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radiation enteritis guidelines

A M Lee, M J Lee
BACKGROUND: European recommendations suggest that medical students should be taught radiation safety before entering clinical practice. AIM: The aim of this study was to produce a summative assessment of radiation protection training in medical school in Ireland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was distributed to the 2014 intern population (n = 683) via network intern-coordinators. The survey encompassed knowledge of radiation dose in X-ray investigations, laws governing the prescribing of radiation and complications of radiation exposure to staff and patients...
November 14, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Matthew Kappus, Sarah Diamond, Ryan T Hurt, Robert Martindale
Intestinal failure (IF) is a state in which the nutritional demands of the body are not met by the gastrointestinal absorptive surface. It is a long-recognized complication associated with short bowel syndrome, which results in malabsorption after significant resection of the intestine for many reasons or functional dysmotility. Etiologies have included Crohn's disease, vascular complications, and the effects of radiation enteritis, as well as the effects of intestinal obstruction, dysmotility, or congenital defects...
September 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Melanie Machiels, Sanne J Wouterse, Elisabeth D Geijsen, Rob M van Os, Roel J Bennink, Hanneke Wm van Laarhoven, Maarten Ccm Hulshof
INTRODUCTION: Definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) is standard care for localised inoperable/unresectable oesophageal tumours. Many surgical series have reported on distribution of lymph node metastases (LNM) in resected patients. However, no data is available on the distribution of at-risk LN regions in this more unfavourable patient group. This study aimed to determine the spread of LNM using FDG-PET/CT, to compare it with the distribution in surgical series and to define its impact on the definition of elective LN irradiation (ENI)...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Ramsis F Ghaly, Tatiana Tverdohleb, Kenneth D Candido, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation is currently approved to treat chronic intractable pain of the trunk and limbs. However, such implantable electronic devices are vulnerable to external electrical currents and magnetic fields. Within the hospitals and modern operating rooms (ORs), there is an abundance of electrical devices and other types of equipment that could interfere with such devices. Despite the increasing number of patients with neuromodulation implantable devices, there are no written guidelines available or consensus of cautions for such patients undergoing unrelated surgery...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
Loris Pironi, Jann Arends, Federico Bozzetti, Cristina Cuerda, Lyn Gillanders, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Francisca Joly, Darlene Kelly, Simon Lal, Michael Staun, Kinga Szczepanek, André Van Gossum, Geert Wanten, Stéphane Michel Schneider
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic Intestinal Failure (CIF) is the long-lasting reduction of gut function, below the minimum necessary for the absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes, such that intravenous supplementation is required to maintain health and/or growth. CIF is the rarest organ failure. Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is the primary treatment for CIF. No guidelines (GLs) have been developed that address the global management of CIF. These GLs have been devised to generate comprehensive recommendations for safe and effective management of adult patients with CIF...
April 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Nikhil G Thaker, Laurie Sturdevant, Anuja Jhingran, Prajnan Das, Marc E Delclos, Gary B Gunn, Mary Frances McAleer, Welela Tereffe, Seungtaek L Choi, Steven J Frank, William J Simeone, Wendi Martinez, Stephen M Hahn, Robin Famiglietti, Deborah A Kuban
PURPOSE: Academic centers increasingly find a need to define a comprehensive peer-review program that can translate high-quality radiation therapy (RT) to community network sites. In this study, we describe the initial results of a quarterly quality audit program that aims to improve RT peer-review and provider educational processes across community sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic tool was used by community-based certified member (CM) sites to enter clinical treatment information about patients undergoing peer review...
April 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
T E Brown, V Getliffe, M D Banks, B G M Hughes, C Y Lin, L M Kenny, J D Bauer
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based practice guidelines are available to assist in the decision making for nutrition interventions in patients with head and neck cancer. Re-assessment of guideline recommendations is important with changing demographics, new treatment regimens, advancing radiotherapy techniques, such as helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and the emergence of new literature. The aim of this study was to validate the updated high-risk category definition in our local hospital protocol for the swallowing and nutrition management of patients with head and neck cancer to determine the ongoing predictive ability for identifying proactive gastrostomy requirement in a new cohort...
May 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Heikki Joensuu, Mikael Eriksson, Juhani Collan, Marja H Balk, Serge Leyvraz, Michael Montemurro
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has been considered radiation-resistant, and radiotherapy is recommended only for palliation of bone metastases in current treatment guidelines. No registered prospective trial has evaluated GIST responsiveness to radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with GIST progressing at intra-abdominal sites or the liver were entered to this prospective Phase II multicenter study (identifier NCT00515931). Metastases were treated with external beam radiotherapy using either conformal 3D planning or intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional fractionation to a cumulative planning target volume dose of approximately 40 Gy...
August 2015: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Gautam Kalyantanda, Lyudmila Shumyak, Lennox Kenneth Archibald
Cronobacter is a class of Enterobacteriaceae that cause infections in neonates, especially those born prematurely. Over 90% of these infections have been linked epidemiologically to powdered infant formula (PIF). Contamination of PIF can occur at manufacture, reconstitution, or storage of reconstituted product. Intrinsic properties that enable Cronobacter to cause disease include resistance to heat, ultraviolet radiation, oxygen radicals, stomach acids, and pasteurization; an ability to utilize sialic acid (a nutrition additive to PIF that facilitates the organism's growth and survival), and an exceptional affinity for biofilms in enteral feeding tubes...
2015: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Martin Lorenzetti, Herculano Carvalho, Maria Cattoni, Antonio Gonçalves-Ferreira, José Pimentel, Joao Antuñes
BACKGROUND: Transoval biopsy of cavernous sinus (CS) lesions is the last non-invasive diagnostic option in those 15% of patients in whom etiology remains unclear in spite of extensive neuroradiological imaging, clinical assessment, and laboratory evaluation. However, there are no guidelines defining indications and the most appropriate technique for this procedure. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present four patients in whom we performed X-ray and neuronavigation-assisted transoval CS biopsies using tip-cut needles...
2014: Surgical Neurology International
Martin P Smith, Douglas S Katz, Tasneem Lalani, Laura R Carucci, Brooks D Cash, David H Kim, Robert J Piorkowski, William C Small, Stephanie E Spottswood, Mark Tulchinsky, Vahid Yaghmai, Judy Yee, Max P Rosen
The most common cause of acute right lower quadrant (RLQ) pain requiring surgery is acute appendicitis (AA). This narrative's focus is on imaging procedures in the diagnosis of AA, with consideration of other diseases causing RLQ pain. In general, Computed Tomography (CT) is the most accurate imaging study for evaluating suspected AA and alternative etiologies of RLQ pain. Data favor intravenous contrast use for CT, but the need for enteric contrast when intravenous contrast is used is not strongly favored...
June 2015: Ultrasound Quarterly
Malolan S Rajagopalan, Karen M Xu, Jeff F Lin, Paniti Sukumvanich, Thomas C Krivak, Sushil Beriwal
BACKGROUND: Vaginal cancer is an uncommon entity for which concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) may be used based on small retrospective series and extrapolation from cervical cancer. We explored the adoption rate of CCRT and determined its impact on survival. METHODS: Patients entered into the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) diagnosed with vaginal cancer from 1998 to 2011 who received definitive radiation therapy were included. Univariate/multivariable exploratory analyses of factors associated with CCRT were performed...
December 2014: Gynecologic Oncology
Jessie K Edwards, Leah J McGrath, Jessie P Buckley, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Stephen R Cole, David B Richardson
BACKGROUND: Traditional regression analysis techniques used to estimate associations between occupational radon exposure and lung cancer focus on estimating the effect of cumulative radon exposure on lung cancer. In contrast, public health interventions are typically based on regulating radon concentration rather than workers' cumulative exposure. Estimating the effect of cumulative occupational exposure on lung cancer may be difficult in situations vulnerable to the healthy worker survivor bias...
November 2014: Epidemiology
Jeffrey D Weidenhamer, Peter A Kobunski, Gilbert Kuepouo, Rebecca W Corbin, Perry Gottesfeld
Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking...
October 15, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
E Ortega-Gómez, B Esteban García, M M Ballesteros Martín, P Fernández Ibáñez, J A Sánchez Pérez
This study analyses the use of the solar photo-Fenton treatment in compound parabolic collector photo-reactors at neutral pH for the inactivation of wild enteric Escherichia coli and total coliform present in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SEWWTP). Control experiments were carried out to find out the individual effects of mechanical stress, pH, reactants concentration, and UVA radiation as well as the combined effects of UVA-Fe and UVA-H2O2. The synergistic germicidal effect of solar-UVA with 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 led to complete disinfection (up to the detection limit) of total coliforms within 120 min...
October 15, 2014: Water Research
Tiffany DeWitt, Refaat Hegazi
Due to the intestinal inflammation, tissue damage, and painful abdominal symptoms restricting dietary intake associated with both diseases, patients with intestinal pelvic radiation disease (PRD) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk to develop protein calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. In the current paper, we review the nutritional management of both diseases, listing the similar approaches of nutritional management and the nutritional implications of intestinal dysfunction of both diseases...
2014: BioMed Research International
Samira B L Makanjuola, Abiodun O Popoola, Mobolaji A Oludara
PURPOSE: This retrospective study was carried out to examine five-year survival from breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and May 2008 in Nigerian women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-four patients were entered into the study. Five-year survival was evaluated using proportional hazard model proposed by Cox to assess variables such as age of diagnosis, menopausal status, and stage of the disease in the two treatment groups: surgery/chemotherapy or surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy...
May 2014: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Dechun Li, Ruihong Li, Ping Wu, Xiaopeng Li, Xinhui Zhang
To study the clinical and diagnostic significance of enteroclysis through nasointestinal decompression intubation, thirty-five patients with small bowel obstruction were enrolled. A nasointestinal catheter of 300 cm was placed through the nasal cavity then pushed to the upper jejunum under X-ray realtime monitoring. The patients underwent intra-small-intestinal suction therapy reducing or relieving the obstruction after 3 days. As the catheter reached the lesions, we conducted selective imaging. Using fluoroscopy, we injected 20-100 ml meglumine diatrizoate 76 % and 50-200 ml air via the decompression suction port to produce a double-contrast radiography...
September 2014: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Justin Hanlon, Erik Chell, Michael Firpo, Igor Koruga
PURPOSE: New technology has been developed to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using 100 kVp pencil-beams that enter the patient through the radio-resistant sclera with a depth of interest between 1.6 and 2.6 cm. Measurement of reference and relative dose in a kilovoltage x-ray beam with a 0.42 cm diameter field size and a 15 cm source to axis distance (SAD) is a challenge that is not fully addressed in current guidelines to medical physicists. AAPM's TG-61 gives dosimetry recommendations for low and medium energy x-rays, but not all of them are feasible to follow for this modality...
February 2014: Medical Physics
Weipeng Wang, Menglong Zhang, Yi Zhang
This study was designed to measure peak skin dose (PSD), dose-area product (DAP), cumulative dose (CD) and fluoroscopy time (FT) for interventional cardiology procedures and to evaluate whether patient doses were higher than that in other published data. Three cardiac procedure types, including coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and radio frequency (RF) ablation, were entered into the study. Data of four special metrics (PSD, DAP, CD and FT) for these procedures were collected and measured...
December 2013: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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