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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224051/high-richness-of-insect-herbivory-from-the-early-miocene-hindon-maar-crater-otago-new-zealand
#1
Anna Lena Möller, Uwe Kaulfuss, Daphne E Lee, Torsten Wappler
Plants and insects are key components of terrestrial ecosystems and insect herbivory is the most important type of interaction in these ecosystems. This study presents the first analysis of associations between plants and insects for the early Miocene Hindon Maar fossil lagerstätte, Otago, New Zealand. A total of 584 fossil angiosperm leaves representing 24 morphotypes were examined to determine the presence or absence of insect damage types. Of these leaves, 73% show signs of insect damage; they comprise 821 occurrences of damage from 87 damage types representing all eight functional feeding groups...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216893/effects-of-insecticidal-ketones-present-in-mint-plants-on-gabaa-receptor-from-mammalian-neurons
#2
Mariela Eugenia Sánchez-Borzone, Leticia Delgado Marin, Daniel Asmed García
BACKGROUND: The genus Mentha, an important member of the Lamiaceae family, is represented by many species commonly known as mint. The insecticidal activity of Mentha oil and its main components has been tested and established against various insects/pests. Among these, the ketone monoterpenes that are most common in different Mentha species demonstrated insect toxicity, with pulegone being the most active, followed by carvone and menthone. Considering that the GABAA receptor (GABAA-R) is one of the main insecticide targets on neurons, and that pulegone would modulate the insect GABA system, it may be expected that the insecticidal properties of Mentha ketones are mediated by their interaction with this receptor...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214944/the-vascular-plants-open-system-of-growth
#3
REVIEW
Alice Basile, Marco Fambrini, Claudio Pugliesi
What is fascinating in plants (true also in sessile animals such as corals and hydroids) is definitely their open and indeterminate growth, as a result of meristematic activity. Plants as well as animals are characterized by a multicellular organization, with which they share a common set of genes inherited from a common eukaryotic ancestor; nevertheless, circa 1.5 billion years of evolutionary history made the two kingdoms very different in their own developmental biology. Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, arose during the Cretaceous Period (145-65 million years ago), and up to date, they count around 235,000 species, representing the largest and most diverse group within the plant kingdom...
February 18, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214581/oxadiargyl-induced-conformational-transition-of-cystatin-isolated-from-yellow-mustard-seeds-biophysical-and-biochemical-approach
#4
Azaj Ahmed, Anas Shamsi, Bilqees Bano
Phytocystatins are thiol proteinase inhibitors crucial due to their inhibitory activity in plants. These play important roles in improving crop yield, protection against insects and pathogens and modulation of apoptosis. In this chemical era, various pesticides are being used globally to increase the crop biomass. These pesticides accumulate in plant body and produce harmful effects on plants itself by interacting with essential proteins. In this present study, we have monitored the interaction of a herbicide; oxadiargyl, with phytocystatin isolated from yellow mustard seeds (YMP) by employing spectroscopic techniques viz...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213920/potato-aphid-macrosiphum-euphorbiae-performance-is-determined-by-aphid-genotype-and-not-mycorrhizal-fungi-or-water-availability
#5
Alison Jane Karley, Matthew Emslie-Smith, Alison Elizabeth Bennett
Intra- and inter-specific variation in plant and insect traits can alter the strength and direction of insect-plant interactions, with outcomes modified by soil biotic and abiotic conditions. We used the potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas) feeding on cultivated S. tuberosum and wild S. berthaulti to study the impact of water availability and plant mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on aphid performance and susceptibility to a parasitoid wasp (Aphidius ervi Haliday). Plants were grown under glass with live or sterile AM fungal spores and supplied with sufficient or reduced water supply...
February 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205578/insect-herbivory-choristoneura-fumiferana-tortricidea-underlies-tree-population-structure-picea-glauca-pinaceae
#6
Geneviève J Parent, Isabelle Giguère, Gaby Germanos, Mebarek Lamara, Éric Bauce, John J MacKay
Variation in insect herbivory can lead to population structure in plant hosts as indicated by defence traits. In annual herbaceous, defence traits may vary between geographic areas but evidence of such patterns is lacking for long-lived species. This may result from the variety of selection pressures from herbivores, long distance gene flow, genome properties, and lack of research. We investigated the antagonistic interaction between white spruce (Picea glauca) and spruce budworm (SBW, Choristoneura fumiferana) the most devastating forest insect of eastern North America in common garden experiments...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205516/a-viral-protease-relocalizes-in-the-presence-of-the-vector-to-promote-vector-performance
#7
Aurélie Bak, Andrea L Cheung, Chunling Yang, Steven A Whitham, Clare L Casteel
Vector-borne pathogens influence host characteristics relevant to host-vector contact, increasing pathogen transmission and survival. Previously, we demonstrated that infection with Turnip mosaic virus, a member of one of the largest families of plant-infecting viruses, increases vector attraction and reproduction on infected hosts. These changes were due to a single viral protein, NIa-Pro. Here we show that NIa-Pro responds to the presence of the aphid vector during infection by relocalizing to the vacuole...
February 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193479/effects-of-substrate-ant-and-fungal-species-on-plant-fiber-degradation-in-a-fungus-gardening-ant-symbiosis
#8
Alexandria M DeMilto, Monte Rouquette, Ulrich G Mueller, Katrin Kellner, Jon N Seal
Fungus-gardening or attine ants have outsourced most of their digestive function to a symbiotic fungus. The ants feed their fungus - essentially an external digestive organ - a variety of substrates of botanical origin, including fresh and dried flowers, leaves and insect frass (processed leaves). Although plant tissues are rich in fibers (lignocelluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins and starches) and the symbiotic fungus possesses the genetic and enzymatic machinery to metabolize these compounds, the highly derived attines, the leaf-cutters (Atta and Acromyrmex), are known to produce fiber-rich waste...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185941/expression-map-of-a-complete-set-of-gustatory-receptor-genes-in-chemosensory-organs-of-bombyx-mori
#9
Huizhen Guo, Tingcai Cheng, Zhiwei Chen, Liang Jiang, Youbing Guo, Jianqiu Liu, Shenglong Li, Kiyoko Taniai, Kiyoshi Asaoka, Keiko Kadono-Okuda, Kallare P Arunkumar, Jiaqi Wu, Hirohisa Kishino, Huijie Zhang, Rakesh K Seth, Karumathil P Gopinathan, Nicolas Montagné, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Marian R Goldsmith, Qingyou Xia, Kazuei Mita
Most lepidopteran species are herbivores, and interaction with host plants affects their gene expression and behavior as well as their genome evolution. Gustatory receptors (Grs) are expected to mediate host plant selection, feeding, oviposition and courtship behavior. However, due to their high diversity, sequence divergence and extremely low level of expression it has been difficult to identify precisely a complete set of Grs in Lepidoptera. By manual annotation and BAC sequencing, we improved annotation of 43 gene sequences compared with previously reported Grs in the most studied lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and identified 7 new tandem copies of BmGr30 on chromosome 7, bringing the total number of BmGrs to 76...
February 6, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185607/robustness-of-plant-insect-herbivore-interaction-networks-to-climate-change-in-a-fragmented-temperate-forest-landscape
#10
K W Bähner, K A Zweig, I R Leal, R Wirth
Forest fragmentation and climate change are among the most severe and pervasive forms of human impact. Yet, their combined effects on plant-insect herbivore interaction networks, essential components of forest ecosystems with respect to biodiversity and functioning, are still poorly investigated, particularly in temperate forests. We addressed this issue by analysing plant-insect herbivore networks (PIHNs) from understories of three managed beech forest habitats: small forest fragments (2.2-145 ha), forest edges and forest interior areas within three continuous control forests (1050-5600 ha) in an old hyper-fragmented forest landscape in SW Germany...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179567/serpin1-and-wscp-differentially-regulate-the-activity-of-the-cysteine-protease-rd21-during-plant-development-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
Sachin Rustgi, Edouard Boex-Fontvieille, Christiane Reinbothe, Diter von Wettstein, Steffen Reinbothe
Proteolytic enzymes (proteases) participate in a vast range of physiological processes, ranging from nutrient digestion to blood coagulation, thrombosis, and beyond. In plants, proteases are implicated in host recognition and pathogen infection, induced defense (immunity), and the deterrence of insect pests. Because proteases irreversibly cleave peptide bonds of protein substrates, their activity must be tightly controlled in time and space. Here, we report an example of how nature evolved alternative mechanisms to fine-tune the activity of a cysteine protease dubbed RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21)...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170113/helicoverpa-zea-gut-associated-bacteria-indirectly-induce-defenses-in-tomato-by-triggering-a-salivary-elicitor-s
#12
Jie Wang, Michelle Peiffer, Kelli Hoover, Cristina Rosa, Rensen Zeng, Gary W Felton
Insect gut-associated microbes modulating plant defenses have been observed in beetles and piercing-sucking insects, but the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in regulating plant induced defenses has not been adequately examined. We identified bacteria from the regurgitant of field-collected Helicoverpa zea larvae using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. A combination of biochemical, molecular, and confocal electron microscopy methods were used to determine the role of caterpillar-associated bacteria in mediating defenses in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)...
February 7, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167952/interactions-between-nitrogen-and-silicon-in-rice-and-their-effects-on-resistance-toward-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#13
Xiaoying Wu, Yaoguang Yu, Scott R Baerson, Yuanyuan Song, Guohua Liang, Chaohui Ding, Jinbo Niu, Zhiqiang Pan, Rensen Zeng
Nitrogen (N) and silicon (Si) are two important nutritional elements required for plant growth, and both impact host plant resistance toward insect herbivores. The interaction between the two elements may therefore play a significant role in determining host plant resistance. We investigated this interaction in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its effect on resistance to the herbivore brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH). Our results indicate that high-level (5.76 mM) N fertilization reduced Si accumulation in rice leaves, and furthermore, this decrease was likely due to decreased expression of Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146344/phylogenetic-composition-of-host-plant-communities-drives-plant-herbivore-food-web-structure
#14
M Volf, P Pyszko, T Abe, M Libra, N Kotásková, M Šigut, R Kumar, O Kaman, P T Butterill, J Šipoš, H Abe, H Fukushima, P Drozd, N Kamata, M Murakami, V Novotny
1.Insects tend to feed on related hosts. The phylogenetic composition of host plant communities thus plays a prominent role in determining insect specialization, food web structure, and diversity. Previous studies showed a high preference of insect herbivores for congeneric and confamilial hosts suggesting that some levels of host plant relationships may play more prominent role that others. 2.We aim to quantify the effects of host phylogeny on the structure of quantitative plant-herbivore food webs. Further, we identify specific patterns in three insect guilds with different life histories and discuss the role of host plant phylogeny in maintaining their diversity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144733/plant-mediated-effects-on-an-insect-pathogen-interaction-vary-with-intraspecific-genetic-variation-in-plant-defences
#15
Ikkei Shikano, Ketia L Shumaker, Michelle Peiffer, Gary W Felton, Kelli Hoover
Baculoviruses are food-borne microbial pathogens that are ingested by insects on contaminated foliage. Oxidation of plant-derived phenolics, activated by insect feeding, can directly interfere with infections in the gut. Since phenolic oxidation is an important component of plant resistance against insects, baculoviruses are suggested to be incompatible with plant defences. However, plants among and within species invest differently in a myriad of chemical and physical defences. Therefore, we hypothesized that among eight soybean genotypes, some genotypes would be able to maintain both high resistance against an insect pest and high efficacy of a baculovirus...
January 31, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142282/trade-offs-between-plant-growth-and-defense-against-insect-herbivory-an-emerging-mechanistic-synthesis
#16
Tobias Züst, Anurag A Agrawal
Costs of defense are central to our understanding of interactions between organisms and their environment, and defensive phenotypes of plants have long been considered to be constrained by trade-offs that reflect the allocation of limiting resources. Recent advances in uncovering signal transduction networks have revealed that defense trade-offs are often the result of regulatory "decisions" by the plant, enabling it to fine-tune its phenotype in response to diverse environmental challenges. We place these results in the context of classic studies in ecology and evolutionary biology, and propose a unifying framework for growth-defense trade-offs as a means to study the plant's allocation of limiting resources...
January 30, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135767/landscape-genetic-approaches-to-guide-native-plant-restoration-in-the-mojave-desert
#17
Daniel F Shryock, Caroline A Havrilla, Lesley A DeFalco, Todd C Esque, Nathan A Custer, Troy E Wood
Restoring dryland ecosystems is a global challenge due to synergistic drivers of disturbance coupled with unpredictable environmental conditions. Dryland plant species have evolved complex life-history strategies to cope with fluctuating resources and climatic extremes. Although rarely quantified, local adaptation is likely widespread among these species and potentially influences restoration outcomes. The common practice of reintroducing propagules to restore dryland ecosystems, often across large spatial scales, compels evaluation of adaptive divergence within these species...
October 5, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125217/functional-and-evolutionary-characterization-of-a-udp-xylose-synthase-gene-from-the-plant-pathogen-xylella-fastidiosa-involved-in-the-synthesis-of-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide
#18
Valquíria Campos Alencar, Daniela Leite Jabes, Fabiano Bezerra Menegidio, Guilherme Lanzi Sassaki, Lucas Rodrigo de Souza, Luciano Puzer, Maria Cecília Zorél Meneghetti, Marcelo Andrade Lima, Ivarne Luis Dos Santos Tersariol, Regina Costa de Oliveira, Luiz R Nunes
Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-infecting bacillus, responsible for many important crop diseases, such as Pierce's disease of vineyards, citrus variegated chlorosis, and coffee leaf scorch (CLS), among others. Recent genomic comparisons involving two CLS-related strains, belonging to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca, revealed that one of them carries a frameshift mutation that inactivates a gene encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, which may play important roles in determining structural variations in bacterial glycans and glycoconjugates...
January 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119199/whole-genome-sequence-of-the-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines
#19
Jacob A Wenger, Bryan J Cassone, Fabrice Legeai, J Spencer Johnston, Raman Bansal, Ashley D Yates, Brad S Coates, Vitor A C Pavinato, Andy Michel
Aphids are emerging as model organisms for both basic and applied research. Of the 5,000 estimated species, only three aphids have published whole genome sequences: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. We present the whole genome sequence of a fourth aphid, the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), which is an extreme specialist and an important invasive pest of soybean (Glycine max). The availability of genomic resources is important to establish effective and sustainable pest control, as well as to expand our understanding of aphid evolution...
January 22, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116058/effects-of-temperature-on-transcriptome-and-cuticular-hydrocarbon-expression-in-ecologically-differentiated-populations-of-desert-drosophila
#20
William J Etges, Cássia C de Oliveira, Subhash Rajpurohit, Allen G Gibbs
We assessed the effects of temperature differences on gene expression using whole-transcriptome microarrays and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. Four populations from Baja California and mainland Mexico and Arizona were each reared on two different host cacti, reared to sexual maturity on laboratory media, and adults were exposed for 12 hr to 15, 25, or 35°C. Temperature differences influenced the expression of 3,294 genes, while population differences and host plants affected >2,400 each in adult flies...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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