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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244856/in-vitro-anthelmintic-effects-of-spigelia-anthelmia-protein-fractions-against-haemonchus-contortus
#1
Sandra Alves Araújo, Alexandra Martins Dos Santos Soares, Carolina Rocha Silva, Eduardo Bezerra Almeida Júnior, Cláudia Quintino Rocha, André Teixeira da Silva Ferreira, Jonas Perales, Livio M Costa-Júnior
Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244059/the-mediterranean-diet-metabolic-and-molecular-mechanisms
#2
Valeria Tosti, Beatrice Bertozzi, Luigi Fontana
Consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in minimally processed plant foods has been associated with a reduced risk of developing multiple chronic diseases and increased life expectancy. Data from several randomized clinic trials have demonstrated a beneficial effect in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation and breast cancer. The exact mechanism by which an increased adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet exerts its favorable effects is not known...
December 13, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243425/-overexpression-and-isolation-of-cyp76ah1-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza-hairy-roots
#3
Meng-Die Qi, Jian Wang, Xiao-Jing Ma, Quan Zhang, Fang-Fang Wang, Ying Kang, Yong Liu, Hui-Xin Lin
Protein complexes are involved in the synthesis of multiple secondary metabolites in plants, and their separation is essential to elucidate plant secondary metabolism and improve in vitro catalytic efficiency. In this study, the transgenic hairy roots of CYP76AH1, a key enzyme of tanshinone synthesis pathway, was constructed and the transgenic hairy roots of Danshen overexpressing CYP76AH1 protein were screened by Western blotting and used as a tissue culture material for the subsequent extraction of protein complex in tanshinone synthesis pathway...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243177/24-epibrassinolide-induced-alterations-in-the-root-cell-walls-of-cucumis-sativus-l-under-ca-no3-2-stress
#4
Ya-Hong An, Heng Zhou, Ying-Hui Yuan, Lin Li, Jin Sun, Sheng Shu, Shi-Rong Guo
Brassinosteroids (BRs) can effectively alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Ca(NO3)2 in cucumber seedlings. The root system is an essential organ in plants due to its roles in physical anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and metabolite synthesis and storage. In this study, 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) was applied to the cucumber seedling roots under Ca(NO3)2 stress, and the resulting chemical and anatomical changes were characterized to investigate the roles of BRs in alleviating salinity stress. Ca(NO3)2 alone significantly induced changes in the components of cell wall, anatomical structure, and expression profiles of several lignin biosynthetic genes...
December 14, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241147/combined-enzymatic-and-metabolic-analysis-of-grapevine-cell-responses-to-elicitors
#5
Yuko Krzyzaniak, Jonathan Negrel, Christelle Lemaitre-Guillier, Gilles Clément, Grégory Mouille, Agnès Klinguer, Sophie Trouvelot, Marie-Claire Héloir, Marielle Adrian
Elicitors trigger plant defense responses, including phytoalexin production and cell-wall reinforcement. Primary metabolism plays an important role in these responses as it fuels the associated energetic costs and provides precursors for the synthesis of the numerous secondary metabolites involved in defenses against pathogens. In this context, we aimed to determine whether oligosaccharidic elicitors differing in their capacity to activate defense-associated secondary metabolism in grapevine would differently impact primary metabolism...
December 7, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239784/new-perspectives-for-natural-triterpene-glycosides-as-potential-adjuvants
#6
Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois, Hildebert Wagner
BACKGROUND: Triterpene glycosides are a vast group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants including a high number of biologically active compounds. The pharmacological potential is evaluated by using many bioassays particularly in the field of cancerology, immunology, and microbiology. The adjuvant concept is well known for these molecules in vaccines, but there is little preclinical evidence to support this concept in the management of cancer, infections and inflammation...
November 7, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237703/genome-assembly-and-annotation-of-the-medicinal-plant-calotropis-gigantea-a-producer-of-anti-cancer-and-anti-malarial-cardenolides
#7
Genevieve M Hoopes, John P Hamilton, Jeongwoon Kim, Dongyan Zhao, Krystle Wiegert-Rininger, Emily Crisovan, C Robin Buell
Calotropis gigantea produces specialized secondary metabolites known as cardenolides which have anti-cancer and anti-malarial properties. Although transcriptomic studies have been conducted in other cardenolide-producing species, no nuclear genome assembly for an Asterid cardenolide-producing species has been reported to date. A high quality de novo assembly was generated for C. gigantea, representing 157,284,427 bp with an N50 scaffold size of 805,959 bp, for which quality assessments indicated a near complete representation of the genic space...
December 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236928/leishmanicidal-compounds-of-nectria-pseudotrichia-an-endophytic-fungus-isolated-from-the-plant-caesalpinia-echinata-brazilwood
#8
Betania Barros Cota, Luiza Guimarães Tunes, Daniela Nabak Bueno Maia, Jonas Pereira Ramos, Djalma Menezes de Oliveira, Markus Kohlhoff, Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves, Elaine Maria Souza-Fagundes, Fernanda Fraga Campos, Carlos Leomar Zani
BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood), is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data...
February 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234160/inheritance-patterns-in-metabolism-and-growth-in-diallel-crosses-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-from-a-single-growth-habitat
#9
Andrés Eduardo Rodriguez Cubillos, Hao Tong, Saleh Alseekh, Francisco de Abreu E Lima, Jing Yu, Alisdair R Fernie, Zoran Nikoloski, Roosa A E Laitinen
Metabolism is a key determinant of plant growth and modulates plant adaptive responses. Increased metabolic variation due to heterozygosity may be beneficial for highly homozygous plants if their progeny is to respond to sudden changes in the habitat. Here, we investigate the extent to which heterozygosity contributes to the variation in metabolism and size of hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana whose parents are from a single growth habitat. We created full diallel crosses among seven parents, originating from Southern Germany, and analysed the inheritance patterns in primary and secondary metabolism as well as in rosette size in situ...
December 13, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232373/disentangling-metabolic-functions-of-bacteria-in-the-honey-bee-gut
#10
Lucie Kešnerová, Ruben A T Mars, Kirsten M Ellegaard, Michaël Troilo, Uwe Sauer, Philipp Engel
It is presently unclear how much individual community members contribute to the overall metabolic output of a gut microbiota. To address this question, we used the honey bee, which harbors a relatively simple and remarkably conserved gut microbiota with striking parallels to the mammalian system and importance for bee health. Using untargeted metabolomics, we profiled metabolic changes in gnotobiotic bees that were colonized with the complete microbiota reconstituted from cultured strains. We then determined the contribution of individual community members in mono-colonized bees and recapitulated our findings using in vitro cultures...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231777/de-novo-transcriptome-study-identifies-candidate-genes-involved-in-resistance-to-austropuccinia-psidii-myrtle-rust-in-syzygium-luehmannnii-riberry
#11
Peri Ann Tobias, David Guest, Carsten Külheim, Robert F Park
Austropuccinia psidii, causal agent of myrtle rust, was discovered in Australia in 2010 and has since become established on a wide range of species within the Myrtaceae. Syzygium luehmannii, endemic to Australia, is an increasingly valuable berry crop. Plants were screened for responses to A. psidii inoculation and specific resistance, in the form of localised necrosis, was determined in 29% of individuals. To understand the molecular basis underlying this response, mRNA was sequenced from leaf samples taken pre-inoculation, and at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation, from four resistant and four susceptible plants...
December 12, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229911/comparative-genome-analysis-of-the-vineyard-weed-endophyte-pseudomonas-viridiflava-cdrtc14-showing-selective-herbicidal-activity
#12
Abdul Samad, Livio Antonielli, Angela Sessitsch, Stéphane Compant, Friederike Trognitz
Microbes produce a variety of secondary metabolites to be explored for herbicidal activities. We investigated an endophyte Pseudomonas viridiflava CDRTc14, which impacted growth of its host Lepidium draba L., to better understand the possible genetic determinants for herbicidal and host-interaction traits. Inoculation tests with a variety of target plants revealed that CDRTc14 shows plant-specific effects ranging from beneficial to negative. Its herbicidal effect appeared to be dose-dependent and resembled phenotypically the germination arrest factor of Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229698/laccase-ghlac1-modulates-broad-spectrum-biotic-stress-tolerance-via-damp-triggered-immunity
#13
Qin Hu, Ling Min, Xiyan Yang, Shuangxia Jin, Lin Zhang, Yaoyao Li, Yizan Ma, Xuewei Qi, Dongqin Li, Hongbo Liu, Keith Lindsey, Longfu Zhu, Xianlong Zhang
Plants are constantly challenged by a multitude of pathogens and pests, which causes massive yield and quality losses annually. A promising approach to reduce such losses is to enhance the immune system of plants through genetic engineering. Previous work has shown that laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) function as lignin polymerization enzymes. Here we demonstrate that transgenic manipulation of the expression of the laccase gene GhLac1 in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) can confer an enhanced defence response to both pathogens and pests...
December 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223848/foliar-spraying-of-salicylic-acid-induced-accumulation-of-phenolics-increased-radical-scavenging-activity-and-modified-the-composition-of-the-essential-oil-of-water-stressed-thymus-vulgaris-l
#14
Noha Khalil, Mostafa Fekry, Mokhtar Bishr, Soheir El-Zalabani, Osama Salama
Polyphenolic compounds are considered valuable secondary plant metabolites owing to the myriad of biological activities they exert. This study aimed to investigate the effect of applying various concentrations of the plant growth regulator, salicylic acid (SA), on Thymus vulgaris L. while subjecting the plant to decreasing amounts of irrigation water. The following parameters were monitored; total polyphenolic and flavonoid content, yield and composition of the essential oil, and antioxidant activity of the alcoholic extracts...
December 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222952/accumulation-of-the-coumarin-scopolin-under-abiotic-stress-conditions-is-mediated-by-the-arabidopsis-thaliana-tho-trex-complex
#15
Stefanie Döll, Markus Kuhlmann, Twan Rutten, Michael Florian Mette, Sarah Scharfenberg, Antonios Petridis, Dorothee-Carina Berreth, Hans-Peter Mock
Secondary metabolites are involved in plant stress response. Among these are scopolin and its active form scopoletin, which are coumarin-derivatives associated with reactive oxygen species scavenging and pathogen defence. Here we show that scopolin accumulation can be induced in the root by osmotic stress and in the leaf by low temperature stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. A genetic screen for altered scopolin levels in A. thaliana revealed a mutant compromised in scopolin accumulation in response to stress; the lesion was present in a homologue of THO1 coding for a subunit of the THO/TREX complex...
December 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222513/biotrophy-necrotrophy-switch-in-pathogen-evoke-differential-response-in-resistant-and-susceptible-sesame-involving-multiple-signaling-pathways-at-different-phases
#16
Supriyo Chowdhury, Arpita Basu, Surekha Kundu
Infection stages of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in sesame revealed for the first time a transition from biotrophy via BNS (biotrophy-to-necrotrophy switch) to necrotrophy as confirmed by transcriptional studies. Microscopy using normal and GFP-expressing pathogen showed typical constricted thick intercellular bitrophic hyphae which gave rise to thin intracellular necrotrophic hyphae during BNS and this stage was delayed in a resistant host. Results also show that as the pathogen switched its strategy of infection, the host tailored its defense strategy to meet the changing situation...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215548/secondary-metabolic-profiles-of-two-cultivars-of-piper-nigrum-black-pepper-resulting-from-infection-by-fusarium-solani-f-sp-piperis
#17
Shirlley F M da Luz, Lydia F Yamaguchi, Massuo J Kato, Oriel F de Lemos, Luciana P Xavier, José Guilherme S Maia, Alessandra de R Ramos, William N Setzer, Joyce Kelly do R da Silva
Bragantina and Cingapura are the main black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) cultivars and the Pará state is the largest producer in Brazil with about 90% of national production, representing the third largest production in the world. The infection of Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the causal agent of Fusarium disease in black pepper, was monitored on the cultivars Bragantina (susceptible) and Cingapura (tolerant), during 45 days' post infection (dpi). Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the volatile concentrates of both cultivars showed that the Bragantina responded with the production of higher contents of α-bisabolol at 21 dpi and a decrease of elemol, mostly at 30 dpi; while Cingapura displayed an decrease of δ-elemene production, except at 15 dpi...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213298/reproducible-genomic-dna-preparation-from-diverse-crop-species-for-molecular-genetic-applications
#18
Kelvin T Chiong, Mona B Damaj, Carmen S Padilla, Carlos A Avila, Shankar R Pant, Kranthi K Mandadi, Ninfa R Ramos, Denise V Carvalho, T Erik Mirkov
Background: Several high-throughput molecular genetic analyses rely on high-quality genomic DNA. Copurification of other molecules can negatively impact the functionality of plant DNA preparations employed in these procedures. Isolating DNA from agronomically important crops, such as sugarcane, rice, citrus, potato and tomato is a challenge due to the presence of high fiber, polysaccharides, or secondary metabolites. We present a simplified, rapid and reproducible SDS-based method that provides high-quality and -quantity of DNA from small amounts of leaf tissue, as required by the emerging biotechnology and molecular genetic applications...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209932/intraspecific-variation-in-nutritional-composition-affects-the-leaf-age-preferences-of-a-mammalian-herbivore
#19
Karen J Marsh, Jessica Ward, Ian R Wallis, William J Foley
Ecologists have long been interested in how the nutritional composition of leaves changes as they age, and whether this affects herbivore feeding preferences. As a consequence, the literature abounds with reports that younger leaves contain higher concentrations of nitrogen and plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) than do older leaves. Most of these studies, however, base their conclusions on average values that often mean little to herbivores. We examined this issue in the well-studied marsupial-eucalypt system, using Eucalyptus melliodora and captive common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) offered branches from individual trees containing both young and mature leaves...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207906/synthetic-studies-on-optically-active-furofuran-and-diarylbutane-lignans
#20
Naoki Mori
Lignans are a large class of naturally occurring secondary metabolites which are widely spread within the plant kingdom. Their diverse structures and variety of biological activities have fascinated organic chemists. For synthesizing optically active lignans, we have developed the novel asymmetric dimerization of cinnamic acid derivatives, and applied it to the enantioselective syntheses of furofuran lignans (yangambin, sesamin, eudesmin, caruilignan A) and diarylbutane lignans (sauriols A and B). This review summarizes the methodology of our asymmetric dimerization of cinnamic acid derivatives, and efficient total syntheses of furofuran and diarylbutane lignans reported by our and other groups...
December 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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