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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456146/a-comprehensive-and-dated-phylogenomic-analysis-of-butterflies
#1
Marianne Espeland, Jesse Breinholt, Keith R Willmott, Andrew D Warren, Roger Vila, Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Sarah C Maunsell, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Gerard Talavera, Rod Eastwood, Marta A Jarzyna, Robert Guralnick, David J Lohman, Naomi E Pierce, Akito Y Kawahara
Butterflies (Papilionoidea), with over 18,000 described species [1], have captivated naturalists and scientists for centuries. They play a central role in the study of speciation, community ecology, biogeography, climate change, and plant-insect interactions and include many model organisms and pest species [2, 3]. However, a robust higher-level phylogenetic framework is lacking. To fill this gap, we inferred a dated phylogeny by analyzing the first phylogenomic dataset, including 352 loci (> 150,000 bp) from 207 species representing 98% of tribes, a 35-fold increase in gene sampling and 3-fold increase in taxon sampling over previous studies [4]...
February 14, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432955/the-evolution-function-and-mechanisms-of-action-for-plant-defensins
#2
REVIEW
Kathy Parisi, Thomas M A Shafee, Pedro Quimbar, Nicole L van der Weerden, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson
Plant defensins are an extensive family of small cysteine rich proteins characterised by a conserved cysteine stabilised alpha beta protein fold which resembles the structure of insect and vertebrate defensins. However, secondary structure and disulphide topology indicates two independent superfamilies of defensins with similar structures that have arisen via an extreme case of convergent evolution. Defensins from plants and insects belong to the cis-defensin superfamily whereas mammalian defensins belong to the trans-defensin superfamily...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425403/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-light-pollution-on-the-performance-of-an-herbivorous-insect
#3
Kylee Grenis, Shannon M Murphy
Light pollution is a global disturbance with resounding impacts on a wide variety of organisms, but our understanding of these impacts is restricted to relatively few higher vertebrate species. We tested the direct effects of light pollution on herbivore performance as well as indirect effects mediated by host plant quality. We found that artificial light from streetlights alters plant toughness. Additionally, we found evidence of both direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect, which indicates that streetlights can have cascading impacts on multiple trophic levels...
February 9, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420735/12-oxo-phytodienoic-acid-enhances-wheat-resistance-to-hessian-fly-diptera-cecidomyiidae-under-heat-stress
#4
Ge Cheng, Ming-Shun Chen, Lieceng Zhu
12-Oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) plays unique roles in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the current study, we infested two resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Molly' and 'Iris', with an avirulent Hessian fly population and determined the impact of exogenous OPDA application on wheat resistance to the insect under heat stress. We observed that Molly and Iris treated with OPDA solution prior to the heat treatment exhibited significantly enhanced insect resistance. We also measured OPDA concentrations at Hessian fly feeding sites in Molly infested with Hessian flies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407834/the-insects-as-an-assessment-tool-of-ecotoxicology-associated-with-metal-toxic-plants
#5
Rafia Azmat, Sumeira Moin, Ailyan Saleem
In this article, the assessment of lethal effects of Copper (Cu) on Luffa acutangula and Spinacia oleracea plants investigated in relation to the presence of insect species Oxycarenus hyalinipennis. The analysis of Cu-treated plants displays the information of rapid growth of Oxycarenus hyalinipennis species in triplicate. However, results showed that the impact of metal toxicity appeared as the reduced growth rate of plants, and dense growth of the insect species Oxycarenus halinipennis followed by the chewing/degradation of the toxic plant...
February 2, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402217/systematic-comparison-of-small-rna-library-preparation-protocols-for-next-generation-sequencing
#6
Cloelia Dard-Dascot, Delphine Naquin, Yves d'Aubenton-Carafa, Karine Alix, Claude Thermes, Erwin van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the study of small RNAs (sRNAs) on a genome-wide scale. However, classical sRNA library preparation methods introduce serious bias, mainly during adapter ligation steps. Several types of sRNA including plant microRNAs (miRNA), piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA) in insects, nematodes and mammals, and small interfering RNAs (siRNA) in insects and plants contain a 2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe) modification at their 3' terminal nucleotide...
February 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398713/experimental-assemblage-of-novel-plant-herbivore-interactions-ecological-host-shifts-after-40-million-years-of-isolation
#7
Carlos Garcia-Robledo, Carol C Horvitz, W John Kress, A Nalleli Carvajal-Acosta, Terry L Erwin, Charles L Staines
Geographic isolation is the first step in insect herbivore diet specialization. Such specialization is postulated to increase insect fitness, but may simultaneously reduce insect ability to colonize novel hosts. During the Paleocene-Eocene, plants from the order Zingiberales became isolated either in the Paleotropics or in the Neotropics. During the Cretaceous, rolled-leaf beetles diversified in the Neotropics concurrently with Neotropical Zingiberales. Using a community of Costa Rican rolled-leaf beetles and their Zingiberales host plants as study system, we explored if previous geographic isolation precludes insects to expand their diets to exotic hosts...
November 2017: Biotropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393944/role-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-controlling-symbiotic-bacterial-populations
#8
REVIEW
P Mergaert
Covering: up to 2018Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been known for well over three decades as crucial mediators of the innate immune response in animals and plants, where they are involved in the killing of infecting microbes. However, AMPs have now also been found to be produced by eukaryotic hosts during symbiotic interactions with bacteria. These symbiotic AMPs target the symbionts and therefore have a more subtle biological role: not eliminating the microbial symbiont population but rather keeping it in check...
February 2, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391446/voc-emissions-influence-intra-and-interspecific-interactions-among-stored-product-coleoptera-in-paddy-rice
#9
Giulia Giunti, Vincenzo Palmeri, Giuseppe Massimo Algeri, Orlando Campolo
Olfaction is a pivotal sense for insects and granivorous pests may exploit grain volatiles for food selection. Tribolium confusum, is a secondary pest of stored cereals that benefits from primary pests' infestation, as other secondary feeders, triggering competition. This study aimed to evaluate the preferences of T. confusum females toward different-infested paddy rice, highlighting the impact of intra- and interspecific competition. Tribolium confusum showed positive chemotaxis toward rice infested by larvae of a primary pest (Sitophilus zeamais), but not for grain attacked by adults alone...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383504/plant-and-herbivore-ontogeny-interact-to-shape-the-preference-performance-and-chemical-defense-of-a-specialist-herbivore
#10
Carolina Quintero, M Deane Bowers
The amount of damage that herbivorous insects impose on plants varies as a function of plant ontogenetic trajectories in tissue quality and defenses, and the herbivores' own developmental trajectories in body size, mandible shape and detoxification enzymes, among others. However, little is known about how host plant and herbivore ontogeny interact. Using four ontogenetic stages of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) and three to five larval stages of the specialist caterpillar Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae), we evaluated how ontogenies in both of these trophic levels shape: (i) caterpillar feeding choice, (ii) performance, and (iii) sequestration of plant allelochemicals...
January 30, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377955/the-mexican-bean-beetle-epilachna-varivestis-regurgitome-and-insights-into-beetle-borne-virus-specificity
#11
Cassidy R Gedling, Charlotte M Smith, Christophe M R LeMoine, Bryan J Cassone
For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373660/elucidating-the-interaction-between-light-competition-and-herbivore-feeding-patterns-using-functional-structural-plant-modelling
#12
Jorad de Vries, Erik H Poelman, Niels Anten, Jochem B Evers
Background and Aims: Plants usually compete with neighbouring plants for resources such as light as well as defend themselves against herbivorous insects. This requires investment of limiting resources, resulting in optimal resource distribution patterns and trade-offs between growth- and defence-related traits. A plant's competitive success is determined by the spatial distribution of its resources in the canopy. The spatial distribution of herbivory in the canopy in turn differs between herbivore species as the level of herbivore specialization determines their response to the distribution of resources and defences in the canopy...
January 24, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370757/expression-of-two-barley-proteinase-inhibitors-in-tomato-promotes-endogenous-defensive-response-and-enhances-resistance-to-tuta-absoluta
#13
Rim Hamza, Meritxell Pérez-Hedo, Alberto Urbaneja, José L Rambla, Antonio Granell, Kamel Gaddour, José P Beltrán, Luis A Cañas
BACKGROUND: Plants and insects have coexisted for million years and evolved a set of interactions which affect both organisms at different levels. Plants have developed various morphological and biochemical adaptations to cope with herbivores attacks. However, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) has become the major pest threatening tomato crops worldwide and without the appropriated management it can cause production losses between 80 to 100%. RESULTS: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of a serine proteinase inhibitor (BTI-CMe) and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor (Hv-CPI2) from barley on this insect and to examine the effect their expression has on tomato defensive responses...
January 25, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362506/evolutionary-loss-and-replacement-of-buchnera-the-obligate-endosymbiont-of-aphids
#14
Rebecca A Chong, Nancy A Moran
Symbiotic interactions between organisms create new ecological niches. For example, many insects survive on plant-sap with the aid of maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts that provision essential nutrients lacking in this diet. Symbiotic partners often enter a long-term relationship in which the co-evolutionary fate of lineages is interdependent. Obligate symbionts that are strictly maternally transmitted experience genetic drift and genome degradation, compromising symbiont function and reducing host fitness unless hosts can compensate for these deficits...
January 23, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362090/nerolidol-production-in-agroinfiltrated-tobacco-impact-of-protein-stability-and-membrane-targeting-of-strawberry-fragraria-ananassa-nerolidol-synthase1
#15
Paola Andrade, David Manzano, Karla Ramirez-Estrada, Daniel Caudepon, Montserrat Arro, Albert Ferrer, Michael A Phillips
The sesquiterpene alcohol nerolidol, synthesized from farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), mediates plant-insect interactions across multiple trophic levels with major implications for pest management in agriculture. We compared nerolidol engineering strategies in tobacco using agroinfiltration to transiently express strawberry (Fragraria ananassa) linalool/nerolidol synthase (FaNES1) either at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or in the cytosol as a soluble protein. Using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS), we have determined that FaNES1 directed to the ER via fusion to the transmembrane domain of squalene synthase or hydroxymethylglutaryl - CoA reductase displayed significant improvements in terms of transcript levels, protein accumulation, and volatile production when compared to its cytosolic form...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359258/a-technique-for-thermal-desorption-analyses-suitable-for-thermally-labile-volatile-compounds
#16
Hans T Alborn
Many plant and insect interactions are governed by odors released by the plants or insects and there exists a continual need for new or improved methods to collect and identify these odors. Our group has for some time studied below-ground, plant-produced volatile signals affecting nematode and insect behavior. The research requires repeated sampling of volatiles of intact plant/soil systems in the laboratory as well as the field with the help of probes to minimize unwanted effects on the systems we are studying...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358653/bph6-encodes-an-exocyst-localized-protein-and-confers-broad-resistance-to-planthoppers-in-rice
#17
Jianping Guo, Chunxue Xu, Di Wu, Yan Zhao, Yongfu Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Yidan Ouyang, Baodong Cai, Xin Liu, Shengli Jing, Xinxin Shangguan, Huiying Wang, Yinhua Ma, Liang Hu, Yan Wu, Shaojie Shi, Wenliang Wang, Lili Zhu, Xun Xu, Rongzhi Chen, Yuqi Feng, Bo Du, Guangcun He
The brown planthopper (BPH) and white-backed planthopper (WBPH) are the most destructive insect pests of rice, and they pose serious threats to rice production throughout Asia. Thus, there are urgent needs to identify resistance-conferring genes and to breed planthopper-resistant rice varieties. Here we report the map-based cloning and functional analysis of Bph6, a gene that confers resistance to planthoppers in rice. Bph6 encodes a previously uncharacterized protein that localizes to exocysts and interacts with the exocyst subunit OsEXO70E1...
January 22, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357812/the-invasive-med-q-bemisia-tabaci-genome-a-tale-of-gene-loss-and-gene-gain
#18
Wen Xie, Xin Yang, Chunhai Chen, Zezhong Yang, Litao Guo, Dan Wang, Jinqun Huang, Hailin Zhang, Yanan Wen, Jinyang Zhao, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Brad S Coates, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci MED/Q and MEAM1/B, are two economically important invasive species that cause considerable damages to agriculture crops through direct feeding and indirect vectoring of plant pathogens. Recently, a draft genome of B. tabaci MED/Q has been assembled. In this study, we focus on the genomic comparison between MED/Q and MEAM1/B, with a special interest in MED/Q's genomic signatures that may contribute to the highly invasive nature of this emerging insect pest...
January 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348510/genome-and-secretome-analysis-of-pochonia-chlamydosporia-provide-new-insight-into-egg-parasitic-mechanisms
#19
Runmao Lin, Feifei Qin, Baoming Shen, Qianqian Shi, Chichuan Liu, Xi Zhang, Yang Jiao, Jun Lu, Yaoyao Gao, Marta Suarez-Fernandez, Federico Lopez-Moya, Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca, Gang Wang, Zhenchuan Mao, Jian Ling, Yuhong Yang, Xinyue Cheng, Bingyan Xie
Pochonia chlamydosporia infects eggs and females of economically important plant-parasitic nematodes. The fungal isolates parasitizing different nematodes are genetically distinct. To understand their intraspecific genetic differentiation, parasitic mechanisms, and adaptive evolution, we assembled seven putative chromosomes of P. chlamydosporia strain 170 isolated from root-knot nematode eggs (~44 Mb, including 7.19% of transposable elements) and compared them with the genome of the strain 123 (~41 Mb) isolated from cereal cyst nematode...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340758/plants-eavesdrop-on-cues-produced-by-snails-and-induce-costly-defenses-that-affect-insect-herbivores
#20
John L Orrock, Brian M Connolly, Won-Gyu Choi, Peter W Guiden, Sarah J Swanson, Simon Gilroy
Although induced defenses are widespread in plants, the degree to which plants respond to herbivore kairomones (incidental chemicals that herbivores produce independent of herbivory), the costs and benefits of responding to cues of herbivory risk, and the ecological consequences of induced defenses remain unclear. We demonstrate that undamaged tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum, induce defenses in response to a kairomone (locomotion mucus) of snail herbivores (Helix aspersa). Induced defense had significant costs and benefits for plants: plants exposed to snail mucus or a standard defense elicitor (methyl jasmonate, MeJA) exhibited slower growth, but also experienced less herbivory by an insect herbivore (Spodoptera exigua)...
January 16, 2018: Oecologia
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