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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649719/regulation-of-growth-defense-balance-by-the-jasmonate-zim-domain-jaz-myc-transcriptional-module
#1
Ian T Major, Yuki Yoshida, Marcelo L Campos, George Kapali, Xiu-Fang Xin, Koichi Sugimoto, Dalton de Oliveira Ferreira, Sheng Yang He, Gregg A Howe
The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) promotes the degradation of JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins to relieve repression on diverse transcription factors (TFs) that execute JA responses. However, little is known about how combinatorial complexity among JAZ-TF interactions maintains control over myriad aspects of growth, development, reproduction, and immunity. We used loss-of-function mutations to define epistatic interactions within the core JA signaling pathway and to investigate the contribution of MYC TFs to JA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana...
June 26, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647840/interaction-of-ferulic-acid-with-glutathione-s-transferase-and-carboxylesterase-genes-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#2
Jun Yang, Xiao-Qin Sun, Shu-Ying Yan, Wen-Jun Pan, Mao-Xin Zhang, Qing-Nian Cai
Plant phenolics are crucial defense phytochemicals against herbivores and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CarE) in herbivorous insects are well-known detoxification enzymes for such xenobiotics. To understand relationship between a plant phenolic and herbivore GST or CarE genes, we evaluated the relationship between a rice phenolic ferulic acid and resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens), and investigated the interaction of ferulic acid with GST or CarE genes in BPH. The results indicate that ferulic acid content in tested rice varieties was highly associated with resistance to BPH...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647753/the-bee-the-flower-and-the-electric-field-electric-ecology-and-aerial-electroreception
#3
REVIEW
Dominic Clarke, Erica Morley, Daniel Robert
Bees and flowering plants have a long-standing and remarkable co-evolutionary history. Flowers and bees evolved traits that enable pollination, a process that is as important to plants as it is for pollinating insects. From the sensory ecological viewpoint, bee-flower interactions rely on senses such as vision, olfaction, humidity sensing, and touch. Recently, another sensory modality has been unveiled; the detection of the weak electrostatic field that arises between a flower and a bee. Here, we present our latest understanding of how these electric interactions arise and how they contribute to pollination and electroreception...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643846/feeding-behaviour-of-generalist-pests-on-brassica-juncea-implication-for-manipulation-of-glucosinolate-biosynthesis-pathway-for-enhanced-resistance
#4
Pawan Kumar, Rehna Augustine, Amarjeet Kumar Singh, Naveen C Bisht
Differential accumulation of plant defense metabolites has been suggested to have important ecological consequence in the context of plant-insect interactions. Feeding of generalist pests on Brassica juncea showed a distinct pattern with selective exclusion of leaf margins which are high in glucosinolates. Molecular basis of this differential accumulation of glucosinolates could be explained based on differential expression profile of BjuMYB28 homologs, the major biosynthetic regulators of aliphatic glucosinolates, as evident from quantitative real-time PCR and promoter:GUS fusion studies in allotetraploid B...
June 23, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642497/interactive-effects-of-plant-neighbourhood-and-ontogeny-on-insect-herbivory-and-plant-defensive-traits
#5
Xoaquín Moreira, Gaétan Glauser, Luis Abdala-Roberts
Plant ontogenetic stage and features of surrounding plant neighbourhoods can strongly influence herbivory and defences on focal plants. However, the effects of both factors have been assessed independently in previous studies. Here we tested for the independent and interactive effects of neighbourhood type (low vs. high frequency of our focal plant species in heterospecific stands) and ontogeny on leaf herbivory, physical traits and chemical defences of the English oak Quercus robur. We further tested whether plant traits were associated with neighbourhood and ontogenetic effects on herbivory...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640580/a-bio-inspired-alginate-gum-arabic-hydrogel-with-micro-nano-scale-structures-for-controlled-drug-release-in-chronic-wound-healing
#6
Mi Li, Haichang Li, Xiangguang Li, Hua Zhu, Zihui Xu, Lianqing Liu, Jianjie Ma, Mingjun Zhang
Bio-polymeric hydrogels have drawn increasingly research interests in biomaterials due to its tunable physical and chemical properties for both creating bioactive cellular micro-environment and serving as sustainable therapeutic reagents. Inspired by a naturally occurring hydrogel secreted from the carnivorous Sundew plant for trapping insects, here we have developed a bio-inspired hydrogel to deliver mitsugumin53 (MG53), an important protein in cell membrane repair, for chronic wound healing. Both chemical compositions and micro/nano morphological properties inherent from the natural Sundew hydrogel were mimicked using sodium alginate and gum arabic with calcium ion-mediated cross-linking...
June 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638403/jaburetox-update-on-a-urease-derived-peptide
#7
REVIEW
Arlete Beatriz Becker-Ritt, Camila Saretta Portugal, Célia Regina Carlini
Urease from Canavalia ensiformis seeds was the first enzyme ever to be crystallized, in 1926. These proteins, found in plants, bacteria and fungi, present different biological properties including catalytic hydrolysis of urea, and also enzyme-independent activities, such as induction of exocytosis, pro-inflammatory effects, neurotoxicity, antifungal and insecticidal properties. Urease is toxic to insects and fungi per se but part of this toxicity relies on an internal peptide (~11 kDa), which is released upon digestion of the protein by insect enzymes...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637377/the-candidatus-liberibacter-host-interface-insights-into-pathogenesis-mechanisms-and-disease-control
#8
Nian Wang, Elizabeth A Pierson, João Carlos Setubal, Jin Xu, Julien G Levy, Yunzeng Zhang, Jinyun Li, Luiz Thiberio Rangel, Joaquim Martins
"Candidatus Liberibacter" species are associated with economically devastating diseases of citrus, potato, and many other crops. The importance of these diseases as well as the proliferation of new diseases on a wider host range is likely to increase as the insects vectoring the "Ca. Liberibacter" species expand their territories worldwide. Here, we review the progress on understanding pathogenesis mechanisms of "Ca. Liberibacter" species and the control approaches for diseases they cause. We discuss the Liberibacter virulence traits, including secretion systems, putative effectors, and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), as well as other important traits likely to contribute to disease development, e...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636152/dynamics-and-origin-of-cytokinins-involved-in-plant-manipulation-by-a-leaf-mining-insect
#9
Hui Zhang, Antoine Guiguet, Géraldine Dubreuil, Anna Kisiala, Peter Andreas, R J Neil Emery, Elisabeth Huguet, Mélanie Body, David Giron
Several herbivorous insects and plant-associated microorganisms control the phytohormonal balance, thus enabling them to successfully exploit the plant by inhibiting plant defences and withdrawing plant resources for their own benefit. The leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella modifies the cytokinin (CK) profile of mined leaf-tissues, and the insect symbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is involved in the plant manipulation to the benefit of the insect host. To gain a deeper understanding into the possible origin and dynamics of CKs, we conducted an extensive characterization of CKs in larvae and in infected apple leaves...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630422/basic-surface-features-of-nuclear-fkbps-facilitate-chromatin-binding
#10
Andrew Leung, Francy-Pesek Jardim, Neda Savic, Yoan R Monneau, Rodrigo González-Romero, Geoff Gudavicius, Jose M Eirin-Lopez, Till Bartke, Cameron D Mackereth, Juan Ausió, Christopher J Nelson
The nucleoplasmin family of histone chaperones is identified by a pentamer-forming domain and multiple acidic tracts that mediate histone binding and chaperone activity. Within this family, a novel domain organization was recently discovered that consists of an N-terminal nucleoplasmin-like (NPL) domain and a C-terminal FKBP peptidyl-proline isomerase domain. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fpr4 is one such protein. Here we report that in addition to its known histone prolyl isomerase activities, the Fpr4 FKBP domain binds to nucleosomes and nucleosome arrays in vitro...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629193/telomere-biology-insights-into-an-intriguing-phenomenon
#11
REVIEW
Shriram Venkatesan, Aik Kia Khaw, Manoor Prakash Hande
Bacteria and viruses possess circular DNA, whereas eukaryotes with typically very large DNA molecules have had to evolve into linear chromosomes to circumvent the problem of supercoiling circular DNA of that size. Consequently, such organisms possess telomeres to cap chromosome ends. Telomeres are essentially tandem repeats of any DNA sequence that are present at the ends of chromosomes. Their biology has been an enigmatic one, involving various molecules interacting dynamically in an evolutionarily well-trimmed fashion...
June 19, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625106/deceptive-pollination-and-insects-learning-a-delicate-balance
#12
Virgilio Vázquez, Ignacio Barradas
In this paper we propose and discuss a simple two-dimensional model describing the interaction between two species: a plant population that gets pollinated by an insect population. The plants attract the insects deceiving them and not delivering any reward. We are interested in analysing the effect of learning by the insect population due to unsuccessfully visiting the deceiving plants. We are especially interested in three elements: conditions for the simultaneous coexistence of both species, their extinction as a function of the biological cost of the deceptiveness for the pollinator, and the appearance of oscillations in the dynamics...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620217/secretory-laccase-1-in-bemisia-tabaci-med-is-involved-in-whitefly-plant-interaction
#13
Chun-Hong Yang, Jian-Yang Guo, Dong Chu, Tian-Bo Ding, Ke-Ke Wei, Deng-Fa Cheng, Fang-Hao Wan
The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a phloem-feeding pest that lives predominantly on herbaceous species and causes serious damage to hosts. Whitefly saliva is thought to contain proteins that modulate plant defences and facilitate feeding. A predicted secreted protein, laccase 1 (LAC1), was found in the salivary gland transcriptome of B. tabaci and might be existed in the watery saliva of B. tabaci. As LAC1 has a potential role in detoxification of secondary plant compounds in insects, we speculated that it may participate in the insect's response to plant defences...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616178/population-differences-in-host-plant-preference-and-the-importance-of-yeast-and-plant-substrate-to-volatile-composition
#14
Priya Date, Amber Crowley-Gall, Aaron F Diefendorf, Stephanie M Rollmann
Divergent selection between environments can result in changes to the behavior of an organism. In many insects, volatile compounds are a primary means by which host plants are recognized and shifts in plant availability can result in changes to host preference. Both the plant substrate and microorganisms can influence this behavior, and host plant choice can have an impact on the performance of the organism. In Drosophila mojavensis, four geographically isolated populations each use different cacti as feeding and oviposition substrates and identify those cacti by the composition of the volatile odorants emitted...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611815/interactions-between-plant-metabolites-affect-herbivores-a-study-with-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-and-chlorogenic-acid
#15
Xiaojie Liu, Klaas Vrieling, Peter G L Klinkhamer
The high structural diversity of plant metabolites suggests that interactions among them should be common. We investigated the effects of single metabolites and combinations of plant metabolites on insect herbivores. In particular we studied the interacting effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs), and chlorogenic acid (CGA), on a generalist herbivore, Frankliniella occidentalis. We studied both the predominantly occurring PA N-oxides and the less frequent PA free bases. We found antagonistic effects between CGA and PA free bases on thrips mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607073/vector-development-and-vitellogenin-determine-the-transovarial-transmission-of-begomoviruses
#16
Jing Wei, Ya-Zhou He, Qi Guo, Tao Guo, Yin-Quan Liu, Xue-Ping Zhou, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
The majority of plant viruses are transmitted by insect vectors between hosts, and transovarial transmission of viruses from vector parents to offspring has great significance to their epidemiology. Begomoviruses are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative manner and are maintained through a plant-insect-plant cycle. Other routes of begomovirus transmission are not clearly known. Here, we report that transovarial transmission from female whiteflies to offspring often happens for one begomovirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and may have contributed significantly to its global spread...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590879/tritrophic-interactions-microbe-mediated-plant-effects-on-insect-herbivores
#17
Ikkei Shikano, Cristina Rosa, Ching-Wen Tan, Gary W Felton
It is becoming abundantly clear that the microbes associated with plants and insects can profoundly influence plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on recent findings and propose directions for future research that involve microbe-induced changes to plant defenses and nutritive quality as well as the consequences of these changes for the behavior and fitness of insect herbivores. Insect (herbivore and parasitoid)-associated microbes can favor or improve insect fitness by suppressing plant defenses and detoxifying defensive phytochemicals...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590554/wet-years-have-more-caterpillars-interacting-roles-of-plant-litter-and-predation-by-ants
#18
Richard Karban, Patrick Grof-Tisza, Marcel Holyoak
Climate is widely recognized as an important factor that affects temporal and spatial patterns of occurrence and abundance of herbivorous insects, although the ecological mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. We found that precipitation and standing water were positively correlated with locations and years of high abundance of caterpillars of the ranchman's tiger moth, Platyprepia virginalis. We analyzed 30 years of survey data and found that the number of large rainfall events was a better predictor of caterpillar abundance than total annual accumulation...
June 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590236/interaction-between-the-new-world-begomovirus-euphorbia-yellow-mosaic-virus-and-its-associated-alphasatellite-effects-on-infection-and-transmission-by-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#19
Talita Bernardon Mar, Igor Rodrigues Mendes, Douglas Lau, Elvira Fiallo-Olivé, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Murilo Siqueira Alves, F Murilo Zerbini
The majority of Old World monopartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are associated with satellite DNAs. Alphasatellites are capable of autonomous replication, but depend on the helper virus for movement, encapsidation and transmission by the insect vector. Recently, Euphorbia yellow mosaic alphasatellite (EuYMA) was found in association with Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus (EuYMV) infecting Euphorbia heterophylla plants in Brazil. The geographical range of EuYMA was assessed in a representative sampling of E...
June 1, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578238/combined-effects-of-environmental-disturbance-and-climate-warming-on-insect-herbivory-in-mountain-birch-in-subarctic-forests-results-of-26-year-monitoring
#20
M V Kozlov, V Zverev, E L Zvereva
Both pollution and climate affect insect-plant interactions, but the combined effects of these two abiotic drivers of global change on insect herbivory remain almost unexplored. From 1991 to 2016, we monitored the population densities of 25 species or species groups of insects feeding on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) in 29 sites and recorded leaf damage by insects in 21 sites in subarctic forests around the nickel-copper smelter at Monchegorsk, north-western Russia. The leaf-eating insects demonstrated variable, and sometimes opposite, responses to pollution-induced forest disturbance and to climate variations...
June 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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