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plant secondary metabolite

Tariq Khan, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Mubarak Ali Khan
Manipulation in the light regimes combined with the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and elicitors through plant cell culture technology is a promising strategy for enhancing the yield of medicinally important secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of interplay between PGRs, elicitors and light regimes on cell cultures of F. indica have been investigated. The results showed that callus cultures resulted in maximum biomass formation (13.2 g/L) when incubated on solid MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium containing 1...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Krzysztof Kamil Wojtanowski, Tomasz Mroczek
The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) octopole orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) was developed to separate secondary metabolites belonging to different groups of compounds with a wide range of polarity, i.e. phenolic acids, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes and others present in minute amounts, in a single run. Moreover, application of ESI-TOF-MS with a simple in source type of fragmentation and high mass accuracy measurements (around 2 ppm) in both positive and negative ionization modes with different and optimized fragmentor voltages, enabled the identification of each single compound based on proposed fragmentation patterns...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Abdullah A Al-Ghamdi, Hosam O Elansary
Salinity is one of the major agricultural problems that may threat food security and limit the agricultural lands expansion worldwide. Exploring novel tools controlling saline conditions and increase valuable secondary metabolites in the horticultural crops might have outstanding results that serve humanity in the current century. The current study explores the effects of weekly seaweed extracts (7 mL  L-1 ) and/or 5-aminolevulinic acid (3, 5 and 10 ppm) sprays on Asparagus aethiopicus plants subjected to saline stress conditions (2000 and 4000 ppm) for 6 weeks in two consecutive seasons of 2016 and 2017...
June 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yi Shi, Xinju Liu, Yuanyuan Fang, Qing Tian, Hanyu Jiang, Huiling Ma
Brown patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is a serious disease in Agrostis stolonifera. 2, 3-butanediol (2, 3-BD) is the major component of volatile organic compounds and was found to initiate induced systemic resistance (ISR). To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of 2, 3-BD, we examined the effects of resistance by area affected, along with changes in the content of phytohormones (Zeatin (ZT), Abscisic Acid (ABA) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA)), the activities of three phenylpropanoid metabolic enzymes (Phenylalaninammo-Nialyase (PAL), Chalcone Isomerase (CHI) and 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL)) and the level of secondary metabolites (total phenols, flavonoid and lignin)...
June 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Mitra Mohammadi Bazargani, Jens Rohloff
Conspecific populations of plants in their native range are expected to show considerable variation due to long-term ecological and evolutionary factors. We investigated the levels of secondary metabolites in Heracleum including H. persicum a valuable medicinal plant to depict the magnitude of cryptic variation and the potential significance of novel chemical traits. The essential oil volatiles from fruits of 34 populations from different species of Heracleum in Iranian distribution range and a native and invasive population of H...
June 15, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Rieta Gols, Nicole M van Dam, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Ciska E Raaijmakers, James M Bullock, Jeffrey A Harvey
Levels of plant secondary metabolites are not static and often change in relation to plant ontogeny. They also respond to abiotic and biotic changes in the environment, e.g., they often increase in response to biotic stress, such as herbivory. In contrast with short-lived annual plant species, especially those with growing periods of less than 2-3 months, investment in defensive compounds of vegetative tissues in biennial and perennial species may also vary over the course of an entire growing season. In garden experiments, we investigated the dynamics of secondary metabolites, i...
2018: Chemoecology
Liang Chen, Shilai Shi, Ninfei Jiang, Hira Khanzada, Ghulam Mustafa Wassan, Changlan Zhu, Xiaosong Peng, Jie Xu, Yujin Chen, Qiuying Yu, Xiaopeng He, Junru Fu, Xiaorong Chen, Lifang Hu, Linjuan Ouyang, Xiaotang Sun, Haohua He, Jianmin Bian
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play a vital role in several gene regulatory networks involved in the various biological processes in plants related to stress response. However, systematic analyses of lncRNAs expressed in rice Cadmium (Cd) stress are seldom studied. Thus, we presented the characterization and expression of lncRNAs in rice root development at an early stage in response to Cd stress. RESULTS: The lncRNA deep sequencing revealed differentially expressed lncRNAs among Cd stress and normal condition...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yun Lu, Wei Gao, Lu-Qi Huang
miRNA (microRNA) is a kind of important endogenous non-coding small RNA, which mainly regulates the expression of target gene at the post-transcriptional level by splicing and translation inhibition and it plays an important role in the synthesis of plant secondary metabolites, especially for medicinal plants, the secondary metabolites are mostly active ingredients, which are the basis of medicinal effects. It is of great significance to study the biosynthetic pathways and complex regulatory networks of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Ikuko Amano, Sakihito Kitajima, Hideyuki Suzuki, Takao Koeduka, Nobukazu Shitan
The biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites is associated with morphological and metabolic differentiation. As a consequence, gene expression profiles can change drastically, and primary and secondary metabolites, including intermediate and end-products, move dynamically within and between cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation and transport mechanisms. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii, which produces various volatiles in its corolla limbs and emits metabolites to attract pollinators...
2018: PloS One
Diana B Muñiz-Márquez, Jorge E Wong-Paz, Juan C Contreras-Esquivel, Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera, Cristóbal N Aguilar
Laurus nobilis leaves contain flavored and bioactive components with relevant biological properties for human health that are attributed to an abundant presence of highly bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the separation process for these bioactive molecules from plant matrix is seriously limited by the presence of a physical barrier (cell wall). Thus, the use of novel extraction procedures to enhance their release is particularly important. In this work, the potential use of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) as a tool to improve the extraction efficiency of bioactive compounds from bay leaves and their characterization was evaluated...
June 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Janbo Xiao, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Samira Shirooie, Ana Sanches Silva, Alessandra Baldi, Haroon Khan, Maria Daglia
N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine (melatonin) is a natural substance produced both by plants, as a secondary metabolite, and animals, by the pineal gland and other tissues. In humans, melatonin participates in numerous functions including the regulation of mood, sleep, reproduction, promotion of immunomodulation, antioxidant defense and as an anti-inflammatory agent. The anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin could yield beneficial effects on intake, particularly against the chronic inflammation which underlies many chronic diseases...
June 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Rubashiny Veeramohan, Kamalrul Azlan Azizan, Wan Mohd Aizat, Hoe-Han Goh, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Nur Sabrina Mohd Yusof, Syarul Nataqain Baharum, Chyan Leong Ng
Mitragyna speciosa is a psychoactive plant known as "ketum" in Malaysia and "kratom" in Thailand. This plant is distinctly known to produce two important alkaloids, namely mitragynine (MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-OH-MG) that can bind to opioid receptors [1]. MG was reported to exhibit antidepressant properties in animal studies [2]. These compounds were also proposed to have the potential to replace opioid analgesics with much lower risks of side effects [3]. To date, there are only over 40 metabolites identified in M...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Fidele Tugizimana, Msizi I Mhlongo, Lizelle A Piater, Ian A Dubery
A new era of plant biochemistry at the systems level is emerging, providing detailed descriptions of biochemical phenomena at the cellular and organismal level. This new era is marked by the advent of metabolomics—the qualitative and quantitative investigation of the entire metabolome (in a dynamic equilibrium) of a biological system. This field has developed as an indispensable methodological approach to study cellular biochemistry at a global level. For protection and survival in a constantly-changing environment, plants rely on a complex and multi-layered innate immune system...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Louise R Barreto, Thayná Barreto, Sonia Melo, Cristina Pungartnik, Martin Brendel
Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are induced in plants after infection by pathogens and/or abiotic stress. Among these proteins, the family 10 (PR-10) influences the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and shows antimicrobial ribonuclease activity. Tc PR-10p (Pathogenesis-related Protein 10 of Theobroma cacao ) was isolated from resistant and susceptible Moniliophthora perniciosa cacao cultivars. Cell survival with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lines deficient in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins indicated the influence on resistance to Tc PR-10p...
June 13, 2018: Biology
Lifeng Zhu, Zhisong Yang, Ran Yao, Liangliang Xu, Hua Chen, Xiaodong Gu, Tonggui Wu, Xuyu Yang
Gut microbes can enhance the ability of hosts to consume secondary plant compounds and, therefore, expand the dietary niche breadth of mammalian herbivores. The giant and red pandas are bamboo-eating specialists within the mammalian order Carnivora. Bamboo contains abundant plant secondary metabolites (e.g., cyanide-containing compounds). However, Carnivora species, including the giant panda, have deficient levels of rhodanese (one of the essential cyanide detoxification enzymes) in their tissues compared with the same tissues of herbivores...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Kayla Thomason, Md Ali Babar, John E Erickson, Michael Mulvaney, Chris Beecher, Greg MacDonald
Genetic improvement for stress tolerance requires a solid understanding of biochemical processes involved with different physiological mechanisms and their relationships with different traits. The objective of this study was to demonstrate genetic variability in altered metabolic levels in a panel of six wheat genotypes in contrasting temperature regimes, and to quantify the correlation between those metabolites with different traits. In a controlled environment experiment, heat stress (35:28 ± 0.08°C) was initiated 10 days after anthesis...
2018: PloS One
Joël E T Ateba, Rufin M K Toghueo, Angelbert F Awantu, Brice M Mba'ning, Sebastian Gohlke, Dinkar Sahal, Edson Rodrigues-Filho, Etienne Tsamo, Fabrice F Boyom, Norbert Sewald, Bruno N Lenta
There is continuing need for new and improved drugs to tackle malaria, which remains a major public health problem, especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Natural products represent credible sources of new antiplasmodial agents for antimalarial drug development. Endophytes that widely colonize healthy tissues of plants have been shown to synthesize a great variety of secondary metabolites that might possess antiplasmodial benefits. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antiplasmodial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi isolated from Symphonia globulifera against a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (PfINDO )...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Nini Tian, Fang Liu, Pandi Wang, Xiaohong Yan, Hongfei Gao, Xinhua Zeng, Gang Wu
Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) belong to a large multigene family that possesses complex physiological functions. Trichomes are present on the aerial surfaces of most plants and include both glandular secretory hairs and non-glandular hairs. In this study, BraLTP2 was isolated from Brassica rapa ( B. rapa ) and its function was characterized in the important oilseed crop Brassica napus ( B. napus ). B. rapa lipid transfer protein 2 ( BraLTP2 ) belongs to the little-known Y class of nsLTPs and encodes a predicted secretory protein...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yuriko Carrington, Jia Guo, Cuong H Le, Alexander Fillo, Junsu Kwon, Lan Tran, Jürgen Ehlting
The shikimate pathway synthesizes aromatic amino acids essential for protein biosynthesis. Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a central enzyme of this primary metabolic pathway, producing shikimate. The structurally similar quinate is a secondary metabolite synthesized by quinate dehydrogenase (QDH). SDH and QDH belong to the same gene family, which diverged into two phylogenetic clades after a defining gene duplication just prior to the angiosperm/gymnosperm split. Non-seed plants that diverged before this duplication harbour only a single gene of this family...
June 12, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Wei Zhang, Li-Ying Lu, Li-Yan Hu, Wei Cao, Kai Sun, Qi-Biao Sun, Md Ashaduzzaman Siddikee, Run-Han Shi, Chuan-Chao Dai
Allelopathy is mediated by plant-derived secondary metabolites (allelochemicals), which are released by donor plants, and affect the growth and development of receptor plants. The plant root is the first organ sensing soil allelochemicals that produces shorter primary root, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we reported that a model allelochemical benzoic acid (BA) inhibited primary root elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings by reducing the sizes of both the meristem and elongation zones and that auxin signaling affected this process...
June 8, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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