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plant insect interactions

Anneke Kroes, Berhane T Weldegergis, Francesco Cappai, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon
One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of natural enemies. Crosstalk between phytohormonal signalling pathways is well known to affect the regulation of plant defences, including the emission of HIPVs. Thus, simultaneous feeding on the same plant by caterpillars and aphids, can affect the attraction of parasitoids by the plant compared to single insect attack...
October 20, 2017: Oecologia
Leonardo R Jorge, Vojtech Novotny, Simon T Segar, George D Weiblen, Scott E Miller, Yves Basset, Thomas M Lewinsohn
Resource specialization is a key concept in ecology, but it is unexpectedly difficult to parameterize. Differences in resource availability, sampling effort and abundances preclude comparisons of incompletely sampled biotic interaction webs. Here, we extend the distance-based specialization index (DSI) that measures trophic specialization by taking resource phylogenetic relatedness and availability into account into a rescaled version, DSI*. It is a versatile metric of specialization that expands considerably the scope and applicability, hence the usefulness, of DSI...
October 20, 2017: Oecologia
Changwei Zhou, Shuo Li, Yijun Zhou, Yongjian Fan
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), an important rice virus, is transmitted by vector small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent manner, but not transovarial transmission. In order to obtain viruliferous SBPH nymphs for relevant research, a simple and reliable method was developed, through allowing SBPH adults laying eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants. The results showed the hatching nymphs on diseased plants could early acquire virus, and the virus was detected in 2nd-instar nymphs from the spawning method, which was earlier than insect feed on diseased plant...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
D Posledovich, T Toftegaard, C Wiklund, J Ehrlén, K Gotthard
1.Climate-driven changes in the relative phenologies of interacting species may potentially alter the outcome of species interactions. 2.Phenotypic plasticity is expected to be important for short-term response to new climate conditions, and differences between species in plasticity are likely to influence their temporal overlap and interaction patterns. As reaction norms of interacting species may be locally adapted, any such climate-induced change in interaction patterns may vary among localities. However, consequences of spatial variation in plastic responses for species interactions are understudied...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Xin-Zheng Huang, Yu-Tao Xiao, Tobias G Köllner, Wei-Xia Jing, Jun-Feng Kou, Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Feng Liu, Shao-Hua Gu, Jun-Xiang Wu, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Herbivore-induced terpenes have been reported to function as ecological signals in plant-insect interactions. Here we showed that insect-induced cotton volatile blends contained 16 terpenoid compounds with a relatively high level of linalool. The high diversity of terpene production is derived from a large terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. The TPS gene family of Gossypium hirsutum and G. raimondii consist of 46 and 41 members, respectively. Twelve TPS genes (GhTPS4-15) could be isolated and protein expression in E...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
Houshuai Wang, Jeremy D Holloway, Niklas Janz, Mariana P Braga, Niklas Wahlberg, Min Wang, Sören Nylin
Theory on plasticity driving speciation, as applied to insect-plant interactions (the oscillation hypothesis), predicts more species in clades with higher diversity of host use, all else being equal. Previous support comes mainly from specialized herbivores such as butterflies, and plasticity theory suggests that there may be an upper host range limit where host diversity no longer promotes diversification. The tussock moths (Erebidae: Lymantriinae) are known for extreme levels of polyphagy. We demonstrate that this system is also very different from butterflies in terms of phylogenetic signal for polyphagy and for use of specific host orders...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Halise B Cagirici, Sezgi Biyiklioglu, Hikmet Budak
Wheat Stem Sawfly (WSS), Cephus Cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is one of the most important pests, causing yield and economic losses in wheat and barley. The lack of information about molecular mechanisms of WSS for defeating plant's resistance prevents application of effective pest control strategies therefore, it is essential to identify the genes and their regulators behind WSS infestations. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are recognized with their regulatory functions on gene expression, tuning protein production by controlling transcriptional and post-transcriptional activities...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pilar Fernandez-Conradi, Hervé Jactel, Cécile Robin, Ayco J M Tack, Bastien Castagneyrol
Although insect herbivores and fungal pathogens frequently share the same individual host plant, we lack general insights in how fungal infection affects insect preference and performance. We addressed this question in a meta-analysis of 1,113 case studies gathered from 101 primary papers that compared preference or performance of insect herbivores on control vs. fungus challenged plants. Generally, insects preferred, and performed better on, not challenged plants, regardless of experimental conditions. Insect response to fungus infection significantly differed according to fungus lifestyle, insect feeding guild and the spatial scale of the interaction (local/distant)...
October 11, 2017: Ecology
Xiao L Tan, Ju L Chen, Giovanni Benelli, Nicolas Desneux, Xue Q Yang, Tong X Liu, Feng Ge
Herbivory defense systems in plants are largely regulated by jasmonate-(JA) and salicylate-(SA) signaling pathways. Such defense mechanisms may impact insect feeding dynamic, may also affect the transmission-acquisition relationship among virus, plants and vectoring insects. In the context of the tomato - whitefly - Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) biological model, we tested the impact of pre-infesting plants with a non-vector insect (aphid Myzus persicae) on feeding dynamics of a vector insect (whitefly Bemisia tabaci) as well as virus transmission-acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Susheng Song, Jiaojiao Wang, Bei Liu, Tiancong Qi, Daoxin Xie
Jasmonates (JAs), lipid-derived phytohormones, regulate plant growth, development and defenses against biotic stresses. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 perceives bioactive JA and recruits JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation via the 26S proteasome, which de-represses JAZ-targeted transcription factors that regulate diverse JA responses. Recent studies showed that the Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC5 interacts with JAZs and regulates stamen development...
August 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Guy Bloch, Noam Bar-Shai, Yotam Cytter, Rachel Green
The interactions between flowering plants and insect pollinators shape ecological communities and provide one of the best examples of coevolution. Although these interactions have received much attention in both ecology and evolution, their temporal aspects are little explored. Here we review studies on the circadian organization of pollination-related traits in bees and flowers. Research, mostly with the honeybee, Apis mellifera, has implicated the circadian clock in key aspects of their foraging for flower rewards...
November 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Elena V Gorb, Stanislav N Gorb
The long period of reciprocal antagonistic coevolution between some insect and plant species has led to the development of plant surface attributes that reduce insect attachment. These features serve as a defence against herbivores, sap-sucking insects and nectar robbers, contribute to a temporary capture of insect pollinators, and prevent the escape of insects from traps of carnivorous plants. This review summarises the literature on attachment-mediated insect-plant interactions. A short introduction to attachment systems of insects is presented and the effect of three-dimensional epicuticular waxes on insect attachment is illustrated by many examples...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Lilach Iasur-Kruh, Tirtza Zahavi, Roni Barkai, Shiri Freilich, Einat Zchori-Fein, Vered Naor
Yellows diseases, caused by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Phytoplasma, are a major threat to grapevines worldwide. Because conventional applications against this pathogen are inefficient, and disease management is highly challenging, the use of beneficial bacteria has been suggested as a biocontrol solution. A Dyella-like bacterium (DLB), isolated from the Israeli insect vector of grapevine yellows Hyalesthes obsoletus, was suggested to be an endophyte. To test this hypothesis, the bacterium was introduced by spraying the plant leaves, and it had no apparent phytotoxicity to grapevine...
October 9, 2017: Phytopathology
Xue Chang, Zengbin Lu, Zhicheng Shen, Yufa Peng, Gongyin Ye
Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) is a common and abundant predator in China and may be exposed to Cry toxins that are produced in Bt crops either by feeding on plant parts or by feeding on target or nontarget herbivorous insects. A new Bt maize line, expressing the Cry1Ab/Cry2Aj fused protein, has been developed and should be rigorously assessed for the ecological risks on the natural enemy. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of this Bt maize on nontarget predator H. axyridis via bitrophic interaction of adult H...
July 26, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Katherine R Goodrich, Andreas Jürgens
Floral mimicry of nonfloral resources is found across many angiosperm families, with mimicry of varied models including carrion, dung, fungi, insects and fruit. These systems provide excellent models to investigate the role of visual and olfactory cues for the ecology and evolution of plant-animal interactions. Interestingly, floral mimicry of fruit is least documented in the literature, although ripe or rotting fruits play an important role as a food or brood site in many insect groups such as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, and frugivorous vertebrates such as bats and birds...
October 5, 2017: New Phytologist
Sanford D Eigenbrode, Nilsa Bosque-Pérez, Thomas S Davis
The transmission of insect-borne plant pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, and fungi depends upon the abundance and behavior of their vectors. These pathogens should therefore be selected to influence their vectors to enhance their transmission, either indirectly, through the infected host plant, or directly, after acquisition of the pathogen by the vector. Accumulating evidence provides partial support for the occurrence of vector manipulation by plant pathogens, especially for plant viruses, for which a theoretical framework can explain patterns in the specific effects on vector behavior and performance depending on their modes of transmission...
October 2, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
Yong-Cheng Dong, Peng Han, Chang-Ying Niu, Lucia Zappalà, Edwige Amiens-Desneux, Philippe Bearez, Anne-Violette Lavoir, Antonio Biondi, Nicolas Desneux
BACKGROUND: Bottom-up and top-down forces are major components for biological control against pests in agro-ecosystem. Understanding the multi-trophic interactions from plants to secondary consumers would serve to optimize pest control strategies. We manipulated nitrogen and/or water inputs to tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to test if those manipulations could trigger bottom-up effects on the parasitoid Necremnus tutae via host (Tuta absoluta) and/or non-host (Bemisia tabaci) exposures, and compared the control efficacy of N...
October 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
Anton Pauw, Christopher M Johnson
Interactions among plant species via pollinators vary from competitive to mutualistic and can influence the probability of stable coexistence of plant species. We aimed to determine the nature of the interaction via flower visitors between Leucospermum conocarpodendron and Mimetes fimbriifolius, two shrubs in the Proteaceae that share many ecological traits and coexist on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. To assess the extent of pollinator sharing we analysed nectar properties and recorded the pollinator fauna, their behaviour and contribution to seed set...
September 28, 2017: Plant Biology
Norma M Morella, Britt Koskella
The eukaryote immune system evolved and continues to evolve within a microbial world, and as such is critically shaped by-and in some cases even reliant upon-the presence of host-associated microbial species. There are clear examples of adaptations that allow the host to simultaneously tolerate and/or promote growth of symbiotic microbiota while protecting itself against pathogens, but the relationship between immunity and the microbiome reaches far beyond simple recognition and includes complex cross talk between host and microbe as well as direct microbiome-mediated protection against pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Mauro Schettino, Donato A Grasso, Berhane T Weldegergis, Cristina Castracani, Alessandra Mori, Marcel Dicke, Joop C Van Lenteren, Joop J A Van Loon
In response to herbivory by insects, various plants produce volatiles that attract enemies of the herbivores. Although ants are important components of natural and agro-ecosystems, the importance of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as cues for ants for finding food sources have received little attention. We investigated responses of the ant Formica pratensis to volatiles emitted by uninfested and insect-infested cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants. Cucumber plants were infested by the phloem-feeding aphid Aphis gossypii, the leaf chewer Mamestra brassicae or simultaneously by both insects...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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