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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920379/domestication-impacts-on-plant-herbivore-interactions-a-meta-analysis
#1
Susan R Whitehead, Martin M Turcotte, Katja Poveda
For millennia, humans have imposed strong selection on domesticated crops, resulting in drastically altered crop phenotypes compared with wild ancestors. Crop yields have increased, but a long-held hypothesis is that domestication has also unintentionally decreased plant defences against herbivores. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis comparing insect herbivore resistance and putative plant defence traits between crops and their wild relatives. Our database included 2098 comparisons made across 73 crops in 89 studies...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918439/phenols-and-polyphenols-as-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitors
#2
REVIEW
Anastasia Karioti, Fabrizio Carta, Claudiu T Supuran
Phenols are among the largest and most widely distributed groups of secondary metabolites within the plant kingdom. They are implicated in multiple and essential physiological functions. In humans they play an important role as microconstituents of the daily diet, their consumption being considered healthy. The physical and chemical properties of phenolic compounds make these molecules versatile ligands, capable of interacting with a wide range of targets, such as the Carbonic Anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). CAs reversibly catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO₂ hydration to bicarbonate and protons in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological processes...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918432/recent-advances-and-future-challenges-in-modified-mycotoxin-analysis-why-hrms-has-become-a-key-instrument-in-food-contaminant-research
#3
REVIEW
Laura Righetti, Giuseppe Paglia, Gianni Galaverna, Chiara Dall'Asta
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by pathogenic fungi in crops worldwide. These compounds can undergo modification in plants, leading to the formation of a large number of possible modified forms, whose toxicological relevance and occurrence in food and feed is still largely unexplored. The analysis of modified mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their chemical diversity, the large number of isomeric forms, and the lack of analytical standards. Here, the potential benefits of high-resolution and ion mobility mass spectrometry as a tool for separation and structure confirmation of modified mycotoxins have been investigated/reviewed...
December 2, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917660/phytochemical-investigations-on-artemisia-alba-turra-growing-in-the-north-east-of-italy
#4
Gregorio Peron, Valeria Baldan, Stefania Sut, Marta Faggian, Lorenzo Roccabruna, Daniele Zanini, Paolo Manzini, Filippo Maggi, Stefano Dall'Acqua
Artemisia alba Turra (Asteraceae) is an Euro-Mediterranean plant used in Veneto (North-East of Italy) as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. A. alba is a taxonomically problematic species, characterised by common polymorphism leading to a quite high variability in secondary metabolites content. Nonetheless, the phytochemical knowledge on its phytoconstituents, especially non-volatile components, is limited. In the present paper, the phytochemical composition of a tincture obtained from the aerial parts of A...
December 5, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917185/fire-and-brimstone-molecular-interactions-between-sulfur-and-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-in-model-and-crop-brassicaceae
#5
REVIEW
Priyakshee Borpatragohain, Terry J Rose, Graham J King
Glucosinolates (GSLs) represent one of the most widely studied classes of plant secondary metabolite, and have a wide range of biological activities. Their unique properties also affect livestock and human health, and have been harnessed for food and other end-uses. Since GSLs are sulfur (S)-rich there are many lines of evidence suggesting that plant S status plays a key role in determining plant GSL content. However, there is still a need to establish a detailed knowledge of the distribution and remobilization of S and GSLs throughout the development of Brassica crops, and to represent this in terms of primary and secondary sources and sinks...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917180/role-of-the-gacs-sensor-kinase-in-the-regulation-of-volatile-production-by-plant-growth-promoting-pseudomonas-fluorescens-sbw25
#6
Xu Cheng, Viviane Cordovez, Desalegn W Etalo, Menno van der Voort, Jos M Raaijmakers
In plant-associated Pseudomonas species, the production of several secondary metabolites and exoenzymes is regulated by the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system (the Gac-system). Here, we investigated if a mutation in the GacS sensor kinase affects the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in P. fluorescens SBW25 (Pf.SBW25) and how this impacts on VOCs-mediated growth promotion and induced systemic resistance of Arabidopsis and tobacco. A total of 205 VOCs were detected by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for Pf...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917159/predominately-uncultured-microbes-as-sources-of-bioactive-agents
#7
REVIEW
David J Newman
In this short review, I am discussing the relatively recent awareness of the role of symbionts in plant, marine-invertebrates and fungal areas. It is now quite obvious that in marine-invertebrates, a majority of compounds found are from either as yet unculturable or poorly culturable microbes, and techniques involving "state of the art" genomic analyses and subsequent computerized analyses are required to investigate these interactions. In the plant kingdom evidence is amassing that endophytes (mainly fungal in nature) are heavily involved in secondary metabolite production and that mimicking the microbial interactions of fermentable microbes leads to involvement of previously unrecognized gene clusters (cryptic clusters is one name used), that when activated, produce previously unknown bioactive molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917156/inhibitory-effects-of-macrotetrolides-from-streptomyces-spp-on-zoosporogenesis-and-motility-of-peronosporomycete-zoospores-are-likely-linked-with-enhanced-atpase-activity-in-mitochondria
#8
Md Tofazzal Islam, Hartmut Laatsch, Andreas von Tiedemann
The release of zoospores from sporangia and motility of the released zoospores are critical in the disease cycle of the Peronosporomycetes that cause devastating diseases in plants, fishes, animals and humans. Disruption of any of these asexual life stages eliminates the possibility of pathogenesis. In the course of screening novel bioactive secondary metabolites, we found that extracts of some strains of marine Streptomyces spp. rapidly impaired motility and caused subsequent lysis of zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10 μg/ml...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916792/elevated-o%C3%A2-and-tylcv-infection-reduce-the-suitability-of-tomato-as-a-host-for-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#9
Hongying Cui, Yucheng Sun, Fajun Chen, Youjun Zhang, Feng Ge
The effects of elevated atmospheric ozone (O₃) levels on herbivorous insects have been well studied, but little is known about the combined effects of elevated O₃ and virus infection on herbivorous insect performance. Using open-top chambers in the field, we determined the effects of elevated O₃ and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection on wild-type (Wt) tomato and 35S tomato (jasmonic acid (JA) defense-enhanced genotype) in association with whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotype B. Elevated O₃ and TYLCV infection, alone and in combination, significantly reduced the contents of soluble sugars and free amino acids, increased the contents of total phenolics and condensed tannins, and increased salicylic acid (SA) content and the expression of SA-related genes in leaves...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916552/plenty-is-no-plague-streptomyces-symbiosis-with-crops
#10
REVIEW
Thomas Rey, Bernard Dumas
Streptomyces spp. constitute a major clade of the phylum Actinobacteria. These Gram-positive, filamentous prokaryotes are ubiquitous in soils and marine sediments, and are commonly found in the rhizosphere or inside plant roots. Plant-interacting Streptomyces have received limited attention, in contrast to Streptomyces spp. extensively investigated for decades in medicine given their rich potential for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Recent genomic, metabolomic, and biotechnological advances have produced key insights into Streptomyces spp...
November 5, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916506/quantification-of-biologically-active-o-prenylated-and-unprenylated-phenylpropanoids-in-dill-anethum-graveolens-anise-pimpinella-anisum-and-wild-celery-angelica-archangelica
#11
Vito Alessandro Taddeo, Salvatore Genovese, Philippe de Medina, Roberta Palmisano, Francesco Epifano, Serena Fiorito
An analytical strategy based on different extraction methodologies and HPLC with spectrophotometric (UV-vis) detection has been developed to investigate the presence of and to quantitate biologically active selected unprenylated and O-prenylated phenylpropanoids, namely umbelliferone, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, auraptene, and umbelliprenin in dill (Anethum graveolens L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and wild celery (Angelica archangelica L.). Absolute ethanol or 7:3 water/ethanol mixtures were seen to be the most powerful extraction solvents to perform "classic" maceration or ultrasound-assisted one in terms of yields in secondary metabolites...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915455/overexpression-of-atedt1-promotes-root-elongation-and-affects-medicinal-secondary-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-roots-of-transgenic-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#12
Yu Liu, Geng Sun, Zhaohui Zhong, Linyi Ji, Yong Zhang, Jianping Zhou, Xuelian Zheng, Kejun Deng
Medicinal secondary metabolites (salvianolic acids and tanshinones) are valuable natural bioactive compounds in Salvia miltiorrhiza and have widespread applications. Improvement of medicinal secondary metabolite accumulation through biotechnology is necessary and urgent to satisfy their increasing demand. Herein, it was demonstrated that the overexpression of the transcription factor Arabidopsis thaliana-enhanced drought tolerance 1 (AtEDT1) could affect medicinal secondary metabolite accumulation. In this study, we observed that the transgenic lines significantly conferred drought tolerance phenotype...
December 3, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914524/the-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-gene-family-in-isatis-indigotica-fort-molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis
#13
Rui-Fang Ma, Qian-Zi Liu, Ying Xiao, Lei Zhang, Qing Li, Jun Yin, Wan-Sheng Chen
Phenolic compounds, metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway, play an important role in the growth and environmental adaptation of many plants. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is a multi-gene family in I. Indigotic and, if so, to characterize their properties. We conducted a comprehensive survey on the transcription profiling database by using tBLASTn analysis. Several bioinformatics methods were employed to perform the prediction of composition and physicochemical characters...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912317/production-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-og-and-its-metabolites-in-renewable-media-valorisation-for-biodiesel-production-and-p-xylene-decontamination
#15
Augusto Etchegaray, François Coutte, Gabrielle Chataigné, Max Béchet, Ramon H Z Dos Santos, Valérie Leclère, Philippe Jacques
Biosurfactants are important in many areas; however, costs impede large-scale production. This work aimed to develop a global sustainable strategy for the production of biosurfactants by a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Initially, Bacillus sp. strain 0G was renamed B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (syn. Bacillus velezensis) after analysis of the gyrA and gyrB DNA sequences. Growth in modified Landy's medium produced 3 main recoverable metabolites: surfactin, fengycin, and acetoin, which promote plant growth...
September 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911807/enhanced-limonene-production-in-cyanobacteria-reveals-photosynthesis-limitations
#16
Xin Wang, Wei Liu, Changpeng Xin, Yi Zheng, Yanbing Cheng, Su Sun, Runze Li, Xin-Guang Zhu, Susie Y Dai, Peter M Rentzepis, Joshua S Yuan
Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907207/optimized-jasmonic-acid-production-by-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-reveals-formation-of-valuable-plant-secondary-metabolites
#17
Felipe Eng, Sven Haroth, Kirstin Feussner, Dorothea Meldau, Dmitrij Rekhter, Till Ischebeck, Florian Brodhun, Ivo Feussner
Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907087/prenylated-polyphenols-from-clusiaceae-and-calophyllaceae-with-immunomodulatory-activity-on-endothelial-cells
#18
Caroline Rouger, Sylvain Pagie, Séverine Derbré, Anne-Marie Le Ray, Pascal Richomme, Béatrice Charreau
Endothelial cells (ECs) are key players in inflammation and immune responses involved in numerous pathologies. Although attempts were experimentally undertaken to prevent and control EC activation, drug leads and probes still remain necessary. Natural products (NPs) from Clusiaceous and Calophyllaceous plants were previously reported as potential candidates to prevent endothelial dysfunction. The present study aimed to identify more precisely the molecular scaffolds that could limit EC activation. Here, 13 polyphenols belonging to 5 different chemical types of secondary metabolites (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900693/screening-glycosyltransferases-for-polyphenol-modifications
#19
Nele Ilmberger, Ulrich Rabausch
Glycosyltransferases offer the opportunity to glycosylate a variety of substrates including health beneficial molecules like flavonoids in a regiospecific manner. Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial, antioxidative, and health beneficial effects. Glycosylation often has impact on these properties and furthermore enhances the water solubility, the stability, and the bioavailability of the molecules. To detect flavonoid glycosylating enzymes we established a metagenome screen for the discovery of modifying clones...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899334/complete-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-velezensis-m75-a-biocontrol-agent-against-fungal-plant-pathogens-isolated-from-cotton-waste
#20
Sang Yoon Kim, Sang Yeob Lee, Hang-Yeon Weon, Mee Kyung Sang, Jaekyeong Song
Bacillus species have been widely used as biological control agents in agricultural fields due to their ability to suppress plant pathogens. Bacillus velezensis M75 was isolated from cotton waste used for mushroom cultivation in Korea, and was found to be antagonistic to fungal plant pathogens. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the M75 strain, which has a 4,007,450-bp single circular chromosome with 3921 genes and a G+C content of 46.60%. The genome contained operons encoding various non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
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