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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909855/conifer-monoterpene-chemistry-during-an-outbreak-enhances-consumption-and-immune-response-of-an-eruptive-folivore
#1
Amy M Trowbridge, M Deane Bowers, Russell K Monson
Changes in the chemical composition of plant defense compounds during herbivory can impact herbivore resource allocation patterns and thereby herbivore survival, growth, and immune response against endoparasitoid infection. Few studies have investigated folivore responses to changes in plant chemistry that occur under outbreak conditions in mature conifer systems. Using data from an earlier observational field study, we carried out laboratory bioassays to test how variation in monoterpenes in piñon pine trees (Pinus edulis, Pinaceae) during an outbreak affects growth, consumption, and immune response of a specialist herbivore, the Southwestern tiger moth (Lophocampa ingens, Arctiidae)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907104/a-new-member-of-the-growing-family-of-contact-dependent-growth-inhibition-systems-in-xenorhabdus-doucetiae
#2
Jean-Claude Ogier, Bernard Duvic, Anne Lanois, Alain Givaudan, Sophie Gaudriault
Xenorhabdus is a bacterial symbiont of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Its life cycle involves a stage inside the insect cadaver, in which it competes for environmental resources with microorganisms from soil and the insect gut. Xenorhabdus is, thus, a useful model for identifying new interbacterial competition systems. For the first time, in an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus doucetiae strain FRM16, we identified a cdi-like locus. The cdi loci encode contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) systems composed of proteins from the two-partner secretion (TPS) family...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895657/implication-of-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci-cyclophilin-b-protein-in-the-transmission-of-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus
#3
Surapathrudu Kanakala, Murad Ghanim
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a single-stranded (ssDNA) begomoviruses that causes severe damage to tomato and several other crops worldwide. TYLCV is exclusively transmitted by the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in a persistent circulative and propagative manner. Previous studies have shown that the transmission, retention, and circulation of TYLCV in its vector involves interaction with insect and endosymbiont proteins, which aid in the transmission of the virus, or have a protective role in response to the presence of the virus in the insect body...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891761/agro-ecological-management-of-a-soil-dwelling-orthopteran-pest-in-vineyards
#4
Jerry Asalma Nboyine, Stephane Boyer, David J Saville, Stephen David Wratten
The efficacy of different combinations of under-vine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over two seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The under-vine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans (Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)), plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans...
November 28, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889865/does-plant-cultivar-difference-modify-the-bottom-up-effects-of-resource-limitation-on-plant-insect-herbivore-interactions
#5
Peng Han, Nicolas Desneux, Thomas Michel, Jacques Le Bot, Aurelie Seassau, Eric Wajnberg, Edwige Amiens-Desneux, Anne-Violette Lavoir
Variation in resource input to plants triggers bottom-up effects on plant-insect herbivore interactions. However, variation in plant intrinsic traits in response to resource availability may modify the bottom-up effects. Furthermore, the consequences also may depend on the feeding strategy of insect herbivores belonging to different feeding guilds. We evaluated the performance of two insect herbivores from distinct feeding guilds, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta and the phloem feeder Bemisia tabaci. We offered the insects two tomato cultivars growing under optimal nitrogen input vs...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886144/cuticular-lipids-as-a-cross-talk-among-ants-plants-and-butterflies
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Barbero
Even though insects and plants are distantly related organisms, they developed an integument which is functionally and structurally similar. Besides functioning as a physical barrier to cope with abiotic and biotic stress, this interface, called cuticle, is also a source of chemical signaling. Crucial compounds with this respect are surface lipids and especially cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). This review is focused on the role of CHCs in fostering multilevel relationships among ants, plants and Lepidoptera (primarily butterflies)...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881989/the-contrasting-effects-of-elevated-co2-on-tylcv-infection-of-tomato-genotypes-with-and-without-the-resistance-gene-mi-1-2
#7
Huijuan Guo, Lichao Huang, Yucheng Sun, Honggang Guo, Feng Ge
Elevated atmospheric CO2 typically enhances photosynthesis of C3 plants and alters primary and secondary metabolites in plant tissue. By modifying the defensive signaling pathways in host plants, elevated CO2 could potentially affect the interactions between plants, viruses, and insects that vector viruses. R gene-mediated resistance in plants represents an efficient and highly specific defense against pathogens and herbivorous insects. The current study determined the effect of elevated CO2 on tomato plants with and without the nematode resistance gene Mi-1...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881762/bacteria-facilitate-prey-retention-by-the-pitcher-plant-darlingtonia-californica
#8
David W Armitage
Bacteria are hypothesized to provide a variety of beneficial functions to plants. Many carnivorous pitcher plants, for example, rely on bacteria for digestion of captured prey. This bacterial community may also be responsible for the low surface tensions commonly observed in pitcher plant digestive fluids, which might facilitate prey capture. I tested this hypothesis by comparing the physical properties of natural pitcher fluid from the pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica and cultured 'artificial' pitcher fluids and tested these fluids' prey retention capabilities...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879392/characterization-of-class-iii-peroxidases-from-switchgrass
#9
Timothy W Moural, Kevin M Lewis, Carlo Barnaba, Fang Zhu, Nathan A Palmer, Gautam Sarath, Erin D Scully, Jeffrey P Jones, Scott E Sattler, ChulHee Kang
Class III peroxidases (CIIIPRX) catalyze the oxidation of monolignols, generate radicals, and ultimately lead to the formation of lignin. In general, CIIIPRX genes encode a large number of isozymes with ranges of in vitro substrate specificities. In order to elucidate the mode of substrate specificity of these enzymes, we characterized one of the CIIIPRXs (PviPRX9) from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a strategic plant for 2nd generation biofuels. The crystal structure, kinetic experiments, molecular docking, as well as expression patterns of PviPRX9 across multiple tissues and treatments, along with its levels of coexpression with the majority of genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway, revealed the function of PviPRX9 in lignification...
November 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878384/direct-consumptive-interactions-between-mammalian-herbivores-and-plant-dwelling-invertebrates-prevalence-significance-and-prospectus
#10
REVIEW
Moshe Gish, Matan Ben-Ari, Moshe Inbar
Mammalian herbivores induce changes in the chemical composition, phenology, distribution, and abundance of the plants they feed on. Consequently, invertebrate herbivores (predominantly insects) that depend on those plants, and the predators and parasitoids that are associated with them, may be affected. This plant-mediated indirect interaction between mammals and invertebrates has been extensively studied, but mammalian herbivores may also directly affect plant-dwelling invertebrates (PDI) by incidentally ingesting them while feeding...
November 23, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876901/nematodes-ultrastructure-complex-systems-and-processes
#11
REVIEW
Maha M A Basyoni, Enas M A Rizk
Nematode worms are among the most ubiquitous organisms on earth. They include free-living forms as well as parasites of plants, insects, humans and other animals. Recently, there has been an explosion of interest in nematode biology, including the area of nematode ultrastructure. Nematodes are round with a body cavity. They have one way guts with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. They have a pseudocoelom that is lined on one side with mesoderm and on the other side with endoderm. It appears that the cuticle is a very complex and evolutionarily plastic feature with important functions involving protection, body movement and maintaining shape...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875986/the-retardant-effect-of-2-tridecanone-mediated-by-cytochrome-p450-on-the-development-of-cotton-bollworm-helicoverpa-armigera
#12
Lei Zhang, Yao Lu, Min Xiang, Qingli Shang, Xiwu Gao
BACKGROUND: Plant allelochemicals act as toxins, inhibitors of digestion, and deterrents that affect the fecundity of insects. These compounds have attracted significant research attention in recent decades, and much is known about the effects of these xenobiotic plant secondary metabolites on insect development. To date, although ecological interactions between xenobiotic plant secondary chemicals that retard insect growth have been observed in many species, it remains unclear how particular allelochemicals influence insect development in a life stage-dependent manner...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874990/plant-volatile-mediated-signalling-and-its-application-in-agriculture-successes-and-challenges
#13
REVIEW
John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
856 I. 856 II. 857 III. 858 IV. 859 V. 860 VI. 862 VII. 863 VIII. 864 IX. 866 866 References 866 SUMMARY: The mediation of volatile secondary metabolites in signalling between plants and other organisms has long been seen as presenting opportunities for sustainable crop protection. Initially, exploitation of interactions between plants and other organisms, particularly insect pests, foundered because of difficulties in delivering, sustainably, the signal systems for crop protection. We now have mounting and, in some cases, clear practical evidence for successful delivery by companion cropping or next-generation genetic modification (GM)...
December 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870873/herbivore-induced-dna-demethylation-changes-floral-signalling-and-attractiveness-to-pollinators-in-brassica-rapa
#14
Roman T Kellenberger, Philipp M Schlüter, Florian P Schiestl
Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870043/increased-seedling-establishment-via-enemy-release-at-the-upper-elevational-range-limit-of-sugar-maple
#15
Morgane Urli, Carissa D Brown, Rosela Narváez Perez, Pierre-Luc Chagnon, Mark Vellend
The enemy release hypothesis is frequently invoked to explain invasion by nonnative species, but studies focusing on the influence of enemies on natural plant range expansion due to climate change remain scarce. We combined multiple approaches to study the influence of plant-enemy interactions on the upper elevational range limit of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in southeastern Québec, Canada, where a previous study had demonstrated intense seed predation just beyond the range limit. Consistent with the hypothesis of release from natural enemies at the range limit, data from both natural patterns of regeneration and from seed and seedling transplant experiments showed higher seedling densities at the range edge than in the core of the species' distribution...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870033/ode-to-ehrlich-and-raven-or-how-herbivorous-insects-might-drive-plant-speciation
#16
Robert J Marquis, Diego Salazar, Christina Baer, Jason Reinhardt, Galen Priest, Kirk Barnett
Fifty years ago, Ehrlich and Raven proposed that insect herbivores have driven much of plant speciation, particularly at tropical latitudes. There have been no explicit tests of their hypotheses. Indeed there were no proposed mechanisms either at the time or since by which herbivores might generate new plant species. Here we outline two main classes of mechanisms, prezygotic and postzygotic, with a number of scenarios in each by which herbivore-driven changes in host plant secondary chemistry might lead to new plant lineage production...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870012/above-and-belowground-insect-herbivory-modifies-the-response-of-a-grassland-plant-community-to-nitrogen-eutrophication
#17
Pernilla Borgström, Joachim Strengbom, Lorenzo Marini, Maria Viketoft, Riccardo Bommarco
Understanding the role that species interactions play in determining the rate and direction of ecosystem change due to nitrogen (N) eutrophication is important for predicting the consequences of global change. Insects might play a major role in this context. They consume substantial amounts of plant biomass and can alter competitive interactions among plants, indirectly shaping plant community composition. Nitrogen eutrophication affects plant communities globally, but there is limited experimental evidence of how insect herbivory modifies plant community response to raised N levels...
November 21, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869732/insect-gallers-and-their-plant-hosts-from-omics-data-to-systems-biology
#18
REVIEW
Caryn N Oates, Katherine J Denby, Alexander A Myburg, Bernard Slippers, Sanushka Naidoo
Gall-inducing insects are capable of exerting a high level of control over their hosts' cellular machinery to the extent that the plant's development, metabolism, chemistry, and physiology are all altered in favour of the insect. Many gallers are devastating pests in global agriculture and the limited understanding of their relationship with their hosts prevents the development of robust management strategies. Omics technologies are proving to be important tools in elucidating the mechanisms involved in the interaction as they facilitate analysis of plant hosts and insect effectors for which little or no prior knowledge exists...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862998/sex-ratio-of-mirid-populations-shifts-in-response-to-hostplant-co-infestation-or-altered-cytokinin-signaling
#19
Nora Adam, Theresa Erler, Mario Kallenbach, Martin Kaltenpoth, Grit Kunert, Ian T Baldwin, Meredith C Schuman
Herbivore species sharing a host plant often compete. In this study, we show that host plant-mediated interaction between two insect herbivores - a generalist and a specialist - results in a sex ratio shift of the specialist's offspring. We studied demographic parameters of the specialist Tupiocoris notatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) when co-infesting the host plant Nicotiana attenuata (Solanaceae) with the generalist leafhopper Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). We show that the usually female-biased sex ratio of T...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861790/multiple-interaction-types-determine-the-impact-of-ant-predation-of-caterpillars-in-a-forest-community
#20
Robert E Clark, Timothy E Farkas, Isaac Lichter-Marck, Emily R Johnson, Michael S Singer
Direct and indirect effects of predators are highly variable in complex communities, and understanding the sources of this variation is a research priority in community ecology. Recent evidence indicates that herbivore community structure is a primary determinant of predation strength and its cascading impacts on plants. In this study, we use variation in herbivore community structure among plant species to experimentally test two hypotheses in a temperate forest food web. First, variation in the strength of predator effects, such as ant predation of caterpillars, is predicted to be density dependent, exhibiting stronger effects when prey abundance is high (density-dependent predation hypothesis)...
September 7, 2016: Ecology
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