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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732430/bee-pollen-flavonoids-as-a-therapeutic-agent-in-allergic-and-immunological-disorders
#1
Masoomeh Jannesar, Maryam Sharif Shoushtari, Ahmad Majd, Zahra Pourpak
Bee pollen grains, as the male reproductive part of seed-bearing plants contain considerable concentrations of various phytochemicals and nutrients. Since antiquity, people throughout the world used pollens to cure colds, flu, ulcers, premature aging, anemia and colitis. It is now well-documented that some bee pollen secondary metabolites (e.g. flavonoid) may have positive health effects. In recent years, the flavonoids have attracted much interest because of their wide range of biological properties and their beneficial effects on human health...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731826/convergently-evolved-toxic-secondary-metabolites-in-plants-drive-the-parallel-molecular-evolution-of-insect-resistance
#2
Georg Petschenka, Vera Wagschal, Michael von Tschirnhaus, Alexander Donath, Susanne Dobler
Natural selection imposed by natural toxins has led to striking levels of convergent evolution at the molecular level. Cardiac glycosides represent a group of plant toxins that block the Na,K-ATPase, a vital membrane protein in animals. Several herbivorous insects have convergently evolved resistant Na,K-ATPases, and in some species, convergent gene duplications have also arisen, likely to cope with pleiotropic costs of resistance. To understand the genetic basis and predictability of these adaptations, we studied five independent lineages of leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae)...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729836/an-overview-of-herbal-products-and-secondary-metabolites-used-for-management-of-type-two-diabetes
#3
REVIEW
Ajda Ota, Nataša P Ulrih
Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728974/activation-of-cryptic-phthoxazolin-a-production-in-streptomyces-avermitilis-by-the-disruption-of-autoregulator-receptor-homologue-avar3
#4
Dian Anggraini Suroto, Shigeru Kitani, Kiyoko T Miyamoto, Yasuko Sakihama, Masayoshi Arai, Haruo Ikeda, Takuya Nihira
The genomes of actinomycetes encode many cryptic novel/useful bioactive compounds, but access to these cryptic secondary metabolites remains limited. Streptomyces avermitilis predominantly produces three polyketide antibiotics (avermectin, filipin, and oligomycin) but has the potential to produce more secondary metabolites based on the number of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters. Here, we extensively investigated the metabolite profiles of a gene disruptant of AvaR3 (an autoregulator receptor homologue), which is involved in the pleiotropic regulation of antibiotic production and cell morphology...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728600/comparison-of-the-polyphenolic-profile-and-antibacterial-activity-of-the-leaves-fruits-and-flowers-of-rhododendron-ambiguum-and-rhododendron-cinnabarinum
#5
Abhinandan Shrestha, Ahmed Rezk, Inamullah Hakeem Said, Victoria von Glasenapp, Rachelle Smith, Matthias S Ullrich, Hartwig Schepker, Nikolai Kuhnert
BACKGROUND: Rhododendron species have been traditionally used in countries like China, Nepal, Russia and North America for treating human diseases. These species are known to be a good source of polyphenolic plant secondary plant metabolites. They are known to have beneficial health properties for humans and have been used to treat diseases like asthma, skin diseases. In this contribution we investigate the phenolic profile and antibacterial activity of extracts from several plant organs including for the first time from leaves of different development stages...
July 20, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725238/a-non-targeted-metabolomics-approach-unravels-the-vocs-associated-with-the-tomato-immune-response-against-pseudomonas-syringae
#6
María Pilar López-Gresa, Purificación Lisón, Laura Campos, Ismael Rodrigo, José Luis Rambla, Antonio Granell, Vicente Conejero, José María Bellés
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants are secondary metabolites that mediate the plant interaction with pathogens and herbivores. These compounds may perform direct defensive functions, i.e., acting as antioxidant, antibacterial, or antifungal agents, or indirectly by signaling the activation of the plant's defensive responses. Using a non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics approach, we identified the profile of the VOCs associated with the differential immune response of the Rio Grande tomato leaves infected with either virulent or avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 pv...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725146/lc-esi-ms-ms-profiling-of-phenolics-from-eleutherococcus-spp-inflorescences-structure-activity-relationship-as-antioxidants-inhibitors-of-hyaluronidase-and-acetylcholinesterase
#7
Daniel Załuski, Marta Olech, Rafał Kuźniewski, Robert Verpoorte, Renata Nowak, Helena D Smolarz
Nature is a source of many plant-based molecules used as pro- or drugs. Eleutherococcus species are native to Asia and the North Russia, and are traditionally used to treat various diseases. In turn, neither secondary metabolites of the species cultivated in the West Europe nor the bioactivity is known. No differences in the phenols and flavonoids content in the inflorescences were found. The richest in polyphenols was E. giraldii (5.18 mg/g), while in flavonoids it was E. gracilistylus (1.80 mg/g). Using LC-ESI-MS/MS, protocatechuic and trans-caffeic acids have been identified as the most abundant compounds in E...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722830/ralfuranones-contribute-to-mushroom-type-biofilm-formation-by-ralstonia-solanacearum-strain-oe1-1
#8
Yuka Mori, Yuki Hosoi, Shiho Ishikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Yu Asai, Hideyuki Ohnishi, Mika Shimatani, Kanako Inoue, Kenichi Ikeda, Hitoshi Nakayashiki, Yasuyo Nishimura, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai, Yasufumi Hikichi
After invasion into intercellular spaces of tomato plants, the soil-borne plant pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum strain OE1-1 forms mushroom-shaped biofilms (mushroom-type biofilms, mBFs) on tomato cells, leading to its virulence. The strain OE1-1 produces aryl-furanone secondary metabolites, ralfuranones (A, B, J, K and L), dependent on the quorum sensing (QS) system with methyl 3-hydroxymyristate (3-OH MAME) synthesized by PhcB as a QS signal. Ralfuranones are associated with the feedback loop of the QS system...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722812/chemical-profile-of-pineapple-cv-vit%C3%A3-ria-in-different-maturation-stages-using-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#9
Elizângela M Ogawa, Helber B Costa, José A Ventura, Luiz C S Caetano, Fernanda E Pinto, Bruno G Oliveira, Maria Eduarda S Barroso, Rodrigo Scherer, Denise C Endringer, Wanderson Romão
BACKGROUND: Pineapple is the fruit of Ananas comosus var. comosus plant, being cultivated in tropical areas and has high energy content and nutritional value. Herein, 30 samples of pineapple cv. Vitória were analyzed as a function of the maturation stage (0-5) and their physicochemical parameters monitored. Besides, negative-ion mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) was used to identify and semi-quantify primary and secondary metabolites present in the crude and phenolic extracts of pineapple, respectively...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722248/screening-of-hallucinogenic-compounds-and-genomic-characterisation-of-40-anatolian-salvia-species
#10
Seda Damla Hatipoglu, Burhanettin Yalcinkaya, Muslum Akgoz, Turan Ozturk, Ahmet C Goren, Gulacti Topcu
INTRODUCTION: Salvia, an important and widely available member of Lamiaceae family. Although comparative analysis on secondary metabolites in several Salvia species from Turkey has been reported, their hallucinogenic chemicals have not been screened thoroughly. OBJECTIVE: This study provides LC-MS/MS analysis of 40 Salvia species for screening their psychoactive constituents of salvinorin A and salvinorin B. 5S-rRNA gene non-coding region of Salvia plants was sequenced, aligned and compared with that sequence of Salvia divinorum plant...
July 19, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722156/chemometric-evaluation-of-hypericin-and-related-phytochemicals-in-17-in-vitro-cultured-hypericum-species-hairy-root-cultures-and-hairy-root-derived-transgenic-plants
#11
Katarína Nigutová, Souvik Kusari, Selahaddin Sezgin, Linda Petijová, Jana Henzelyová, Miroslava Bálintová, Michael Spiteller, Eva Čellárová
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to ascertain the presence and correlations among eight important secondary metabolites viz. hypericin, pseudohypericin, emodin, hyperforin, rutin, hyperoside, quercetin and quercitrin in different organs of 17 in vitro cultured Hypericum species, along with H. tomentosum and H. tetrapterum hairy root cultures, and hairy root-derived transgenic plants of H. tomentosum. METHODS: Samples were extracted and analysed by LC-MS...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716406/the-tomato-b-type-cyclin-gene-slcycb2-plays-key-roles-in-reproductive-organ-development-trichome-initiation-terpenoids-biosynthesis-and-prodenia-litura-defense
#12
Shenghua Gao, Yanna Gao, Cheng Xiong, Gang Yu, Jiang Chang, Qihong Yang, Changxian Yang, Zhibiao Ye
Cyclins exist extensively in various plant species. Among them, B-type cyclins play important roles in the transition of G2-to-M. However, few B-type cyclins have been reported to participate in reproductive organ development and trichome formation. In this study, transgene analysis showed that SlCycB2 overexpression caused abnormal flower with the unclosed stamen, shortened style and aberrant pollen. In addition, nearly all non-glandular trichomes, as well as the glandular ones were disappeared. On the contrary, suppression of SlCycB2 could promote type III and type V trichomes formation...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715485/characterization-of-the-maize-lipoxygenase-gene-family-in-relation-to-aflatoxin-accumulation-resistance
#13
Oluwaseun F Ogunola, Leigh K Hawkins, Erik Mylroie, Michael V Kolomiets, Eli Borrego, Juliet D Tang, W Paul Williams, Marilyn L Warburton
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to reduce accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to colonization and toxin production by A. flavus. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a group of non-heme iron containing dioxygenase enzymes that catalyze oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LOX derived oxylipins play critical roles in plant defense against pathogens including A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715427/global-analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-young-j1-and-senescent-j2-gossypium-hirsutum-l-cotyledons-by-medip-seq
#14
Lingling Dou, Xiaoyun Jia, Hengling Wei, Shuli Fan, Hantao Wang, Yaning Guo, Shan Duan, Chaoyou Pang, Shuxun Yu
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification regulating gene expression, genomic imprinting, transposon silencing and chromatin structure in plants and plays an important role in leaf senescence. However, the DNA methylation pattern during Gossypium hirsutum L. cotyledon senescence is poorly understood. In this study, global DNA methylation patterns were compared between two cotyledon development stages, young (J1) and senescence (J2), using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP-Seq). Methylated cytosine occurred mostly in repeat elements, especially LTR/Gypsy in both J1 and J2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714761/gamma-irradiation-of-medicinally-important-plants-and-the-enhancement-of-secondary-metabolite-production
#15
P Vivek Vardhan, Lata I Shukla
PURPOSE: The profitable production of some important plant-based secondary metabolites (ginsenosides, saponins, camptothecin, shikonins etc.) in vitro by gamma irradiation is a current area of interest. We reviewed different types of secondary metabolites, their mode of synthesis and effect of γ-radiation on their yield for different plants, organs and in vitro cultures (callus, suspension, hairy root). Special effort has been made to review the biochemical mechanisms underlying the increase in secondary metabolites...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714193/alteration-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-as-a-possible-mechanism-of-the-antifungal-action-of-p-coumaric-acid-against-botrytis-cinerea
#16
J Morales, L Mendoza, M Cotoras
AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanism of action of p-coumaric acid against isolate B05.10 of B. cinerea. For this purpose, the effect of this compound on cell membrane, cell wall and oxidative phosphorylation was determined. Induction of oxidative stress triggered by this compound was also studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: p-coumaric acid showed antifungal effect on the mycelial growth-. Additionally, the compound was able to retard the germination of B...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713957/soyasaponin%C3%A2-ag-inhibits-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-msh%C3%A2-induced-melanogenesis-in-b16f10-melanoma-cells-via-the-downregulation-of-trp%C3%A2-2
#17
Seung Hwan Yang, Aristides M Tsatsakis, George Tzanakakis, Hong-Suk Kim, Bao Le, Maria Sifaki, Demetrios A Spandidos, Chigen Tsukamoto, Kirill S Golokhvast, Boris N Izotov, Gyuhwa Chung
Saponins, which are glycosylated, represent a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soyasaponin Ag, a secondary metabolite extracted from soybean, on α‑melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α‑MSH)‑induced melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. To elucidate the mechanisms through which soyasaponin Ag inhibits melanin synthesis, we performed cellular tyrosinase activity assays and analyzed the expression of the melanogenesis‑related genes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase‑related protein (TRP)‑1 and TRP‑2...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713417/foliar-phenolic-compounds-in-norway-spruce-with-varying-susceptibility-to-chrysomyxa-rhododendri-analyses-of-seasonal-and-infection-induced-accumulation-patterns
#18
Andrea Ganthaler, Wolfgang Stöggl, Ilse Kranner, Stefan Mayr
Secondary phenolic metabolites are involved in plant responses to various biotic stress factors, and are apparently important for the defense against fungal pathogens. In this study, we investigated their role in defense against the rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri in Norway spruce. The fungal pathogen undergoes a seasonal lifecycle with host shift; after overwintering in rhododendron shrubs, it attacks the sprouting current-year spruce needles and causes needle fall in autumn. Repeated infections lead to reduced timber yield and severe problems with rejuvenation in subalpine Norway spruce forests...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707613/metabolic-profile-of-and-antimicrobial-activity-in-the-aerial-part-of-leonurus-turkestanicus-v-i-krecz-et-kuprian-from-kazakhstan
#19
Olga Sermukhamedova, Krzysztof Kamil Wojtanowski, Jarosław Widelski, Izabela Korona-Głowniak, Hosam O Elansary, Zuriyadda Sakipova, Anna Malm, Kazimierz Głowniak, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak
An HPLC quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) MS method was developed for the identification of secondary metabolites in Leonurus turkestanicus V.I. Krecz. et Kuprian. Ethanolic and chloroform extracts from the plant’s aerial parts were tested. A total of 16 compounds (iridoid glycosides, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and nitrogen-containing compounds, as well as diterpene acetate derivatives) were identified and tentatively characterized based on (or using) their retention times and UV and Q-TOF-MS data...
July 13, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707323/exogenous-application-of-indole-acetic-acid-alleviates-the-effects-of-supplemental-ultraviolet-b-radiation-in-the-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera-dunal
#20
S Takshak, S B Agrawal
Supplemental (s)-UV-B radiation has adverse effects on majority of plants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of the growth hormone indole acetic acid (IAA) on various morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of Withania somnifera, an indigenous medicinal plant, subjected to s-UV-B. The s-UV-B treated plants received ambient+3.6 kJm(-2) day(-1) biologically effective UV-B and IAA was applied at two doses (200 ppm and 400 ppm) to s-UV-B exposed plants...
July 14, 2017: Plant Biology
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