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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318977/aromatic-decoration-determines-the-formation-of-anthocyanic-vacuolar-inclusions
#1
Kalyani Kallam, Ingo Appelhagen, Jie Luo, Nick Albert, Huaibi Zhang, Simon Deroles, Lionel Hill, Kim Findlay, Øyvind M Andersen, Kevin Davies, Cathie Martin
Anthocyanins are some of the most widely occurring secondary metabolites in plants, responsible for the orange, red, purple, and blue colors of flowers and fruits and red colors of autumn leaves. These pigments accumulate in vacuoles, and their color is influenced by chemical decorations, vacuolar pH, the presence of copigments, and metal ions. Anthocyanins are usually soluble in the vacuole, but in some plants, they accumulate as discrete sub-vacuolar structures. Studies have distinguished intensely colored intra-vacuolar bodies observed in the cells of highly colored tissues, termed anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs), from more globular, membrane-bound anthocyanoplasts...
March 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315389/variations-in-the-chemical-composition-and-content-of-salicylic-glycosides-in-the-bark-of-salix-purpurea-from-natural-locations-and-their-significance-for-breeding
#2
Paweł Sulima, Mirosława Krauze-Baranowska, Jerzy Andrzej Przyborowski
Willow bark is one of the few plant raw materials which contain natural active substances that have analgesic, fever-reducing, anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects. Salix purpurea, listed as widespread and common in many countries, belongs to the willow species with the highest content of salicylic compounds. The chemical composition and content of major salicylic glycosides (SGs) in the bark of S. purpurea genotypes from natural locations were investigated in this study to evaluate their applicability for pharmaceutical processing and creative breeding...
March 15, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299544/biotechnology-of-the-medicinal-plant-rhazya-stricta-a-little-investigated-member-of-the-apocynaceae-family
#3
REVIEW
Amir Akhgari, Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey, Heiko Rischer
Rhazya stricta Decne. (Apocynaceae) is an important medicinal plant that is widely distributed in the Middle East and Indian sub-continent. It produces a large number of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) some of which possess important pharmacological properties. However, the yields of these compounds are very low. Establishment of a reliable, reproducible and efficient transformation method and induction of hairy roots system is a vital prerequisite for application of biotechnology in order to improve secondary metabolite yields...
March 15, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299323/addressing-challenges-to-enhance-the-bioactives-of-withania-somnifera-through-organ-tissue-and-cell-culture-based-approaches
#4
REVIEW
Pritika Singh, Rupam Guleri, Amrita Angurala, Kuldeep Kaur, Kulwinder Kaur, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Pratap Kumar Pati
Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293229/fungal-root-microbiome-from-healthy-and-brittle-leaf-diseased-date-palm-trees-phoenix-dactylifera-l-reveals-a-hidden-untapped-arsenal-of-antibacterial-and-broad-spectrum-antifungal-secondary-metabolites
#5
Fedia B Mefteh, Amal Daoud, Ali Chenari Bouket, Faizah N Alenezi, Lenka Luptakova, Mostafa E Rateb, Adel Kadri, Neji Gharsallah, Lassaad Belbahri
In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to five genera. About 36...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292240/bioactive-metabolites-from-pathogenic-and-endophytic-fungi-of-forest-trees
#6
Marco Masi, Lucia Maddau, Benedetto Teodoro Linaldeddu, Bruno Scanu, Antonio Evidente, Alessio Cimmino
Fungi play an important role in terrestrial ecosystems interacting positively or negatively with plants. These interactions are complex and the outcomes are different depending on the fungal lifestyles, saprotrophic, mutualistic or pathogenic. Furthermore, fungi are well known for producing secondary metabolites, originating from different biosynthetic pathways, which possess biological properties of considerable biotechnological interest. Among the terrestrial ecosystems, temperate forests represent an enormous reservoir of fungal diversity...
March 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292238/fungal-production-and-manipulation-of-plant-hormones
#7
Sandra Fonseca, Dhanya Radhakrishnan, Kalika Prasad, Andrea Chini
Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated co-evolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies...
March 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292021/antinociceptive-pharmacological-profile-of-dysphania-graveolens-in-mouse
#8
Myrna Déciga-Campos, Rachel Mata, Isabel Rivero-Cruz
This work evaluates the potential antinociceptive activity of Dysphania graveolens, traditional medicinal plant used in Mexico to treat stomach pain. A CH2Cl2-MeOH extract, infusion and essential oil from aerial parts of Dysphania graveolens were evaluated in hot plate and writhing tests in mice. The metabolites pinostrobin, pinocembrin and chrysin were isolated from the Dysphania graveolens infusion; next, they were evaluated in both nociceptive tests. To confirm the antinociceptive activity and explore the possible participation of opioid, GABA and serotonin receptors in the pharmacological mechanism, a formalin test was used...
March 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289424/secondary-effects-of-glyphosate-action-in-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-inhibition-of-solute-transport-from-the-host-plant-to-the-parasite
#9
Tal Shilo, Baruch Rubin, Dina Plakhine, Shira Gal, Rachel Amir, Yael Hacham, Shmuel Wolf, Hanan Eizenberg
It is currently held that glyphosate efficiently controls the obligate holoparasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Egyptian broomrape) by inhibiting its endogenous shikimate pathway, thereby causing a deficiency in aromatic amino acids (AAA). While there is no argument regarding the shikimate pathway being the primary site of the herbicide's action, the fact that the parasite receives a constant supply of nutrients, including proteins and amino acids, from the host does not fit with an AAA deficiency. This apparent contradiction implies that glyphosate mechanism of action in P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288755/anthelmintic-activity-of-plant-extracts-from-brazilian-savanna
#10
Andreia F Oliveira, Livio M Costa Junior, Aldilene S Lima, Carolina R Silva, Maria N S Ribeiro, José W C Mesquista, Cláudia Q Rocha, Marcelo M P Tangerina, Wagner Vilegas
Helminth infections represent a serious problem for the production of small ruminants that is currently aggravated by resistance to anthelmintic products and has induced a search for control alternatives, such as natural products. In this study, extracts of Turnera ulmifolia L. (leaves and roots), Parkia platycephala Benth. (leaves and seeds) and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. (leaves and bark), which have been cited in ethnoveterinary studies and selected naturally by goats in the cerrado (Brazilian savanna), were tested in vitro against Haemonchus contortus...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286319/establishment-of-crispr-cas9-in-alternaria-alternata
#11
Maximilian Wenderoth, Christoph Pinecker, Benjamin Voß, Reinhard Fischer
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a potent producer of many secondary metabolites, some of which like alternariol or alternariol-methyl ether are toxic and/or cancerogenic. Many Alternaria species do not only cause post-harvest losses of food and feed, but are aggressive plant pathogens. Despite the great economic importance and the large number of research groups working with the fungus, the molecular toolbox is rather underdeveloped. Gene deletions often result in heterokaryotic strains and therefore, gene-function analyses are rather tedious...
March 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285413/comprehensive-assessment-of-the-genes-involved-in-withanolide-biosynthesis-from-withania-somnifera-chemotype-specific-and-elicitor-responsive-expression
#12
Aditya Vikram Agarwal, Parul Gupta, Deeksha Singh, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Deepak Chandra, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Family, Solanaceae), is among the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurveda owing to its rich reservoir of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites known as withanolides. Withanolides are C28-steroidal lactones having a triterpenoidal metabolic origin synthesised via mevalonate (MVA) pathway and methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway involving metabolic intermediacy of 24-methylene (C30-terpenoid) cholesterol. Phytochemical studies suggest differences in the content and/or nature of withanolides in different tissues of different chemotypes...
March 11, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281442/necrotrophic-mycoparasites-and-their-genomes
#13
Magnus Karlsson, Lea Atanasova, Dan Funck Jensen, Susanne Zeilinger
Mycoparasitism is a lifestyle where one fungus establishes parasitic interactions with other fungi. Species of the genus Trichoderma together with Clonostachys rosea are among the most studied fungal mycoparasites. They have wide host ranges comprising several plant pathogens and are used for biological control of plant diseases. Trichoderma as well as C. rosea mycoparasites efficiently overgrow and kill their fungal prey by using infection structures and by applying lytic enzymes and toxic metabolites. Most of our knowledge on the putative signals and signaling pathways involved in prey recognition and activation of the mycoparasitic response is derived from studies with Trichoderma...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279674/effect-of-photoperiod-and-6-methoxybenzoxazolinone-6-mboa-on-the-reproduction-of-male-brandt-s-voles-lasiopodomys-brandtii
#14
Xin Dai, Jia Shi, Mei Han, Ai Qin Wang, Wan Hong Wei, Sheng Mei Yang
Plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) has been suggested to stimulate animal reproduction. 6-MBOA is detected in Leymus chinensis, a main diet of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii). We have previously reported a stimulatory effect of 6-MBOA on reproduction of male Brandt's voles under a short-day photoperiod. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of 6-MBOA on reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a long-day photoperiod and examine if 6-MBOA under this photoperiodic regime altered the reproductive status of male Brandt's voles differently than the short-day photoperiod...
March 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278662/antimicrobial-activity-of-saponins-produced-by-two-novel-endophytic-fungi-from-panax-notoginseng
#15
Zhaoxia Jin, Lin Gao, Lin Zhang, Tianyi Liu, Fang Yu, Zongshen Zhang, Qiong Guo, Biying Wang
Endophytes in plants may be co-producer of the bioactive compounds of their hosts. We conducted a study to bioprospect for saponin-producing endophytic fungi from Panax notoginseng and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of saponins. Two novel fungal endophytes, Fusarium sp. PN8 and Aspergillus sp. PN17, were isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herb P. notoginseng. After eight days of fermentation, the total saponins produced in the culture broth of PN8 and PN17 were 1.061 and 0.583 mg mL(-1), respectively...
February 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278635/secondary-metabolites-from-the-endophytic-fungus-talaromyces-pinophilus
#16
F Vinale, R Nicoletti, F Lacatena, R Marra, A Sacco, N Lombardi, G d'Errico, M C Digilio, M Lorito, S L Woo
Endophytic fungi have a great influence on plant health and growth, and are an important source of bioactive natural compounds. Organic extracts obtained from the culture filtrate of an endophytic strain of Talaromyces pinophilus isolated from strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) were studied. Metabolomic analysis revealed the presence of three bioactive metabolites, the siderophore ferrirubin, the platelet-aggregation inhibitor herquline B and the antibiotic 3-O-methylfunicone. The latter was the major metabolite produced by this strain and displayed toxic effects against the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera Aphidiidae)...
February 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275146/second-site-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-comfrey-boosts-plant-defense-in-floral-stage
#17
Lars H Kruse, Thomas Stegemann, Christian Sievert, Dietrich Ober
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several, distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), an enzyme involved in the post-translational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species...
March 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272652/bioprotective-efficacy-of-erucin-against-7-12-dimethylbenz-%C3%AE-anthracene-induced-microstructural-changes-in-male-wistar-rats
#18
Rahul Mannan, Rohit Arora, Sakshi Bhushan, Sonam Sharma, Tejinder Bhasin, Saroj Arora
OBJECTIVE: Environmental pollutants are responsible for inducing a number of biochemical and physical changes in the various organs of an organism. The most potent pollutants is7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) (a genotoxic carcinogen), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon. It is known to induce a number of genetic changes including the formation of DNA adducts. These genotypic changes in turn are responsible for inducing microstructural changes in the vital organs viz. kidneys, stomach and lungs of an organism...
February 4, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270688/endophytic-actinomycetes-promising-source-of-novel-bioactive-compounds
#19
REVIEW
Atsuko Matsumoto, Yōko Takahashi
Endophytic actinomycetes associated with plant roots are a relatively untapped source of potential new bioactive compounds. This is becoming increasingly important, as the returns from discovery research on soil-dwelling microbes, have been continuously diminishing. We have isolated more than 1000 strains of actinomycetes from plant roots in our search for novel bioactive compounds, identified and assayed their bioactive metabolites, as well as investigated their biosynthetic genes for generating secondary metabolites...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266277/bergenin-from-peltophorum-dubium-isolation-characterization-and-antioxidant-activities-in-non-biological-systems-and-erythrocytes
#20
Guilherme A L de Oliveira, George L da Silva Oliveira, Lucas A D Nicolau, Ana C Mafud, Larissa F Batista, Yvonne P Mascarenhas, Luan K.M. de Sousa, Jorge M David, Larissa S Pinto, Clayton Q Alves, Jand V R Medeiros
BACKGROUND: Bergenin, a compound derived from gallic acid, is a secondary metabolite of the plant Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to characterize the ability of bergenin to eliminate the radicals in non-biological systems. METHODS: We evaluated bergenin is ability to protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage in a biological system. We have elucidated bergenin structure using nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry...
March 6, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
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