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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036599/carbon-allocation-and-partitioning-in-populus-tremuloides-are-modulated-by-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-under-phosphorus-limitation
#1
Shalaka Shinde, Dhiraj Naik, Jonathan R Cumming
The fate of carbon (C) captured by forest trees during photosynthesis is influenced by the supply of other resources. Fixed C may be partitioned among biomolecules within the leaf and/or allocated throughout the tree to growth, storage and maintenance activities. Phosphorus (P) availability often limits tree productivity due to its high biological demand and strong interactions with soil minerals. As ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi play critical roles in enhancing phosphate (Pi) acquisition by their hosts, these symbioses will influence the fate of C within trees and forested ecosystems...
September 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034745/withanolide-production-by-fungal-endophyte-isolated-from-withania-somnifera
#2
Muthukrishnan Sathiyabama, Ramalingam Parthasarathy
Withanolides, the secondary metabolite from Withania species is used in Ayurvedic medicine and now proved to have potential use in treating cardiovascular, Alzheimer's disease, etc. Its production in plants varies between genotypes with very low yield. For improved industrial commercialisation, there is a need to increase its production. Endophytic fungi are symbiotically associated with plants and can synthesise the same bioactive compounds and natural products as their host plant. There are no reports available on withanolide-producing (endophytic) fungi...
October 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033969/intercropping-induces-changes-in-specific-secondary-metabolite-concentration-in-ethiopian-kale-brassica-carinata-and-african-nightshade-solanum-scabrum-under-controlled-conditions
#3
Benard Ngwene, Susanne Neugart, Susanne Baldermann, Beena Ravi, Monika Schreiner
Intercropping is widespread in small-holder farming systems in tropical regions and is also practiced in the cultivation of indigenous vegetables, to alleviate the multiple burdens of malnutrition. Due to interspecific competition and/or complementation between intercrops, intercropping may lead to changes in plants accumulation of minerals and secondary metabolites and hence, alter nutritional quality for consumers. Intercropping aims to intensify land productivity, while ensuring that nutritional quality is not compromised...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030688/neurotrophic-function-of-phytochemicals-for-neuroprotection-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-disorders-modulation-of-intracellular-signaling-and-gene-expression
#4
REVIEW
Makoto Naoi, Keiko Inaba-Hasegawa, Masayo Shamoto-Nagai, Wakako Maruyama
Bioactive compounds in food and beverages have been reported to promote health and prevent age-associated decline in cognitive, motor and sensory activities, and emotional function. Phytochemicals, a ubiquitous class of plant secondary metabolites, protect neuronal cells by interaction with cellular activities, in addition to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory function. In aging and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, phytochemicals protect neuronal cells by neurotrophic factor-mimic activity, in addition to suppression of apoptosis signaling in mitochondria...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030640/insights-into-grapevine-defense-response-against-drought-as-revealed-by-biochemical-physiological-and-rna-seq-analysis
#5
Muhammad Salman Haider, Cheng Zhang, Mahantesh M Kurjogi, Tariq Pervaiz, Ting Zheng, Chaobo Zhang, Chen Lide, Lingfie Shangguan, Jinggui Fang
Grapevine is an important and extensively grown fruit crop, which is severely hampered by drought worldwide. So, comprehending the impact of drought on grapevine genetic resources is necessary. In the present study, RNA-sequencing was executed using cDNA libraries constructed from both drought-stress and control plants. Results generated 12,451 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), out of which 8,021 genes were up-regulated, and 4,430 were down-regulated. Further physiological and biochemical investigations were also performed to validate the biological processes associated with the development of grapevine in response to drought stress...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029703/comparative-genomics-of-maize-ear-rot-pathogens-reveals-expansion-of-carbohydrate-active-enzymes-and-secondary-metabolism-backbone-genes-in-stenocarpella-maydis
#6
Alex Z Zaccaron, Charles P Woloshuk, Burton H Bluhm
Stenocarpella maydis is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes Diplodia ear rot, one of the most destructive diseases of maize. To date, little information is available regarding the molecular basis of pathogenesis in this organism, in part due to limited genomic resources. In this study, a 54.8 Mb draft genome assembly of S. maydis was obtained with Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies, and analyzed. Comparative genomic analyses with the predominant maize ear rot pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium graminearum revealed an expanded set of carbohydrate-active enzymes for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation in S...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028844/a-polyphenol-enriched-diet-and-ascaris-suum-infection-modulate-mucosal-immune-responses-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-pigs
#7
Andrew R Williams, Lukasz Krych, Hajar Fauzan Ahmad, Peter Nejsum, Kerstin Skovgaard, Dennis S Nielsen, Stig M Thamsborg
Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027954/marine-sponge-natural-products-with-anticancer-potential-an-updated-review
#8
REVIEW
Cinzia Calcabrini, Elena Catanzaro, Anupam Bishayee, Eleonora Turrini, Carmela Fimognari
Despite the huge investment into research and the significant effort and advances made in the search for new anticancer drugs in recent decades, cancer cure and treatment continue to be a formidable challenge. Many sources, including plants, animals, and minerals, have been explored in the oncological field because of the possibility of identifying novel molecular therapeutics. Marine sponges are a prolific source of secondary metabolites, a number of which showed intriguing tumor chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027474/on-the-metabolites-produced-by-colletotrichum-gloeosporioides-a-fungus-proposed-for-the-ambrosia-artemisiifolia-biocontrol-spectroscopic-data-and-absolute-configuration-assignment-of-colletochlorin-a
#9
Marco Masi, Maria Chiara Zonno, Alessio Cimmino, Pierluigi Reveglia, Alexander Berestetskiy, Angela Boari, Maurizio Vurro, Antonio Evidente
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is responsible for serious allergies induced on humans. Different approaches for its control were proposed during the COST Action FA1203 "Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe" (SMARTER). Fungal secondary metabolites often show potential herbicidal activity. Three phytotoxins were purified from the fungal culture filtrates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from infected leaves of A. artemisiifolia. They were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods as colletochlorin A, orcinol and tyrosol (1, 2 and 3)...
October 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023367/effect-of-cadmium-and-copper-exposure-on-growth-secondary-metabolites-and-antioxidant-activity-in-the-medicinal-plant-sambung-nyawa-gynura-procumbens-lour-merr
#10
Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim, Yap Chee Kong, Nurul Amalina Mohd Zain
A randomized complete block (RCBD) study was designed to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on the growth, bioaccumulation of the two heavy metals, metabolite content and antibacterial activities in Gyanura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Nine treatments including (1) control (no Cd and Cu); (2) Cd 2 = cadmium 2 mg/L; (3) Cd 4 = cadmium 4 mg/L; (4) Cu 70 = copper 70 mg/L; (5) Cu 140 = copper 140 mg/L); (6) Cd 2 + Cu 70 = cadmium 2 mg/L + copper 70 mg/L); (7) Cd 2 + Cu 140 = cadmium 2 mg/L + copper 70 mg/L); (8) Cd 4 + Cu 70 = cadmium 4 mg/L+ copper 70 mg/L and (9) Cd 4 + Cu 140 = cadmium 4 mg/L + copper 140 mg/L) were evaluated in this experiment...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023056/ameliorative-effect-of-arctium-lappa-against-cadmium-genotoxicity-and-histopathology-in-kidney-of-wistar-rat
#11
Asma Suliman Al-Gebaly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal whose dispersion in the environment has increased recently, Cd may enhance cell oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative capability of Burdock root 'Arctium lappa' on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histopathology of the kidney of Wistar rats. METHODOLOGY: Cadmium was applied in a form of cadmium chloride to three groups (15 mg Cd kg-1) for five weeks with two groups pre-treated with 'Arctium lappa' administration, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023036/callus-induction-from-various-organs-of-dragon-fruit-apple-and-tomato-on-some-mediums
#12
Rumiyati, Sismindari, Endang Semiarti, Asri Fajar Milasari, Dheatika Karina Sari, Nia Fitriana, Sekar Galuh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), apple (Malus sylvestris Mill.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are high potential sources of antioxidant compounds such as phenolics. The compounds have the capability of protecting cells and tissues against free radicals. Secondary metabolite produced by callus cell culture from plant organs also acts as a source of antioxidants. This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of sucrose and 2,4-D in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for callus induction from different plant organ explants...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022076/biosynthesis-and-regulation-of-cyanogenic-glycoside-production-in-forage-plants
#13
REVIEW
Zhanmin Sun, Kaixuan Zhang, Cheng Chen, Yanmin Wu, Yixiong Tang, Milen I Georgiev, Xinquan Zhang, Min Lin, Meiliang Zhou
The natural products cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) are present in various forage plant species including Sorghum spp., Trifolium spp., and Lotus spp. The release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from endogenous CNglcs, which is known as cyanogenesis, leads to a serious problem for animal consumption while as defensive secondary metabolites, CNglcs play multiple roles in plant development and responses to adverse environment. Therefore, it is highly important to fully uncover the molecular mechanisms of CNglc biosynthesis and regulation to manipulate the contents of CNglcs in forage plants for fine-tuning the balance between defensive responses and food safety...
October 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021759/effects-of-gladiolus-dalenii-on-the-stress-induced-behavioral-neurochemical-and-reproductive-changes-in-rats
#14
David Fotsing, Gwladys T Ngoupaye, Agnes C Ouafo, Stephanie K J Njapdounke, Yongabi A Kenneth, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD) exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020749/the-draft-genome-assembly-of-rhododendron-delavayi-franch-var-delavayi
#15
Lu Zhang, Pengwei Xu, Yanfei Cai, Lulin Ma, Shifeng Li, Shufa Li, Weijia Xie, Jie Song, Lvchun Peng, Huijun Yan, Ling Zou, Yongpeng Ma, Chengjun Zhang, Qiang Gao, Jihua Wang
Rhododendron delavayi Franch. is globally famous as an ornamental plant. Its distribution in southwest China covers several different habitats and environments. However, not much research had been conducted on Rhododendron spp. at the molecular level, which hinders understanding of its evolution, speciation, and synthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as its wide adaptability to different environments. Here, we report the genome assembly and gene annotation of R. delavayi var. delavayi (the second genome sequenced in the Ericaceae), which will facilitate the study of the family...
October 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018974/catalytic-diversity-and-homotropic-allostery-of-two-cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-like-proteins-from-trichoderma-brevicompactum
#16
Razak Hussain, Indu Kumari, Shikha Sharma, Mushtaq Ahmed, Tabreiz Ahmad Khan, Yusuf Akhter
Trichothecenes are the secondary metabolites produced by Trichoderma spp. Some of these molecules have been reported for their ability to stimulate plant growth by suppressing plant diseases and hence enabling Trichoderma spp. to be efficiently used as biocontrol agents in modern agriculture. Many of the proteins involved in the trichothecenes biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma spp. are encoded by the genes present in the tri cluster. Tri4 protein catalyzes three consecutive oxygenation reaction steps during biosynthesis of isotrichodiol in the trichothecenes biosynthetic pathway, while tri11 protein catalyzes the C4 hydroxylation of 12, 13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene to produce trichodermol...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018437/biocontrol-of-bacterial-leaf-blight-of-rice-and-profiling-of-secondary-metabolites-produced-by-rhizospheric-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-brp3
#17
Sumera Yasmin, Fauzia Y Hafeez, Muhammad S Mirza, Maria Rasul, Hafiz M I Arshad, Muhammad Zubair, Mazhar Iqbal
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is widely prevalent and causes Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) in Basmati rice grown in different areas of Pakistan. There is a need to use environmentally safe approaches to overcome the loss of grain yield in rice due to this disease. The present study aimed to develop inocula, based on native antagonistic bacteria for biocontrol of BLB and to increase the yield of Super Basmati rice variety. Out of 512 bacteria isolated from the rice rhizosphere and screened for plant growth promoting determinants, the isolate BRp3 was found to be the best as it solubilized 97 μg/ mL phosphorus, produced 30 μg/mL phytohormone indole acetic acid and 15 mg/ L siderophores in vitro...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017925/evolution-of-catalytic-microenvironment-governs-substrate-and-product-diversity-in-trichodiene-synthase-and-other-terpene-fold-enzymes
#18
Indu Kumari, Mushtaq Ahmed, Yusuf Akhter
Trichodiene synthase, a terpene fold enzyme catalyzes the first reaction of trichodermin biosynthesis that is an economically important secondary metabolite. Sequence search analysis revealed that the proteins containing terpene fold are present in bacteria, fungi and plants. Terpene fold protein from Selaginella moellendorffii, a lycophyte, appeared at the interface of the microbes and plants in the evolutionary scale. Amino acid residues present around the catalytic pocket determines the size of the substrate as well as product molecules...
October 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017819/jasmonates-are-signals-in-the-biosynthesis-of-secondary-metabolites-pathways-transcription-factors-and-applied-aspects-a-brief-review
#19
REVIEW
Claus Wasternack, Miroslav Strnad
Jasmonates (JAs) are signals in plant stress responses and development. One of the first observed and prominent responses to JAs is the induction of biosynthesis of different groups of secondary compounds. Among them are nicotine, isoquinolines, glucosinolates, anthocyanins, benzophenanthridine alkaloids, artemisinin, and terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), such as vinblastine. This brief review describes modes of action of JAs in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, nicotine, TIAs, glucosinolates and artemisinin...
October 7, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016891/-hidden-terpenoids-in-plants-their-biosynthesis-localisation-and-ecological-roles
#20
Kazufumi Yazaki, Gen-Ichiro Arimura, Toshiyuki Ohnishi
Terpenoids are the largest group of plant specialized (secondary) metabolites. These naturally occurring chemical compounds are highly diverse in chemical structure. Although there have been many excellent studies of terpenoids, most have focused on compounds built solely of isoprene units. Plants, however, also contain many "atypical" terpenoids, such as glycosylated volatile terpenes and composite-type terpenoids, the latter of which are synthesized by the coupling of isoprene units on aromatic compounds...
August 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
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