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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944853/kisspeptin-inhibits-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-via-activation-of-eif2ak2
#1
Tae-Hun Kim, Sung-Gook Cho
Kisspeptin is a protein encoded by the KISS1 gene, which has been reported to suppress the metastatic capabilities of various types of cancer cells, through the activation of its G‑protein coupled receptor GPR54. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of kisspeptin‑mediated signaling in the inhibition of cancer cell migration and invasion have yet to be elucidated. The present in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays and in vivo experimental metastasis studies demonstrated that kisspeptin‑induced eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 2 (EIF2AK2) activation suppressed the metastatic capabilities of several types of cancer cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943900/influence-of-chronic-inflammation-on-bcl-2-and-pcna-expression-in-prostate-needle-biopsy-specimens
#2
Michael Glover, Shardul Soni, Qinghu Ren, Gregory T Maclennan, Pingfu Fu, Sanjay Gupta
The association between inflammation and cancer has been established in certain forms of human malignancies; however, its role in prostate cancer remains unclear. The present study investigates a possible association between chronic inflammation and the development of epithelial neoplasia in the prostate. Needle biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with serum prostate-specific antigen levels >4 ng/ml, evaluated for morphological findings, and immunostained for Bcl-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943466/in-vitro-cytotoxicity-of-l-amino-acid-oxidase-from-the-venom-of-crotalus-mitchellii-pyrrhus
#3
Kok Keong Tan, Siok Ghee Ler, Jayantha Gunaratne, Boon Huat Bay, Gopalakrishnakone Ponnampalam
L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus (Cmp-LAAO) exhibited cytotoxicity against LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cells. The viability of LNCaP cells decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner upon administration of Cmp-LAAO. Cmp-LAAO induced apoptosis as evidenced by AnnexinV/PI staining using flow cytometry. An increase in caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity were also observed. The damaging effect of LAAO appears to be due to its enzymatic activity, that produces hydrogen peroxide which can then induce oxidative stress within the cells...
September 21, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941866/-68-ga-psma-pet-ct-in-prostate-cancer
#4
J R García Garzón, M de Arcocha Torres, R Delgado-Bolton, F Ceci, S Alvarez Ruiz, J Orcajo Rincón, A P Caresia Aróztegui, M J García Velloso, A M García Vicente
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with (68)Ga-PSMA is a non-invasive diagnostic technique to image prostate cancer with increased prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression. PSMA is a transmembrane protein present in all prostatic tissues. Increased PSMA expression is seen in several malignancies, although prostate cancer is the tumour where it presents higher concentrations. Almost all prostate adenocarcinomas show PSMA expression in most of lesions, primary and metastatic...
September 20, 2017: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937798/dual-effects-of-resveratrol-on-cell-death-and-proliferation-of-colon-cancer-cells
#5
Álvaro San Hipólito-Luengo, Antonio Alcaide, Mariella Ramos-González, Elena Cercas, Susana Vallejo, Alejandra Romero, Elena Talero, Carlos F Sánchez-Ferrer, Virginia Motilva, Concepción Peiró
Colorectal cancer remains a main cause of deaths worldwide, and novel agents are being searched to treat this disease. Polyphenols have emerged as promising therapeutic tools in cancer. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydoxy-trans-stilbene) induces cell death in different tumor cell lines, and it also stimulates the proliferation of specific breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Here, we studied the impact of resveratrol over a 100-fold concentration range on cell death and proliferation of HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells...
September 22, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937384/nonspecific-granulomatous-prostatitis-in-association-with-eosinophilic-epithelial-metaplasia-and-prostatic-adenocarcinoma
#6
Dorian I Dikov, Maria Stoyanova Koleva, Zhivko K Peshev, Veselin T Belovezhdov
We present the first case of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis (NSGP) associated with both eosinophilic epithelial metaplasia (EM) in benign glands and prostatic adenocarcinoma (PCa). The patient was a 68-year old man with a history of obstructive prostatic syndrome. After a transurethral resection of the prostate, the histologic analysis revealed NSGP and PCa. EM was seen in benign peri-granulomatous secretory epithelial cells as PAS Diastase positive granular eosinophilic transformation of the apical cell cytoplasm...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932626/complete-biochemical-response-after-pulmonary-metastasectomy-in-prostate-adenocarcinoma
#7
Jonathan Rush, Reet Pai, Rahul A Parikh
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to bones or lymph nodes, and metastatic prostate cancer is suggestive of disseminated disease. Metastatic disease is usually not amenable to surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: The current report presents a unique case of in which the excision of a solitary pulmonary metastasis resulted in undetectable prostate-specific antigen. CONCLUSION: This case and others suggest metastasectomy could be considered in cases with solitary metastasis, and physicians should have a careful discussion regarding risks and possible benefits from surgical excision...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927133/benefit-of-rebiopsy-for-deciding-treatment-strategy-in-rectal-cancer-a-case-report
#8
Kenta Kawasaki, Yasuo Hamamoto, Takeshi Suzuki, Kenro Hirata, Yasutaka Sukawa, Akiyoshi Kasuga, Yuichiro Hayashi, Hiromasa Takaishi, Kaori Kameyama, Takanori Kanai
Rebiopsy is considered an option for specific types of cancer, such as breast, non-small cell lung, and prostate cancer, in clinical trials and in practice. The benefit of rebiopsy comes from the selection of a new treatment strategy based on the genetic profile of the cells, which may reflect the development of drug resistance or hormonal changes. For colorectal cancer, the presence of different genomic mutations between the primary tumor and its metastases is rare, and rebiopsy is therefore not generally performed...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924059/pygopus2-expression-in-prostatic-adenocarcinoma-is-a-potential-risk-stratification-marker-for-psa-progression-following-radical-prostatectomy
#9
Kenneth R Kao, Paul Popadiuk, John Thoms, Satoko Aoki, Shahgul Anwar, Emily Fitzgerald, Phillip Andrews, Kim Voisey, Luis Gai, Satya Challa, Zhijian He, Paola Gonzales-Aguirre, Andrea Simmonds, Catherine Popadiuk
AIMS: Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men. Without clear pathological indicators of disease trajectory at diagnosis, management of PrCa is challenging, given its wide-ranging manifestation from indolent to highly aggressive disease. This study examines the role in PrCa of the Pygopus (PYGO)2 chromatin effector protein as a risk stratification marker in PrCa. METHODS: RNA expression was performed in PrCa cell lines using Northern and RT-PCR analyses...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919294/studying-the-efficacy-of-escalated-dose-conformal-radiation-therapy-in-prostate-carcinoma-pakistan-experience
#10
Asad Zamir, Ahmad Farooq, Hasan Nisar, Ismat Fatima, Irfan Ullah Khan, Misbah Masood, Abubaker Shahid
BACKGROUND: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the role and benefits in terms of local toxicity and biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) following escalated-dose conformal radiation therapy in prostate adenocarcinoma. METHODS: The study population was composed of 53 patients with histologically proven T1b-T4, NO, MO prostate adenocarcinoma, having any Gleason score with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of less than 50 ng/mL at diagnosis, given escalated dose EBRT (74 Gy) during the period between January 2011 and December 2013, retrospectively and evaluated for a period of 2 years post-radiation...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919181/lymphadenectomy-in-gleason-7-prostate-cancer-adherence-to-guidelines-and-effect-on-clinical-outcomes
#11
Thenappan Chandrasekar, Hanan Goldberg, Zachary Klaassen, Rashid K Sayyid, Robert J Hamilton, Neil E Fleshner, Girish S Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: To examine usage trends, guideline adherence, and survival data for patients undergoing lymphadenectomy (LND) at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) for Gleason 7 prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: The SEER database was queried for all patients with nonmetastatic biopsy Gleason 7 PCa from 2004 to 2013. Distribution and trends of LND were analyzed. The Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram was applied to stratify patients based on risk of nodal disease at time of RP (<5% risk or ≥5% risk)...
September 14, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918339/interference-of-dibutylphthalate-on-human-prostate-cell-viability
#12
Mariana Di Lorenzo, Maurizio Forte, Salvatore Valiante, Vincenza Laforgia, Maria De Falco
Dibutylphthalate (DBP) is an environmental pollutant widely used as plasticizer in a variety of industrial applications worldwide. This agent can be found in personal-care products, children's toy, pharmaceuticals, food products. Exposure to DBP can occur via ingestion and inhalation as well as intravenous or skin contact. DBP belongs to the family of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and its effects on reproductive system were demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. In the present study we evaluated the effects of DBP on human prostate adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (LNCaP) in order to highlight xenoestrogens influence on human prostate...
September 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915670/prostate-cancer-diagnosis-using-epigenetic-biomarkers-3d-high-content-imaging-and-probabilistic-cell-by-cell-classifiers
#13
Darko Stefanovski, George Tang, Kolja Wawrowsky, Raymond C Boston, Nils Lambrecht, Jian Tajbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) management can benefit from novel concepts/biomarkers for reducing the current 20-30% chance of false-negative diagnosis with standard histopathology of biopsied tissue. METHOD: We explored the potential of selected epigenetic markers in combination with validated histopathological markers, 3D high-content imaging, cell-by-cell analysis, and probabilistic classification in generating novel detailed maps of biomarker heterogeneity in patient tissues, and PCa diagnosis...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915602/increased-expression-of-calponin-2-is-a-positive-prognostic-factor-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#14
Zhaoyan Qiu, Yi Chu, Bing Xu, Qian Wang, Mingzuo Jiang, Xiaowei Li, Gang Wang, Pengfei Yu, Guoxiao Liu, Hua Wang, Huijie Kang, Jiayu Liu, Yu Zhang, Jian-Ping Jin, Kaichun Wu, Jie Liang
Calponin 2 plays an important role in regulating actin cytoskeleton, which is critical for cell division and migration. Previous studies have demonstrated that calponin 2 inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of calponin 2 in pancreatic tumor growth, metastasis and patient survival remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the level of calponin 2 is a positive prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Patients with high calponin 2 expression in the tumor presented less lymph node metastasis and longer survival...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914998/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-distant-metastases-of-adenocarcinoma-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-urothelial-carcinoma-an-autopsy-study-of-older-japanese-patients
#15
Yoko Matsuda, Atsuko Seki, Keisuke Nonaka, Mototsune Kakizaki, Tan Wang, Junko Aida, Naoshi Ishikawa, Yuta Nakano, Daita Kaneda, Tadayuki Takata, Junko Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Shigeo Murayama, Kaiyo Takubo, Toshiyuki Ishiwata, Motoji Sawabe, Tomio Arai
AIM: We aimed to clarify the characteristics of malignancies in older adults focusing on distant metastasis in the whole body. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 7710 cases of autopsies (4011 men, 3699 women, median age of 80 years), and analyzed the characteristics of metastasis of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma in each organ. RESULTS: The total number of cases with adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or urothelial carcinoma was 2856, and most of them were adenocarcinomas...
September 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912897/genomic-analysis-of-tumor-microenvironment-immune-types-across-14-solid-cancer-types-immunotherapeutic-implications
#16
Yu-Pei Chen, Yu Zhang, Jia-Wei Lv, Ying-Qin Li, Ya-Qin Wang, Qing-Mei He, Xiao-Jing Yang, Ying Sun, Yan-Ping Mao, Jing-Ping Yun, Na Liu, Jun Ma
We performed a comprehensive immuno-genomic analysis of tumor microenvironment immune types (TMITs), which is classified into four groups based on PD-L1+CD8A or PD-L1+cytolytic activity (CYT) expression, across a broad spectrum of solid tumors in order to help identify patients who will benefit from anti- PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. The mRNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of 14 solid cancer types representing 6,685 tumor samples was analyzed. TMIT was classified only for those tumor types that both PD-L1 and CD8A/CYT could prefict mutation and/or neoantigen number...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905666/second-opinion-expert-pathology-review-in-bladder-cancer-implications-for-patient-care
#17
Jennifer Gordetsky, Robin Collingwood, Win Shun Lai, Maria Del Carmen Rodriquez Pena, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
OBJECTIVES: To review bladder specimens referred to our facility for secondary review to determine the frequency and degree of changes in pathological diagnoses, which could affect patient care. METHODS: A retrospective review of 246 bladder specimens sent to our pathology department for second opinion pathological review was performed. All consultation specimens were reviewed by a single genitourinary (GU)-subspecialized surgical pathologist. Any changes in the pathological grade, stage, or histological tumor type were noted as well as patient demographic data...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902796/carcinosarcoma-of-the-pancreas-case-report-with-comprehensive-literature-review
#18
Dietrich A Ruess, Claudia Kayser, Jakob Neubauer, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Ulrich T Hopt, Uwe A Wittel
Carcinosarcomas are rare biphasic neoplasms with distinct malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Most commonly, carcinosarcomas arise in the uterus as malignant mixed müllerian tumors, but also infrequently appear in other organs such as the ovaries and breast, the prostate and urinary tract, the lungs, or in the gastrointestinal system, among others. Pancreatic carcinosarcomas are exceedingly rare; only a few cases are reported in the English literature. Their pathogenesis remains to be fully clarified...
October 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900498/correlation-between-erg-fusion-protein-and-androgen-receptor-expression-by-immunohistochemistry-in-prostate-possible-role-in-diagnosis-and-therapy
#19
Amir Hassan Navaei, Beatriz A Walter, Vanessa Moreno, Svetlana D Pack, Peter Pinto, Maria J Merino
Background: Recent discovery of gene rearrangements have brought a new look to the molecular pathogenesis of cancer. Gene fusions occur in nearly 60% of prostate adenocarcinoma, being the TMPRSS2-ERG one of the most common. Evidence supports the role of ERG fusion in tumorigenesis, progression and invasion via effecting pathways such as WNT, MYC, uPA, PI3K/AKT/PTEN, RAS/RAF/MAPF, NKX3.1, GST-pi and androgen receptor (AR) mediated signaling. Most of the ERG fusions involve 5'-partners androgen responsive. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate AR and ERG fusion protein expression on prostate tissue to find clinicopathological applications and possible role in therapy...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890397/regulated-expression-of-the-tp%C3%AE-isoform-of-the-human-t-prostanoid-receptor-by-the-tumour-suppressors-foxp1-and-nkx3-1-implications-for-the-role-of-thromboxane-in-prostate-cancer
#20
Aine G O'Sullivan, Sarah B Eivers, Eamon P Mulvaney, B Therese Kinsella
The prostanoid thromboxane (TX)A2 signals through the TPα and TPβ isoforms of T Prostanoid receptor (TP) that are transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters termed Prm1 and Prm3, respectively, within the TBXA2R gene. We recently demonstrated that expression of TPα and TPβ is increased in PCa, differentially correlating with Gleason grade and with altered CpG methylation of the individual Prm1/Prm3 regions within the TBXA2R. The current study sought to localise the sites of CpG methylation within Prm1 and Prm3, and to identify the main transcription factors regulating TPβ expression through Prm3 in the prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines...
September 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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