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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102267/a-theoretical-foundation-for-multi-scale-regular-vegetation-patterns
#1
Corina E Tarnita, Juan A Bonachela, Efrat Sheffer, Jennifer A Guyton, Tyler C Coverdale, Ryan A Long, Robert M Pringle
Self-organized regular vegetation patterns are widespread and thought to mediate ecosystem functions such as productivity and robustness, but the mechanisms underlying their origin and maintenance remain disputed. Particularly controversial are landscapes of overdispersed (evenly spaced) elements, such as North American Mima mounds, Brazilian murundus, South African heuweltjies, and, famously, Namibian fairy circles. Two competing hypotheses are currently debated. On the one hand, models of scale-dependent feedbacks, whereby plants facilitate neighbours while competing with distant individuals, can reproduce various regular patterns identified in satellite imagery...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100451/an-aphid-effector-targets-trafficking-protein-vps52-in-a-host-specific-manner-to-promote-virulence
#2
Patricia Rodriguez, Carmen Escudero-Martinez, Jorunn Bos
Plant- and animal-feeding insects secrete saliva inside their hosts, containing effectors, which may promote nutrient release and suppress immunity. Although for plant pathogenic microbes it is well established that effectors target host proteins to modulate host cell processes and promote disease, the host cell targets of herbivorous insects remain elusive. Here, we show that the existing plant pathogenic microbe effector paradigm can be extended to herbivorous insects in that effector-target interactions inside host cells modify critical host processes to promote plant susceptibility...
January 18, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098142/carbon-translocation-from-a-plant-to-an-insect-pathogenic-endophytic-fungus
#3
Scott W Behie, Camila C Moreira, Irina Sementchoukova, Larissa Barelli, Paul M Zelisko, Michael J Bidochka
Metarhizium robertsii is a common soil fungus that occupies a specialized ecological niche as an endophyte and an insect pathogen. Previously, we showed that the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of Metarhizium are coupled to provide an active method of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to a host plant via fungal mycelia. We speculated that in exchange for this insect-derived nitrogen, the plant would provide photosynthate to the fungus. By using (13)CO2, we show the incorporation of (13)C into photosynthate and the subsequent translocation of (13)C into fungal-specific carbohydrates (trehalose and chitin) in the root/endophyte complex...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092131/finish-line-plant-insect-interactions-mediated-by-insect-feeding-mode-and-plant-interference-a-case-study-of-brassica-interactions-with-diamondback-moth-and-turnip-aphid
#4
Mahmoud Soufbaf, Yaghoub Fathipour, Jeffrey A Harvey, Cang Hui
There are gaps in our understanding of plant responses under different insect phytophagy modes and their subsequent effects on the insect herbivores' performance at late season. Here we compared different types of insect feeding by an aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, and a lepidopteran, Plutella xylostella, and how this affected defensive metabolites in leaves of two Brassica species when plants gain maturity. Thiocyanate concentrations after P. xylostella and L. erysimi feeding activities were the same. Total phenolics was higher after the phloem feeder feeding than the folivore activity...
January 16, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089490/dynamic-plant-plant-herbivore-interactions-govern-plant-growth-defence-integration
#5
REVIEW
Jorad de Vries, Jochem B Evers, Erik H Poelman
Plants downregulate their defences against insect herbivores upon impending competition for light. This has long been considered a resource trade-off, but recent advances in plant physiology and ecology suggest this mechanism is more complex. Here we propose that to understand why plants regulate and balance growth and defence, the complex dynamics in plant-plant competition and plant-herbivore interactions needs to be considered. Induced growth-defence responses affect plant competition and herbivore colonisation in space and time, which has consequences for the adaptive value of these responses...
January 12, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073253/harnessing-insect-microbe-chemical-communications-to-control-insect-pests-of-agricultural-systems
#6
John J Beck, Rachel L Vannette
Insect pests cause serious economic, yield, and food safety problems to managed crops worldwide. Compounding these problems, insect pests often vector pathogenic or toxigenic microbes to plants. Previous work has considered plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions separately. Although insects are well-understood to use plant volatiles to locate hosts, microorganisms can produce distinct and abundant volatile compounds that in some cases strongly attract insects. In this paper, we focus on the microbial contribution to plant volatile blends, highlighting the compounds emitted and the potential for variation in microbial emission...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072861/identification-of-the-molecular-clockwork-of-the-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#7
Mickael Perrigault, Damien Tran
Molecular clock system constitutes the origin of biological rhythms that allow organisms to anticipate cyclic environmental changes and adapt their behavior and physiology. Components of the molecular clock are largely conserved across a broad range of species but appreciable diversity in clock structure and function is also present especially in invertebrates. The present work aimed at identify and characterize molecular clockwork components in relationship with the monitoring of valve activity behavior in the oyster Crassostrea gigas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069633/population-level-genetic-variation-and-climate-change-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#8
REVIEW
Kristina A Schierenbeck
INTRODUCTION: Estimated future climate scenarios can be used to predict where hotspots of endemism may occur over the next century, but life history, ecological and genetic traits will be important in informing the varying responses within myriad taxa. Essential to predicting the consequences of climate change to individual species will be an understanding of the factors that drive genetic structure within and among populations. Here, I review the factors that influence the genetic structure of plant species in California, but are applicable elsewhere; existing levels of genetic variation, life history and ecological characteristics will affect the ability of an individual taxon to persist in the presence of anthropogenic change...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067238/jasmonate-response-decay-and-defense-metabolite-accumulation-contributes-to-age-regulated-dynamics-of-plant-insect-resistance
#9
Ying-Bo Mao, Yao-Qian Liu, Dian-Yang Chen, Fang-Yan Chen, Xin Fang, Gao-Jie Hong, Ling-Jian Wang, Jia-Wei Wang, Xiao-Ya Chen
Immunity deteriorates with age in animals but comparatively little is known about the temporal regulation of plant resistance to herbivores. The phytohormone jasmonate (JA) is a key regulator of plant insect defense. Here, we show that the JA response decays progressively in Arabidopsis. We show that this decay is regulated by the miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE9 (SPL9) group of proteins, which can interact with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, including JAZ3. As SPL9 levels gradually increase, JAZ3 accumulates and the JA response is attenuated...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067229/tubules-of-plant-reoviruses-exploit-tropomodulin-to-regulate-actin-based-tubule-motility-in-insect-vector
#10
Qian Chen, Linghua Zhang, Yanshuang Zhang, Qianzhuo Mao, Taiyun Wei
Plant reoviruses are known to exploit virion-packaging tubules formed by virus-encoding non-structural proteins for viral spread in insect vectors. Tubules are propelled by actin-based tubule motility (ABTM) to overcome membrane or tissue barriers in insect vectors. To further understand which insect factors mediate ABTM, we utilized yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to test interactions between tubule protein Pns10 of rice dwarf virus (RDV), a plant reovirus, and proteins of its insect vector, the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062535/the-effects-of-bean-leafroll-virus-on-life-history-traits-and-host-selection-behavior-of-specialized-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum-hemiptera-aphididae-genotypes
#11
T S Davis, Y Wu, S D Eigenbrode
Intraspecific specialization by insect herbivores on different host plant species contributes to the formation of genetically distinct "host races," but the effects of plant virus infection on interactions between specialized herbivores and their host plants have barely been investigated. Using three genetically and phenotypically divergent pea aphid clones (Acyrthosiphon pisum L.) adapted to either pea (Pisum sativum L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we tested how infection of these hosts by an insect-borne phytovirus (Bean leafroll virus; BLRV) affects aphid performance and preference...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059067/viral-effector-protein-manipulates-host-hormone-signaling-to-attract-insect-vectors
#12
Dewei Wu, Tiancong Qi, Wan-Xiang Li, Haixia Tian, Hua Gao, Jiaojiao Wang, Jin Ge, Ruifeng Yao, Chunmei Ren, Xian-Bing Wang, Yule Liu, Le Kang, Shou-Wei Ding, Daoxin Xie
Some plant and animal pathogens can manipulate their hosts to cause them to release odors that are attractive to the pathogens' arthropod vectors. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unexplored, and the specific effectors the pathogens employ as well as the pathways within the hosts they target are currently unknown. Here we reveal that the aphid-borne cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) employs its 2b protein, a well-characterized viral suppressor of host RNA interference (VSR), to target the host's jasmonate (JA) hormone pathway, thus acting as a viral inducer of host attractiveness to insect vectors (VIA)...
January 6, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050733/qualitative-and-quantitative-differences-in-herbivore-induced-plant-volatile-blends-from-tomato-plants-infested-by-either-tuta-absoluta-or-bemisia-tabaci
#13
Diego B Silva, Berhane T Weldegergis, Joop J A Van Loon, Vanda H P Bueno
Plants release a variety of volatile organic compounds that play multiple roles in the interactions with other plants and animals. Natural enemies of plant-feeding insects use these volatiles as cues to find their prey or host. Here, we report differences between the volatile blends of tomato plants infested with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci or the tomato borer Tuta absoluta. We compared the volatile emission of: (1) clean tomato plants; (2) tomato plants infested with T. absoluta larvae; and (3) tomato plants infested with B...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045052/host-plant-species-determines-symbiotic-bacterial-community-mediating-suppression-of-plant-defenses
#14
Seung Ho Chung, Erin D Scully, Michelle Peiffer, Scott M Geib, Cristina Rosa, Kelli Hoover, Gary W Felton
Herbivore associated bacteria are vital mediators of plant and insect interactions. Host plants play an important role in shaping the gut bacterial community of insects. Colorado potato beetles (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) use several Solanum plants as hosts in their natural environment. We previously showed that symbiotic gut bacteria from CPB larvae suppressed jasmonate (JA)-induced defenses in tomato. However, little is known about how changes in the bacterial community may be involved in the manipulation of induced defenses in wild and cultivated Solanum plants of CPB...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039132/plant-bacterial-pathogen-manipulates-the-energy-metabolism-of-its-insect-vector
#15
Nabil Killiny, Faraj Hijaz, Timothy A Ebert, Michael E Rogers
: Insect-transmitted plant-pathogenic bacteria may alter their vectors' fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism. Because these pathogens interact with their vectors on the cellular and organismal levels, potential changes at the biochemical level might occur. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is transmitted in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The genome of CLas revealed the presence of an ATP translocase that mediates the uptake of ATP and other nucleotides from the media to achieve its biological processes such as growth and multiplication...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036097/predators-modify-biogeographic-constraints-on-species-distributions-in-an-insect-metacommunity
#16
Tess Nahanni Grainger, Rachel M Germain, Natalie T Jones, Benjamin Gilbert
Theory describing the positive effects of patch size and connectivity on diversity in fragmented systems has stimulated a large body of empirical work, yet predicting when and how local species interactions mediate these responses remains challenging. We used insects that specialize on milkweed plants as a model metacommunity to investigate how local predation alters the effects of biogeographic constraints on species distributions. Species-specific dispersal ability and susceptibility to predation were used to predict when patch size and connectivity should shape species distributions, and when these should be modified by local predator densities...
December 30, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035682/invasive-plant-alters-community-and-ecosystem-dynamics-by-promoting-native-predators
#17
Lauren M Smith-Ramesh
Placing invasion in a more complete food-web context expands our understanding of species invasions to reflect the inherent complexity of ecological networks. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) has traditionally been predicted to dominate native communities through mechanisms embodied in popular hypotheses such as direct plant-plant interactions (allelopathy) and plant-herbivore interactions (enemy escape). However, garlic mustard also interacts directly with native predators by providing habitat for web-building spiders, which colonize the dry fruit structures (siliques) that garlic mustard leaves behind after it senesces...
December 30, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027025/fall-armyworm-associated-gut-bacteria-modulate-plant-defense-responses
#18
Flor E Acevedo, Michelle Peiffer, Ching-Wen Tan, Bruce A Stanley, Anne Stanley, Jie Wang, Asher G Jones, Kelli Hoover, Cristina Rosa, Dawn S Luthe, Gary Felton
Mechanical damage caused by insect feeding along with components present in their saliva and oral secretions are known to induce JA-mediated defense responses in plants. This study investigated the effects of bacteria from oral secretions of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, on herbivore induced defenses in tomato and maize plants. Using culture-dependent methods, we identified seven different bacterial isolates, belonging to the family Enterobacteriacea, from the oral secretions of field-collected caterpillars...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025317/macro-optical-projection-tomography-for-large-scale-3d-imaging-of-plant-structures-and-gene-activity
#19
Karen J I Lee, Grant M Calder, Christopher R Hindle, Jacob L Newman, Simon N Robinson, Jerome J H Y Avondo, Enrico S Coen
Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a well-established method for visualising gene activity in plants and animals. However, a limitation of conventional OPT is that the specimen upper size limit precludes its application to larger structures. To address this problem we constructed a macro version called Macro OPT (M-OPT). We apply M-OPT to 3D live imaging of gene activity in growing whole plants and to visualise structural morphology in large optically cleared plant and insect specimens up to 60 mm tall and 45 mm deep...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019063/interaction-of-transgenic-and-natural-insect-resistance-mechanisms-against-spodoptera-littoralis-in-cotton
#20
Steffen Hagenbucher, Michael Eisenring, Michael Meissle, Jörg Romeis
BACKGROUND: Insect-resistant transgenic plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are grown on millions of hectares worldwide. While these proteins are efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests, not all pests are affected and the development of resistance in target pests is always a danger. These short-comings could be supplemented by exploiting the natural insect resistance of cotton, especially inducible terpenoids like gossypol. RESULTS: To assess the potential of gossypol in supplementing Cry proteins as a resistance-trait, we conducted a range of feeding assays with Spodoptera littoralis using artificial diet with defined amounts of Cry proteins and gossypol...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
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