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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444952/similarity-in-volatile-communities-leads-to-increased-herbivory-and-greater-tropical-forest-diversity
#1
Tara Joy Massad, Marcílio Martins de Moraes, Casey Philbin, Celso Oliveira, Gerardo Cebrian Torrejon, Lydia Fumiko Yamaguchi, Christopher S Jeffrey, Lee A Dyer, Lora A Richards, Massuo Jorge Kato
A longstanding paradigm in ecology is that there are positive associations between herbivore diversity, specialization, and plant species diversity, with a focus on taxonomic diversity. However, phytochemical diversity is also an informative metric, as insect herbivores interact with host-plants not as taxonomic entities, but as sources of nutrients, primary metabolites, and mixtures of attractant and repellant chemicals. The present research examines herbivore responses to phytochemical diversity measured as volatile similarity in the tropical genus Piper...
April 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444386/coevolution-with-pollinating-resin-midges-led-to-resin-filled-nurseries-in-the-androecia-gynoecia-and-tepals-of-kadsura-schisandraceae
#2
Shi-Xiao Luo, Ting-Ting Liu, Fei Cui, Zi-Yin Yang, Xiao-Ying Hu, Susanne S Renner
Background and Aims: Resin is a defence against herbivores and a floral reward in a few African and South American species whose bee pollinators collect it for nest construction. Here we describe a new role for floral resin from the Asian genus Kadsura (Schisandraceae). Kadsura tepals tightly cover a globe formed by carpels (in females) or near-fused stamens with fleshy connectives (in male flowers of most, but not all species). Methods: We carried out field observations at four sites in China and used pollinator behavioural assays, chemical analyses and time-calibrated insect and plant phylogenies to investigate the specificity of the interactions and their relationship to floral structure...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437665/jasmonic-acid-signalling-and-the-plant-holobiont
#3
REVIEW
Lilia C Carvalhais, Peer M Schenk, Paul G Dennis
The plant holobiont - which is the plant and its associated microbiome - is increasingly viewed as an evolving entity. Some interacting microbes that compose the microbiome assist plants in combating pathogens and herbivorous insects. However, knowledge of the factors that influence the microbiome in the context of defence signalling pathways is still in its infancy. Recent research reported that changes in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid signalling affects the root microbiome of Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434859/tissue-specific-emission-of-e-%C3%AE-bergamotene-helps-resolve-the-dilemma-when-pollinators-are-also-herbivores
#4
Wenwu Zhou, Anke Kügler, Erica McGale, Alexander Haverkamp, Markus Knaden, Han Guo, Franziska Beran, Felipe Yon, Ran Li, Nathalie Lackus, Tobias G Köllner, Julia Bing, Meredith C Schuman, Bill S Hansson, Danny Kessler, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
More than 87% of flowering plant species are animal-pollinated [1] and produce floral scents and other signals to attract pollinators. These floral cues may however also attract antagonistic visitors, including herbivores [2]. The dilemma is exacerbated when adult insects pollinate the same plant that their larvae consume. It remains largely unclear how plants maximize their fitness under these circumstances. Here we show that in the night-flowering wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, the emission of a sesquiterpene, (E)-α-bergamotene, in flowers increases adult Manduca sexta moth-mediated pollination success, while the same compound in leaves is known to mediate indirect defense against M...
April 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428861/does-the-morphological-fit-between-flowers-and-pollinators-affect-pollen-deposition-an-experimental-test-in-a-buzz-pollinated-species-with-anther-dimorphism
#5
Lislie Solís-Montero, Mario Vallejo-Marín
Some pollination systems, such as buzz-pollination, are associated with floral morphologies that require a close physical interaction between floral sexual organs and insect visitors. In these systems, a pollinator's size relative to the flower may be an important feature determining whether the visitor touches both male and female sexual organs and thus transfers pollen between plants efficiently. To date, few studies have addressed whether in fact the "fit" between flower and pollinator influences pollen transfer, particularly among buzz-pollinated species...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426155/insect-transmission-of-plant-viruses-multilayered-interactions-optimize-viral-propagation
#6
Beatriz Dáder, Christiane Then, Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, James C K Ng, Martin Drucker
By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized...
April 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424944/indirect-interactions-between-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-spodoptera-exigua-alter-photosynthesis-and-plant-endogenous-hormones
#7
Lei He, Changyou Li, Runjin Liu
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea Linn. cv: Luhua 11) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv: Zhongshu 4) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae BEG167 (Fm), Rhizophagus intraradices BEG141 (Ri), and Glomus versiforme Berch (Gv), and/or Spodoptera exigua (S. exigua) under greenhouse conditions. Results indicated that feeding by S. exigua had little influence on colonization of peanut plants by AMF, but improved colonization of tomato by Fm and Gv. Feeding by S. exigua had little influence on leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of nonmycorrhizal peanut plants but significantly improved net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of mycorrhizal plants of both hosts...
April 20, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421675/proteomic-composition-of-the-acrostyle-novel-approaches-to-identify-cuticular-proteins-involved-in-virus-insect-interactions
#8
Craig Graham Webster, Mäelle Thillier, Elodie Pirolles, Bastien Cayrol, Stéphane Blanc, Marilyne Uzest
The acrostyle is a distinct anatomical region present on the cuticle at the inner face of the common food/salivary canal at the tip of aphid maxillary stylets. This conserved structure is of particular interest as it harbours the protein receptors of at least one plant virus, Cauliflower mosaic virus, and presumably has other roles in plant-insect interactions. Previously we reported immunolabeling of a highly conserved motif of cuticular proteins from the CPR family (named for the presence of a Rebers and Riddiford consensus) within the acrostyle...
April 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418581/leaf-rust-infection-reduces-herbivore-induced-volatile-emission-in-black-poplar-and-attracts-a-generalist-herbivore
#9
Franziska Eberl, Almuth Hammerbacher, Jonathan Gershenzon, Sybille B Unsicker
Plants release complex volatile blends after separate attack by herbivores and pathogens, which play many roles in interactions with other organisms. Large perennials are often attacked by multiple enemies, but the effect of combined attacks on volatile emission is rarely studied, particularly in trees. We infested Populus nigra trees with a pathogen, the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina, and Lymantria dispar caterpillars alone and in combination. We investigated poplar volatile emission and its regulation, as well as the behavior of the caterpillars towards volatiles from rust-infected and uninfected trees...
April 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405274/natal-origin-affects-host-preference-and-larval-performance-relationships-in-a-tritrophic-system
#10
Thomas A Verschut, Laima Blažytė-Čereškienė, Violeta Apšegaitė, Raimondas Mozūraitis, Peter A Hambäck
Many insects face the challenge to select oviposition sites in heterogeneous environments where biotic and abiotic factors can change over time. One way to deal with this complexity is to use sensory experiences made during developmental stages to locate similar habitats or hosts in which larval development can be maximized. While various studies have investigated oviposition preference and larval performance relationships in insects, they have largely overlooked that sensory experiences made during the larval stage can affect such relationships...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403543/responses-of-plant-phenology-growth-defense-and-reproduction-to-interactive-effects-of-warming-and-insect-herbivory
#11
Nathan P Lemoine, Dejeanne Doublet, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Deron E Burkepile, John D Parker
Climate warming can modify plant reproductive fitness through direct and indirect pathways. Direct effects include temperature-driven impacts on growth, reproduction, and secondary metabolites. Indirect effects may manifest through altered species interactions, including herbivory, although studies comparing the interactive effects of warming and herbivory are few. We used experimental warming combined with herbivore exclusion cages to assess the interactive effects of climate warming and herbivory by Popillia japonica, the Japanese beetle, on flowering phenology, growth, defense, and lifetime reproduction of a biennial herb, Oenothera biennis...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402583/the-potential-indirect-effects-among-plants-via-shared-hummingbird-pollinators-are-structured-by-phenotypic-similarity
#12
Pedro Joaquim Bergamo, Marina Wolowski, Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Luísa G Carvalheiro, Marlies Sazima
Plant species within communities may overlap in pollinators' use and influence visitation patterns of shared pollinators, potentially engaging in indirect interactions (e.g. facilitation or competition). While several studies have explored the mechanisms regulating insect-pollination networks, there is a lack of studies on bird-pollination systems, particularly in species-rich tropical areas. Here, we evaluated if phenotypic similarity, resource availability (floral abundance), evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology affect the potential for indirect effects via shared pollinators in hummingbird-pollinated plant species within four communities in the Brazilian Atlantic forest...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398839/foundational-and-translational-research-opportunities-to-improve-plant-health
#13
Richard W Michelmore, Gitta Coaker, Rebecca Bart, Gwyn A Beattie, Andrew Bent, Toby Bruce, Duncan Cameron, Jeff Dangl, Savithramma Dinesh-Kumar, Robert Edwards, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Walter Gassmann, Jean Greenberg, Richard Harrison, Ping He, Jagger Harvey, Alisa Huffaker, Scot Hulbert, Roger Innes, Jonathan D Jones, Isgouhi Kaloshian, Sophien Kamoun, Fumiaki Katagiri, Jan E Leach, Wenbo Ma, John M McDowell, June Medford, Blake Meyers, Rebecca Nelson, Richard Peter Oliver, Yiping Qi, Diane Saunders, Michael Shaw, Prasanta Subudhi, Leslie Torrance, Brett M Tyler, John Walsh
This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392206/nitrogen-nutrition-of-tomato-plant-alters-leafminer-dietary-intake-dynamics
#14
Victoire Coqueret, Jacques Le Bot, Romain Larbat, Nicolas Desneux, Christophe Robin, Stéphane Adamowicz
The leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of the tomato crop and its development rate is known to decline when nitrogen availability for crop growth is limited. Because N limitation reduces plant primary metabolism but enhances secondary metabolism, one can infer that the slow larval development arises from lower leaf nutritive value and/or higher plant defence. As an attempt to study the first alternative, we examined the tomato-T.absoluta interaction in terms of resource supply by leaves and intake by larvae...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387771/who-lives-in-a-fungus-the-diversity-origins-and-functions-of-fungal-endobacteria-living-in-mucoromycota
#15
Paola Bonfante, Alessandro Desirò
Bacterial interactions with plants and animals have been examined for many years; differently, only with the new millennium the study of bacterial-fungal interactions blossomed, becoming a new field of microbiology with relevance to microbial ecology, human health and biotechnology. Bacteria and fungi interact at different levels and bacterial endosymbionts, which dwell inside fungal cells, provide the most intimate example. Bacterial endosymbionts mostly occur in fungi of the phylum Mucoromycota and include Betaproteobacteria (Burkhoderia-related) and Mollicutes (Mycoplasma-related)...
April 7, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386800/chemical-ecology-of-stingless-bees
#16
Sara Diana Leonhardt
Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: Meliponini) represent a highly diverse group of social bees confined to the world's tropics and subtropics. They show a striking diversity of structural and behavioral adaptations and are important pollinators of tropical plants. Despite their diversity and functional importance, their ecology, and especially chemical ecology, has received relatively little attention, particularly compared to their relative the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Here, I review various aspects of the chemical ecology of stingless bees, from communication over resource allocation to defense...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382644/vector-and-nonvector-insect-feeding-reduces-subsequent-plant-susceptibility-to-virus-transmission
#17
Ping Li, Yan-Ni Shu, Shuai Fu, Yin-Quan Liu, Xue-Ping Zhou, Shu-Sheng Liu, Xiao-Wei Wang
The interactions of vector-virus-plant have important ecological and evolutionary implications. While the tripartite interactions have received some attention, little is known about whether vector infestation affects subsequent viral transmission and infection. Working with the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, begomovirus and tobacco/tomato, we demonstrate that pre-infestation of plants by the whitefly vector reduced subsequent plant susceptibility to viral transmission. Pre-infestation by the cotton bollworm, a nonvector of the virus, likewise repressed subsequent viral transmission...
April 6, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382031/virus-induced-tubules-a-vehicle-for-spread-of-virions-into-ovary-oocyte-cells-of-an-insect-vector
#18
Zhenfeng Liao, Qianzhuo Mao, Jiajia Li, Chengcong Lu, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Qian Chen, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many arthropod-borne viruses are persistently propagated and transovarially transmitted by female insect vectors through eggs, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Insect oocytes are surrounded by a layer of follicular cells, which are connected to the oocyte through actin-based microvilli. Here, we demonstrate that a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), exploits virus-containing tubules composed of viral non-structural protein Pns11 to pass through actin-based junctions between follicular cells or through actin-based microvilli from follicular cells into oocyte of its leafhopper vector Recilia dorsalis, thus overcoming transovarial transmission barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378385/functional-characterization-of-lotp-from-liberibacter-asiaticus
#19
Flavia Loto, Janelle F Coyle, Kaylie A Padgett, Fernando A Pagliai, Christopher L Gardner, Graciela L Lorca, Claudio F Gonzalez
Liberibacter asiaticus is an unculturable parasitic bacterium of the alphaproteobacteria group hosted by both citrus plants and a psyllid insect vector (Diaphorina citri). In the citrus tree, the bacteria thrive only inside the phloem, causing a systemically incurable and deadly plant disease named citrus greening or Huanglongbing. Currently, all commercial citrus cultivars in production are susceptible to L. asiaticus, representing a serious threat to the citrus industry worldwide. The technical inability to isolate and culture L...
May 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375427/plant-immunity-unravelling-the-complexity-of-plant-responses-to-biotic-stresses
#20
Robert Neil Gerard Miller, Gabriel Sergio Costa Alves, Marie-Anne Van Sluys
Background: Plants are constantly exposed to evolving pathogens and pests, with crop losses representing a considerable threat to global food security. As pathogen evolution can overcome disease resistance that is conferred by individual plant resistance genes, an enhanced understanding of the plant immune system is necessary for the long-term development of effective disease management strategies. Current research is rapidly advancing our understanding of the plant innate immune system, with this multidisciplinary subject area reflected in the content of the 18 papers in this Special Issue...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
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