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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234308/horizontal-transmission-of-intracellular-insect-symbionts-via-plants
#1
REVIEW
Ewa Chrostek, Kirsten Pelz-Stelinski, Gregory D D Hurst, Grant L Hughes
Experimental evidence is accumulating that endosymbionts of phytophagous insects may transmit horizontally via plants. Intracellular symbionts known for manipulating insect reproduction and altering fitness (Rickettsia, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and bacterial parasite of the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus) have been found to travel from infected insects into plants. Other insects, either of the same or different species can acquire the symbiont from the plant through feeding, and in some cases transfer it to their progeny...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234172/influence-of-historical-land-use-and-modern-agricultural-expansion-on-the-spatial-and-ecological-divergence-of-sugarcane-borer-diatraea-saccharalis-lepidoptera-crambidae-in-brazil
#2
Vitor A C Pavinato, Andrew P Michel, Jaqueline B de Campos, Celso Omoto, Maria I Zucchi
Human-mediated changes in landscapes can facilitate niche expansion and accelerate the adaptation of insect species. The interaction between the evolutionary history of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius, and historical and modern agricultural activity in Brazil shaped its spatial genetic structure, facilitating ecological divergence and incipient host shifting. Based on microsatellite data, STRUCTURE analyses identified two (K = 2) and three (K = 3) significant genetic clusters that corresponded to: (a) a strong signal of spatial genetic structure and, (b) a cryptic signal of host differentiation...
January 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232589/peptides-having-antimicrobial-activity-and-their-complexes-with-transition-metal-ions
#3
REVIEW
Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Kamila Stokowa-Sołtys
Peptide antibiotics are produced by bacterial, mammalian, insect or plant organisms in defense against invasive microbial pathogens. Therefore, they are gaining importance as anti-infective agents. There are a number of antibiotics that require metal ions to function properly. Metal ions play a key role in their action and are involved in specific interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. On the other hand, it is well known that some antimicrobial agents possess functional groups that enable them interacting with metal ions present in physiological fluids...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218537/cumulative-herbivory-outpaces-compensation-for-early-floral-damage-on-a-monocarpic-perennial-thistle
#4
Natalie M West, Svata M Louda
Floral herbivory represents a major threat to plant reproductive success, driving the importance of plant tolerance mechanisms that minimize fitness costs. However, the cumulative insect herbivory plants experience under natural conditions complicates predictions about tolerance contributions to net fitness. Apical damage can lead to compensatory seed production from late season flowering that ameliorates early season fitness losses. Yet, the compensation realized depends on successful development and herbivore escape by later season flowers...
December 7, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216258/drought-stress-leads-to-systemic-induced-susceptibility-to-a-nectrotrophic-fungus-associated-with-mountain-pine-beetle-in-pinus-banksiana-seedlings
#5
Jennifer G Klutsch, Simon Francis Shamoun, Nadir Erbilgin
Conifers have complex defense responses to initial attacks by insects and pathogens that can have cascading effects on success of subsequent colonizers. However, drought can affect a plant's ability to respond to biotic agents by potentially altering the resources needed for the energetically costly production of induced defense chemicals. We investigated the impact of reduced water on induced chemical defenses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings from initial attack by biotic agents and resistance to subsequent challenge inoculation with a pathogenic fungal associate of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), Grosmannia clavigera...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211805/leaf-herbivory-imposes-fitness-costs-mediated-by-hummingbird-and-insect-pollinators
#6
Alexander Chautá, Susan Whitehead, Marisol Amaya-Márquez, Katja Poveda
Plant responses induced by herbivore damage can provide fitness benefits, but can also have important costs due to altered interactions with mutualist pollinators. We examined the effects of plant responses to herbivory in a hummingbird-pollinated distylous shrub, Palicourea angustifolia. Through a series of field experiments we investigated whether damage from foliar herbivores leads to a reduction in fruit set, influences floral visitation, or alters floral traits that may influence pollinator preference or pollinator efficiency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209337/a-plant-feeding-nematode-indirectly-increases-the-fitness-of-an-aphid
#7
Grace A Hoysted, Catherine J Lilley, Katie J Field, Michael Dickinson, Sue E Hartley, Peter E Urwin
Plants suffer multiple, simultaneous assaults from above and below ground. In the laboratory, pests and/or pathogen attack are commonly studied on an individual basis. The molecular response of the plant to attack from multiple organisms and the interaction of different defense pathways is unclear. The inducible systemic responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) host plant were analyzed to characterize the plant-mediated indirect interactions between a sedentary, endoparasitic nematode (Globodera pallida), and a phloem-sucking herbivore (Myzus persicae)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209298/the-gut-entomotype-of-red-palm-weevil-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-olivier-coleoptera-dryophthoridae-and-their-effect-on-host-nutrition-metabolism
#8
Abrar Muhammad, Ya Fang, Youming Hou, Zhanghong Shi
For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203872/dna-metabarcoding-data-unveils-invisible-pollination-networks
#9
André Pornon, Christophe Andalo, Monique Burrus, Nathalie Escaravage
Animal pollination, essential for both ecological services and ecosystem functioning, is threatened by ongoing global changes. New methodologies to decipher their effects on pollinator composition to ecosystem health are urgently required. We compare the main structural parameters of pollination networks based on DNA metabarcoding data with networks based on direct observations of insect visits to plants at three resolution levels. By detecting numerous additional hidden interactions, metabarcoding data largely alters the properties of the pollination networks compared to visit surveys...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200601/response-of-brassica-oleracea-to-temporal-variation-in-attack-by-two-herbivores-affects-preference-and-performance-of-a-third-herbivore
#10
Jeltje M Stam, Lucille Chrétien, Marcel Dicke, Erik H Poelman
1. Plants are frequently under attack by multiple insect herbivores, which may interact indirectly through herbivore-induced changes in the plant's phenotype. The identity, order, and timing of herbivore arrivals may influence the outcome of interactions between two herbivores. How these aspects affect, in turn, subsequently arriving herbivores that feed on double herbivore-induced plants has not been widely investigated. 2. This study tested whether the order and timing of arrival of two inducing herbivores from different feeding guilds affected the preference and performance of a subsequently arriving third herbivore, caterpillars of Mamestra brassicae L...
December 2017: Ecological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192219/symbionts-protect-aphids-from-parasitic-wasps-by-attenuating-herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles
#11
Enric Frago, Mukta Mala, Berhane T Weldegergis, Chenjiao Yang, Ailsa McLean, H Charles J Godfray, Rieta Gols, Marcel Dicke
Plants respond to insect attack by releasing blends of volatile chemicals that attract their herbivores' specific natural enemies, while insect herbivores may carry endosymbiotic microorganisms that directly improve herbivore survival after natural enemy attack. Here we demonstrate that the two phenomena can be linked. Plants fed upon by pea aphids release volatiles that attract parasitic wasps, and the pea aphid can carry facultative endosymbiotic bacteria that prevent the development of the parasitic wasp larva and thus markedly improve aphid survival after wasp attack...
November 30, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187971/plant-diversity-has-contrasting-effects-on-herbivore-and-parasitoid-abundance-in-centaurea-jacea-flower-heads
#12
Norma Nitschke, Eric Allan, Helmut Zwölfer, Lysett Wagner, Sylvia Creutzburg, Hannes Baur, Stefan Schmidt, Wolfgang W Weisser
High biodiversity is known to increase many ecosystem functions, but studies investigating biodiversity effects have more rarely looked at multi-trophic interactions. We studied a tri-trophic system composed of Centaurea jacea (brown knapweed), its flower head-infesting tephritid fruit flies and their hymenopteran parasitoids, in a grassland biodiversity experiment. We aimed to disentangle the importance of direct effects of plant diversity (through changes in apparency and resource availability) from indirect effects (mediated by host plant quality and performance)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186788/neurotoxic-effects-of-linalool-and-%C3%AE-pinene-on-tribolium-castaneum-herbst
#13
(no author information available yet)
Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum, using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1), GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl), GABA-gated ion channel (Grd), glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl), and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2) were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied...
November 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186612/examining-the-potential-role-of-foliar-chemistry-in-imparting-potato-germplasm-tolerance-to-potato-psyllid-green-peach-aphid-and-zebra-chip-disease
#14
S M Prager, C M Wallis, M Jones, R Novy, J T Trumble
Long-term, sustainable management of zebra chip disease of potato, caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso) and vectored by potato psyllids (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc [Hemiptera: Triozidae]), requires development of cultivars resistant or tolerant to infection or capable of reducing spread or both. We examined the influence that five experimental breeding clones of potato had on potato psyllids and their ability to vector Lso. The ability of these potato clones to resist aphids (green peach aphids, Myzus persicae Sulzer [Hemiptera: Aphididae]) also was examined...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186477/host-specificity-in-subarctic-aphids
#15
Daniel J Gibson, Sarah J Adamowicz, Shoshanah R Jacobs, M Alex Smith
Plants and herbivorous (or parasitic) insects form the majority of macroscopic life. The specificity of interaction between host plant and parasitic insect depends on the adaptations of both the host and the parasite. Over time, these interactions evolve and change as a result of an 'arms race' between host and parasite, and the resulting species-specific adaptations may be maintained, perpetuating these interactions across speciation events. This can lead to specialisation between species or clades. With speciation and species sorting over time, complex interactions evolve...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177897/attraction-of-three-mirid-predators-to-tomato-infested-by-both-the-tomato-leaf-mining-moth-tuta-absoluta-and-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#16
Diego B Silva, Vanda H P Bueno, Joop J A Van Loon, Maria Fernanda G V Peñaflor, José Maurício S Bento, Joop C Van Lenteren
Plants emit volatile compounds in response to insect herbivory, which may play multiple roles as defensive compounds and mediators of interactions with other plants, microorganisms and animals. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) may act as indirect plant defenses by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivore. We report here the first evidence of the attraction of three Neotropical mirid predators (Macrolophus basicornis, Engytatus varians and Campyloneuropsis infumatus) toward plants emitting volatiles induced upon feeding by two tomato pests, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta and the phloem feeder Bemisia tabaci, in olfactometer bioassays...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169087/antimicrobial-discovery-inspired-by-ecological-interactions
#17
REVIEW
Evelyn M Molloy, Christian Hertweck
Bacteria represent an unparalleled source of antibiotics used to treat infectious diseases. Yet, genome analyses have revealed that their full biosynthetic potential is much larger than expected. Valuable strategies to unearth hidden antibiotics are genome mining, pathway engineering and triggering, as well as co-cultivation approaches. Nevertheless, there is growing understanding that it is often essential to consider the ecological context and that there is a great potential for antimicrobial discovery from bacteria engaged in well-defined interactions with other organisms...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168122/subtropical-interactions-comparing-galling-insect-and-host-plant-diversity-in-southern-brazil-and-florida
#18
M D S Mendonça, P Stiling
Gall-inducing insects seem to have a diversity pattern distinct from the usual latitudinal decrease in species, with more species occurring in xeric environments instead. Many questions regarding galler diversity over geographical scales remain unanswered: for example, little is known about beta diversity, and the role super host plants play in local/regional richness. Our aim was to compare galling insect and host plant diversity in different biogeographical regions, but under similar environmental conditions...
November 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163571/setting-up-shop-the-formation-and-function-of-the-viral-factories-of-cauliflower-mosaic-virus
#19
REVIEW
James E Schoelz, Scott Leisner
Similar to cells, viruses often compartmentalize specific functions such as genome replication or particle assembly. Viral compartments may contain host organelle membranes or they may be mainly composed of viral proteins. These compartments are often termed: inclusion bodies (IBs), viroplasms or viral factories. The same virus may form more than one type of IB, each with different functions, as illustrated by the plant pararetrovirus, Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). CaMV forms two distinct types of IBs in infected plant cells, those composed mainly of the viral proteins P2 (which are responsible for transmission of CaMV by insect vectors) and P6 (required for viral intra-and inter-cellular infection), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163562/combined-field-inoculations-of-pseudomonas-bacteria-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-entomopathogenic-nematodes-and-their-effects-on-wheat-performance
#20
Nicola Imperiali, Xavier Chiriboga, Klaus Schlaeppi, Marie Fesselet, Daniela Villacrés, Geoffrey Jaffuel, S Franz Bender, Francesca Dennert, Ruben Blanco-Pérez, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Monika Maurhofer, Fabio Mascher, Ted C J Turlings, Christoph J Keel, Raquel Campos-Herrera
In agricultural ecosystems, pest insects, pathogens, and reduced soil fertility pose major challenges to crop productivity and are responsible for significant yield losses worldwide. Management of belowground pests and diseases remains particularly challenging due to the complex nature of the soil and the limited reach of conventional agrochemicals. Boosting the presence of beneficial rhizosphere organisms is a potentially sustainable alternative and may help to optimize crop health and productivity. Field application of single beneficial soil organisms has shown satisfactory results under optimal conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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