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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241134/effects-of-the-herbicides-linuron-and-s-metolachlor-on-perez-s-frog-embryos
#1
Carla Quintaneiro, Amadeu M V M Soares, Marta S Monteiro
Presence of pesticides in the environment and their possible effects on aquatic organisms are of great concern worldwide. The extensive use of herbicides in agricultural areas are one of the factors contributing to the known decline of amphibian populations. Thus, as non-target species, amphibians can be exposed in early life stages to herbicides in aquatic systems. In this context, this study aims to evaluate effects of increasing concentrations of two maize herbicides, linuron and S-metolachlor on embryos of the Perez' frog (Pelophylax perezi) during 192 h...
November 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240834/discovery-of-carbamate-degrading-enzymes-by-functional-metagenomics
#2
Lisa Ufarté, Elisabeth Laville, Sophie Duquesne, Diego Morgavi, Patrick Robe, Christophe Klopp, Angeline Rizzo, Sandra Pizzut-Serin, Gabrielle Potocki-Veronese
Bioremediation of pollutants is a major concern worldwide, leading to the research of new processes to break down and recycle xenobiotics and environment contaminating polymers. Among them, carbamates have a very broad spectrum of uses, such as toxinogenic pesticides or elastomers. In this study, we mined the bovine rumen microbiome for carbamate degrading enzymes. We isolated 26 hit clones exhibiting esterase activity, and were able to degrade at least one of the targeted polyurethane and pesticide carbamate compounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240409/from-experiments-to-a-fast-easy-to-use-computational-methodology-to-predict-human-aldehyde-oxidase-selectivity-and-metabolic-reactions
#3
Gabriele Cruciani, Nicolò Milani, Paolo Benedetti, Susan Lepri, Lucia Cesarini, Massimo Baroni, Francesca Spyrakis, Sara Tortorella, Edoardo Mosconi, Laura Goracci
Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a molibdo-flavoenzyme that raised great interest in recent years, since its contribution in xenobiotics metabolism has not always been identified before clinical trials, with consequent negative effects on the fate of new potential drugs. The fundamental role of AOX in metabolizing xenobiotics is also due to the attempt of medicinal chemists to stabilize candidates toward cytochrome P450 activity, which increases the risk for new compounds to be susceptible to AOX nucleophile attack...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236004/novel-insights-into-the-coagulation-process-for-pharmaceutical-wastewater-treatment-with-fluorescence-eems-parafac
#4
Xiying Gou, Panyue Zhang, Yonghui Song, Feng Qian, Huibing Yu, Guangming Zeng
In this study, coagulation process was applied to treat the effluent of pharmaceutical wastewater using polymeric ferric sulfate as a coagulant. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEMs-PARAFAC) was applied to investigate the fluorescent characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from pharmaceutical wastewater and the reduction of contaminant and fluorescent variations in the coagulation process. It shows that coagulation was effective to remove contaminants in the effluent of pharmaceutical wastewater, and the optimum coagulate dosage was 0...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235505/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-catalytic-and-structural-properties-of-a-mu-class-glutathione-s-transferase-from-fasciola-gigantica
#5
Jupitara Kalita, Rohit Shukla, Harish Shukla, Kundlik Gadhave, Rajanish Giri, Timir Tripathi
Glutathione S‒transferases (GSTs) play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. They catalyze the nucleophilic addition of glutathione (GSH) to nonpolar compounds, rendering the products water-soluble. In the present study, we investigated the catalytic and structural properties of a mu-class GST from Fasciola gigantica (FgGST1). The purified recombinant FgGST1 formed a homodimer composed of 25 kDa subunit. Kinetic analysis revealed that FgGST1 displays broad substrate specificity and shows high GSH conjugation activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, and trans-4-phenyl-3-butene-2-one and peroxidase activity towards trans-2-nonenal and hexa-2,4-dienal...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233211/toxicity-of-marine-pollutants-on-the-ascidian-oocyte-physiology-an-electrophysiological-approach
#6
Alessandra Gallo
In marine animals with external fertilization, gametes are released into seawater where fertilization and embryo development occur. Consequently, pollutants introduced into the marine environment by human activities may affect gametes and embryos. These xenobiotics can alter cell physiology with consequent reduction of fertilization success. Here the adverse effects on the reproductive processes of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidian) of different xenobiotics: lead, zinc, an organic tin compound and a phenylurea herbicide were evaluated...
December 13, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232306/differential-effect-of-abcb1-haplotypes-on-promoter-activity
#7
Jordan T Speidel, Meixiang Xu, Sherif Z Abdel-Rahman
OBJECTIVE: Promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ABCB1 gene, encoding the placental efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, can affect its expression and alter xenobiotic transfer from the maternal to the fetal circulation. Because SNPs are arranged in specific combinations as defined haplotypes, the aims of this study were to: (i) determine the placental haplotype structure of the ABCB1 promoter and (ii) determine the differential effect of these haplotypes on placental ABCB1 promoter activity...
December 11, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231720/phosphorylation-of-isoflavone-by-bacillus-subtilis-bcrc-80517-may-represent-xenobiotic-metabolism
#8
Chen Hsu, Bo-Yuan Wu, Yu-Chuan Chang, Chi-Fon Chang, Tai-Ying Chiou, Nan-Wei Su
Soy isoflavones, daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN), have beneficial effects on human health. However, their oral bioavailability is hampered by low aqueous solubility. Our previous study revealed two water-soluble phosphorylated isoflavones conjugates of isoflavones, daidzein 7-O-phosphate and genistein 7-O-phosphate, generated by biotransformation of Bacillus subtilis BCRC80517 cultivated with isoflavones. In this study, two novel derivatives of isoflavones, daidzein 4'-O-phosphate and genistein 4'-O-phosphate, were identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and 1H, 13C and 31P NMR and the biotransformation road map was proposed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230653/environmental-exposure-to-cadmium-a-risk-for-health-of-the-general-population-in-industrialized-countries-and-preventive-strategies
#9
Magdalena Mezynska, Malgorzata M Brzóska
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal belonging to the group of the main chemical pollutants of the natural and occupational environment in economically developed countries. The forecasts indicate that contamination of the environment with this toxic metal, and thus the exposure of the general population, will increase. Food (particularly plant products) is the main source of the general population exposure to this element. Moreover, an important, and often the main, source of intoxication with Cd is habitual tobacco smoking...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229632/activation-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-leads-to-resistance-to-egfr-tkis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-activating-src-mediated-bypass-signaling
#10
Mingxiang Ye, Yong Zhang, Hongjun Gao, Yan Xu, Pengyu Jing, Jianxiong Wu, Xinxin Zhang, Jie Xiong, Chenfang Dong, Libo Yao, Jian Zhang, Jian Zhang
PURPOSE: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been generally recognized as a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that responds to xenobiotic chemicals. Recent studies have suggested that the expression of AhR varies widely across different cancer types and cancer cell lines, but its significance in cancer treatment has yet to be clarified. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: AhR expression in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was determined by Western blotting and IHC staining...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228505/a-spatio-temporal-exposure-hazard-model-for-assessing-biological-risk-and-impact
#11
Emily Walker, Melen Leclerc, Jean-François Rey, Rémy Beaudouin, Samuel Soubeyrand, Antoine Messéan
We developed a simulation model for quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of contaminants (e.g., xenobiotics) and assessing the risk of exposed populations at the landscape level. The model is a spatio-temporal exposure-hazard model based on (i) tools of stochastic geometry (marked polygon and point processes) for structuring the landscape and describing the exposed individuals, (ii) a dispersal kernel describing the dissemination of contaminants from polygon sources, and (iii) an (eco)toxicological equation describing the toxicokinetics and dynamics of contaminants in affected individuals...
December 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227563/expression-and-enzyme-activity-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-cyp3a4-and-cyp3a5-in-human-skin-and-tissue-engineered-skin-equivalents
#12
Sarah A Smith, Helen E Colley, Parveen Sharma, Klaudia M Slowik, Rowena Sison-Young, Andrew Sneddon, Steven D Webb, Craig Murdoch
CYP3A4 and CYP4A5 share specificity for a wide range of xenobiotics with the CYP3 subfamily collectively involved in the biotransformation of approximately 30% of all drugs. CYP3A4/5 mRNA transcripts have been reported in the skin yet knowledge of their protein expression and function is lacking. In this study, we observed gene and protein expression of CYP3A4/5 in both human skin and tissue-engineered skin equivalents (TESE), and enzyme activity was detected using the model substrate benzyl-O-methyl-cyanocoumarin...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227191/racemic-r-and-s-tebuconazole-altered-chitinase-and-chitobiase-activity-of-daphnia-magna
#13
Suzhen Qi, Xue Liu, Lizhen Zhu, Xiaofeng Chen, Chengju Wang
Tebuconazole is a chiral trizole fungicide and widely used in many crops for controlling disease. Tebuconazole is potential toxic to some aquatic organisms but relative information of its isomers is scarce. To detect the endocrine disrupting effects and difference of rac-, R-, and S-tebuconazole, the chitinase activity in Daphnia magna and chitobiase activity in each test medium were used as biomonitors after a 14-day exposure. Results showed that chitinase activity was significantly reduced by rac-, R-, and S-tebuconazole...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225689/acute-myeloid-leukaemia-at-an-early-age-reviewing-the-interaction-between-pesticide-exposure-and-kmt2a-rerrangments
#14
REVIEW
Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira, Francianne Gomes Andrade, Gisele Dallapicola Brisson, Filipe Vicente Dos Santos Bueno, Ingrid Sardou Cezar, Elda Pereira Noronha
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in early childhood is characterised by a high frequency of recurrent genomic aberrations associated with distinct myeloid subtypes, clinical outcomes and pathogenesis. Genomic instability is the first step of pathogenic mechanism in early childhood AML. A sum of adverse events is necessary to the development of infant AML (i-AML), which includes latency of biochemical-molecular and cellular effects. Inherited genetic susceptibility associated with exposures to biotransformation substances can modulate the risk of DNA damage and it is a very important piece in the pathogenic puzzle...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224107/sex-dependent-role-of-estrogen-sulfotransferase-and-steroid-sulfatase-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#15
Wojciech G Garbacz, Mengxi Jiang, Wen Xie
Sulfonation and desulfation are two opposing processes that represent an important layer of regulation of estrogenic activity via ligand supplies. Enzymatic activities of families of enzymes, known as sulfotransferases and sulfatases, lead to structural and functional changes of the steroids, thyroids, xenobiotics, and neurotransmitters. Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and steroid sulfatase (STS) represent negative and positive regulation of the estrogen activity, respectively. This is because EST-mediated sulfation deactivates estrogens, whereas STS-mediated desulfation converts the inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223450/pesticide-degrading-natural-multidrug-resistance-bacterial-flora
#16
REVIEW
Kirubakaran Rangasamy, Murugan Athiappan, Natarajan Devarajan, Gopinath Samykannu, Javid A Parray, K N Aruljothi, Nowsheen Shameem, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are a growing threat to humans across the world. Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that has developed through continuous antibiotic use, combinatorial antibiotic use, pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance, and horizontal gene transfer, as well as various other modes. Pesticide-antibiotic cross-resistance and the subsequent expansion of drug-resistant bacteria are critically documented in this review, the primary focus of which is to assess the impact of indiscriminate pesticide use on the development of microbial communities with parallel pesticide and multidrug resistance...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215915/perspectives-on-the-relevance-of-the-circadian-time-structure-to-workplace-threshold-limit-values-and-employee-biological-monitoring
#17
Michael H Smolensky, Alain E Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen
The circadian time structure (CTS) and its disruption by rotating and nightshift schedules relative to work performance, accident risk, and health/wellbeing have long been areas of occupational medicine research. Yet, there has been little exploration of the relevance of the CTS to setting short-term, time-weighted, and ceiling threshold limit values (TLVs); conducting employee biological monitoring (BM); and establishing normative reference biological exposure indices (BEIs). Numerous publications during the past six decades document the CTS substantially affects the disposition - absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination - and effects of medications...
December 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215266/use-of-phenoxyaniline-analogs-to-generate-biochemical-insights-into-polybrominated-diphenyl-ether-interaction-with-cyp2b-enzymes
#18
Chao Chen, Jingbao Liu, James R Halpert, P Ross Wilderman
Human hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP) are integral to xenobiotic metabolism. CYP2B6 is a major catalyst of biotransformation of environmental toxicants including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). CYP2B substrates tend to contain halogen atoms, but the biochemical basis for this selectivity and for species specific determinants of metabolism has not been identified. Spectral binding titrations and inhibition studies were performed to investigate interactions of rat CYP2B1, rabbit CYP2B4, and CYP2B6 with a series of phenoxyaniline (POA) congeners that are analogs of PBDEs...
December 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213266/taxonomic-and-functional-differences-between-microbial-communities-in-qinghai-lake-and-its-input-streams
#19
Ze Ren, Fang Wang, Xiaodong Qu, James J Elser, Yang Liu, Limin Chu
Understanding microbial communities in terms of taxon and function is essential to decipher the biogeochemical cycling in aquatic ecosystems. Lakes and their input streams are highly linked. However, the differences between microbial assemblages in streams and lakes are still unclear. In this study, we conducted an intensive field sampling of microbial communities from lake water and stream biofilms in the Qinghai Lake watershed, the largest lake in China. We determined bacterial communities using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing and predicted functional profiles using PICRUSt to determine the taxonomic and functional differences between microbial communities in stream biofilms and lake water...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212764/aberrant-dna-methylation-of-pregnane-x-receptor-underlies-metabolic-gene-alterations-in-the-diabetic-kidney
#20
Atsushi Watanabe, Takeshi Marumo, Wakako Kawarazaki, Mitsuhiro Nishimoto, Nobuhiro Ayuzawa, Kohei Ueda, Daigoro Hirohama, Toshiya Tanaka, Shintaro Yagi, Satoshi Ota, Genta Nagae, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Hiroo Kumagai, Toshiro Fujita
Epigenetic abnormalities have been suggested to mediate metabolic memory observed in diabetic complications. We have shown that epigenetic alterations may induce persistent phenotypic changes in the proximal tubules of the diabetic kidneys. In this study, we show that pregnane X receptor (PXR), a xenobiotic nuclear receptor, is epigenetically altered and upregulated, and may have a possible function in the diabetic kidney. PXR has been shown to play a critical role in metabolic changes in obesity and diabetes; however, its distribution and function in the kidney are unknown...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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