was used to produce two types of surface-ripened cheese, using two commercial smear-culture mixes of yeasts and bacteria. Whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing was used to screen the microbial population within the smear-culture mixes and on the cheese surface, with comparisons of microorganisms at both the species and the strain level. The use of two smear mixes resulted in the development of distinct microbiotas on the surfaces of the two test cheeses. In one case, most of the species inoculated on the cheese established themselves successfully on the surface during ripening, while in the other, some of the species inoculated were not detected during ripening and the most dominant bacterial species, Glutamicibacter arilaitensis, was not a constituent of the culture mix...
January 2018: MSystems
Romina Brignardello-Petersen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Artur Mardyukov, Peter R Schreiner
The large number and amounts of volatile organosulfur compounds emitted to the atmosphere and the enormous variety of their reactions in various oxidation states make experimental measurements of even a small fraction of them a daunting task. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a product of biological processes involving marine phytoplankton, and it is estimated to account for approximately 60% of the total natural sulfur gases released to the atmosphere. Ocean-emitted DMS has been suggested to play a role in atmospheric aerosol formation and thereby cloud formation...
February 2, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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