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plant insect interactions

Ana L Llandres, Raki Almohamad, Thierry Brévault, Alain Renou, Idrissa Téréta, Janine Jean, François-Regis Goebel
Enhancing cotton pest management using plant natural defenses has been described as a promising way to improve the management of crop pests. We here reviewed different studies on cotton growing systems to illustrate how an ancient technique called plant training, which includes plant topping and pruning, may contribute to this goal. Based on examples from cotton crops, we show how trained plants could be promoted to a state of enhanced defense that causes faster and more robust activation of their defense responses...
April 17, 2018: Pest Management Science
S J Martinson, A A Fernádez Ajó, A S Martínez, F E Krivak-Tetley, J M Villacide, M P Ayres, J C Corley
Accidental and intentional global movement of species has increased the frequency of novel plant-insect interactions. In Patagonia, the European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, has invaded commercial plantations of North American pines. We compared the patterns of resin defenses and S. noctilio-caused mortality at two mixed-species forests near San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina. We observed lower levels of resin flow and higher levels of mortality in Pinus contorta compared with Pinus ponderosa. In general, S. noctilio attacked trees with lower resin compared with neighboring trees...
April 18, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Bastien Castagneyrol, Xoaquín Moreira, Hervé Jactel
Both plant neighbourhood composition and drought have well-known independent effects on insect herbivore performance, but their interactive effects remain elusive. In this study we performed a laboratory experiment to investigate the independent and combined effects of plant neighbourhood composition and drought on the performance of Gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar) feeding on silver birch (Betula pendula) leaves. For this, we collected leaf samples from birch trees growing in a field experiment where we manipulated both host-tree species diversity (three levels: birch monocultures, two-species mixtures associating birch with the pedunculate oak Quercus robur or maritime pine Pinus pinaster, and three-species mixture with pedunculate oak, the maritime pine and birch) and water availability (two levels: irrigated vs...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michelle Heck
Insect-vectored pathogens pose one of the greatest threats to plant and animal, including human, health on a global scale. Few effective control strategies have been developed to thwart the transmission of any insect-transmitted pathogen. Most have negative impacts on the environment and human health and are unsustainable. Plant pathogen transmission by insect vectors involves a combination of coevolving biological players: plant hosts, insect vectors, plant pathogens, and bacterial endosymbionts harbored by the insect...
March 2018: MSystems
Rannveig M Jacobsen, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Håvard Kauserud, Tone Birkemoe
Ecological networks are composed of interacting communities that influence ecosystem structure and function. Fungi are the driving force for ecosystem processes such as decomposition and carbon sequestration in terrestrial habitats, and are strongly influenced by interactions with invertebrates. Yet, interactions in detritivore communities have rarely been considered from a network perspective. In the present study, we analyse the interaction networks between three functional guilds of fungi and insects sampled from dead wood...
April 11, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Dale A Halbritter, Denis S Willett, Johnalyn M Gordon, Lukasz L Stelinski, Jaret C Daniels
Specialized herbivorous insects have the ability to transition between host plant taxa, and considering the co-evolutionary history between plants and the organisms utilizing them is important to understanding plant insect interactions. We investigated the role of a pine tree parasite, dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp.) M. Bieb. Santalales: Viscaceae, in mediating interactions between Neophasia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) butterflies and pine trees, the butterflies' larval hosts. Mistletoe is considered the butterflies' ancestral host, and the evolutionary transition to pine may have occurred recently...
March 31, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Anna K Block, Charles T Hunter, Caitlin Rering, Shawn A Christensen, Robert L Meagher
The maize inbred line W22 has lower herbivore-induced volatile production than B73 but both fall armyworm larvae and the wasps that parasitize them prefer W22 over B73. Maize inbred line W22 is an important resource for genetic studies due to the availability of the UniformMu mutant population and a complete genome sequence. In this study, we assessed the suitability of W22 as a model for tritrophic interactions between maize, Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) and the parasitoid wasp Cotesia marginiventris...
April 3, 2018: Planta
Clive T Darwell, Simon T Segar, James M Cook
BACKGROUND: Localised patterns of species diversity can be influenced by many factors, including regional species pools, biogeographic features and interspecific interactions. Despite recognition of these issues, we still know surprisingly little about how invertebrate biodiversity is structured across geographic scales. In particular, there have been few studies of how insect communities vary geographically while using the same plant host. We compared the composition (species, genera) and functional structure (guilds) of the chalcid wasp communities associated with the widespread fig tree, Ficus benjamina, towards the northern (Hainan province, China) and southern (Queensland, Australia) edges of its natural range...
April 3, 2018: BMC Ecology
Nina K Lany, Phoebe L Zarnetske, Erin M Schliep, Robert N Schaeffer, Colin M Orians, David A Orwig, Evan L Preisser
A species' distribution and abundance are determined by abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Most species distribution models correlate the occurrence of a single species with environmental variables only, and leave out biotic interactions. To test the importance of biotic interactions on occurrence and abundance, we compared a multivariate spatiotemporal model of the joint abundance of two invasive insects that share a host plant, hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) and elongate hemlock scale (EHS; Fiorina externa), to independent models that do not account for dependence among co-occurring species...
April 2, 2018: Ecology
Jiao Zhou, Li-Lin Zhao, Hai-Ying Yu, Yan-Hong Wang, Wei Zhang, Song-Nian Hu, Zhen Zou, Jiang-Hua Sun
Immune response of insect vectors to transmitted pathogens or insect hosts against parasites are well studied, whereas the mechanism of tripartite interactions remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the immune interactions of the vector beetle Monochamus alternatus ( Ma) to the devastating plant parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ( Bx) and the insect parasitic nematode Howardula phyllotretae ( Hp). We report the unique immune mechanism by which the vector beetle tolerates many devastating Bx in its trachea, yet that immune tolerance is compromised by the parasitic nematode Hp...
April 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Charlotte Descamps, Muriel Quinet, Aurélie Baijot, Anne-Laure Jacquemart
Climate change alters the abiotic constraints faced by plants, including increasing temperature and water stress. These changes may affect flower development and production of flower rewards, thus altering plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we investigated the consequences of increased temperature and water stress on plant growth, floral biology, flower-reward production, and insect visitation of a widespread bee-visited species, Borago officinalis . Plants were grown for 5 weeks under three temperature regimes (21, 24, and 27°C) and two watering regimes (well-watered and water-stressed)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
James E Lincoln, Juan P Sanchez, Kristina Zumstein, David G Gilchrist
A role for programmed cell death (PCD) has been established as the basis for plant-microbe interactions. A functional plant-based cDNA library screen identified possible anti-PCD genes including one member of the PR1 family, designated P14a from tomato. Members of the PR1 family have been subject to extensive research in view of their possible role in resistance against pathogens. The PR1 family is represented in every plant species studied to date and homologs have been found in animals, fungi and insects...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
I M B Lima, M A Almeida-Filho, M G A Lima, O H Bonilla, E F B Lima
With the growing volume of research involving Thysanoptera in Brazil, studies were carried out to improve our understanding of the diversity of thrips in areas where the fauna has historically been neglected. Accordingly, we recorded the diversity of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated with a restinga fragment located on the campus of the State University of Ceará (UECE), Fortaleza, Ceará state, and computed the estimated richness and diversity indices. Samples were collected from 2011 through 2013 from flowers of 86 plant species...
March 22, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Daniel Gonzalez, Stéphane Fraichard, Paul Grassein, Patrice Delarue, Patrick Senet, Adrien Nicolaï, Evelyne Chavanne, Elodie Mucher, Yves Artur, Jean-François Ferveur, Jean-Marie Heydel, Loïc Briand, Fabrice Neiers
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous key enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of glutathione to xenobiotic compounds in the detoxification process. GSTs have been proposed to play a dual role in the signal termination of insect chemodetection by modifying odorant and tasting molecules and by protecting the chemosensory system. Among the 40 GSTs identified in Drosophila melanogaster, the Delta and Epsilon groups are insect-specific. GSTs Delta and Epsilon may have evolved to serve in detoxification, and have been associated with insecticide resistance...
March 22, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Catherine Tétard-Jones, Federico Sabbadin, Stephen Moss, Richard Hull, Paul Neve, Robert Edwards
Herbicide resistance in grass weeds is now one of the greatest threats to sustainable cereal production in Northern Europe. Multiple herbicide resistance (MHR), a poorly understood multigenic and quantitative trait, is particularly problematic as it provides tolerance to most classes of chemistries currently used for post-emergence weed control. Using a combination of transcriptomics and proteomics, the evolution of MHR in populations of the weed blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides) has been investigated. While over 4500 genes showed perturbation in their expression in MHR vs...
March 25, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Erin J Hanan, Christina Tague, Janet Choate, Mingliang Liu, Crystal Kolden, Jennifer Adam
Disturbances such as wildfire, insect outbreaks, and forest clearing, play an important role in regulating carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic fluxes in terrestrial watersheds. Evaluating how watersheds respond to disturbance requires understanding mechanisms that interact over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Simulation modeling is a powerful tool for bridging these scales; however, model projections are limited by uncertainties in the initial state of plant carbon and nitrogen stores. Watershed models typically use one of two methods to initialize these stores: spin-up to steady state, or remote sensing with allometric relationships...
March 24, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
You Li, Yong-Ying Ruan, Edward L Stanley, James Skelton, Jiri Hulcr
Insects that depend on microbial mutualists evolved a variety of organs to transport the microsymbionts while dispersing. The ontogeny and variability of such organs is rarely studied, and the microsymbiont's effects on the animal tissue development remain unknown in most cases. Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae or Platypodinae) and their mutualistic fungi are an ideal system to study the animal-fungus interactions. While the inter-specific diversity of their fungus transport organ-mycangia-is well-known, their developmental plasticity has been poorly described...
March 23, 2018: Insect Science
Łukasz Kajtoch, Nela Kotásková
Background: Despite great progress in studies on Wolbachia infection in insects, the knowledge about its relations with beetle species, populations and individuals, and the effects of bacteria on these hosts, is still unsatisfactory. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge about Wolbachia occurrence and interactions with Coleopteran hosts. Methods: An intensive search of the available literature resulted in the selection of 86 publications that describe the relevant details about Wolbachia presence among beetles...
2018: PeerJ
Eric H Clifton, Stefan T Jaronski, Brad S Coates, Erin W Hodgson, Aaron J Gassmann
Terrestrial plants can harbor endophytic fungi that may induce changes in plant physiology that in turn affect interactions with herbivorous insects. We evaluated whether the application of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum to soybean seeds could become endophytic and affect interactions with soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura). It was found that A. glycines population sizes increased on plants with M. brunneum (strain F52) seed inoculum, but no significant effects were shown with analogous treatments with B...
2018: PloS One
Qi Wang, Qian Wang, Yan-Le Zhou, Shuang Shan, Huan-Huan Cui, Yong Xiao, Kun Dong, Adel Khashaveh, Liang Sun, Yong-Jun Zhang
The phytophagous mirid bugs of Apolygus lucorum, Lygus pratensis as well as three Adelphocoris spp., including Adelphocoris lineolatus, A. suturalis , and A. fasciaticollis are major pests of multiple agricultural crops in China, which have distinct geographical distribution and occurrence ranges. Like many insect species, these bugs heavily rely on olfactory cues to search preferred host plants, thereby investigation on functional co-evolution and divergence of olfactory genes seems to be necessary and is of great interest...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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