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Vegetative state

Mariana Carvalho de Menezes, Lydiane Bragunci Bedeschi, Luana Caroline Dos Santos, Aline Cristine Souza Lopes
INTRODUCTION: The multi-behavioral Transtheoretical Model (TTM) addresses multiple behaviors and it is a promising strategy to control multifactorial morbidities, such as chronic diseases. The results obtained using the TTM are positive, but are not consistently methodical. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically review the effectiveness of the Transtheoretical Model in multi-behavioral interventions for changing eating habits and levels of physical activity...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Patricia M Alexandre, Susan I Stewart, Nicholas S Keuler, Murray K Clayton, Miranda H Mockrin, Avi Bar-Massada, Alexandra D Syphard, Volker C Radeloff
Wildfire is globally an important ecological disturbance affecting biochemical cycles and vegetation composition, but also puts people and their homes at risk. Suppressing wildfires has detrimental ecological effects and can promote larger and more intense wildfires when fuels accumulate, which increases the threat to buildings in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Yet, when wildfires occur, typically only a small proportion of the buildings within the fire perimeter are lost, and the question is what determines which buildings burn...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
John H Kim, Esteban G Jobbágy, Robert B Jackson
Increasing pressures for food, fiber, and fuel continue to drive global land-use changes. Efforts to optimize ecosystem services under alternative land uses are often hampered by the complex interactions and trade-offs among them. We examined the effects of land-use changes on ecosystem carbon storage and groundwater recharge in grasslands of Argentina and the United States to (1) understand the relationships between both services, (2) predict their responses to vegetation shifts across environmental gradients, and (3) explore how market or policy incentives for ecosystem services could affect land-use changes...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Joachim Liepert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article evaluates whether specific drugs are able to facilitate motor recovery after stroke or improve the level of consciousness, cognitive, or behavioral symptoms after traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: After stroke, serotonin reuptake inhibitors can enhance restitution of motor functions in depressed as well as in nondepressed patients. Erythropoietin and progesterone administered within hours after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury failed to improve the outcome...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Leanne Cusack, Andrew Larkin, Sue Carozza, Perry Hystad
BACKGROUND: The amount of greenness around mothers' residences has been associated with positive birth outcomes; however, findings are inconclusive. Here we examine residential greenness and birth outcomes in a population-based birth cohort in Texas, a state with large regional variation in greenness levels, several distinct cities, and a diverse population. METHODS: We used Vital Statistics data to create a birth cohort (n=3,026,603) in Texas from 2000 to 2009...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Research
S Marques, R Carmo, I Ferreira, M Bustorff, S Sampaio, M Pestana
BACKGROUND: In solid organ transplant patients, 8% of invasive fungal infections are attributed to Cryptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and outcome of kidney transplant recipients (TR) infected with Cryptococcus. CASE SERIES: Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 500 kidney transplantations were performed at São João Hospital, in Porto, Portugal. Six infections by C. neoformans were reported, an incidence of 1...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Francesca Pistoia, Simona Sacco, Janet Stewart, Marco Sarà, Antonio Carolei
The experience of pain in disorders of consciousness is still debated. Neuroimaging studies, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and laser-evoked potentials, suggest that the perception of pain increases with the level of consciousness. Brain activation in response to noxious stimuli has been observed in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), which is also referred to as a vegetative state (VS), as well as those in a minimally conscious state (MCS)...
October 8, 2016: Brain Sciences
Luigi Sapio, Monica Gallo, Michela Illiano, Emilio Chiosi, Daniele Naviglio, Annamaria Spina, Silvio Naviglio
Cancer is a major public health problem and the second leading cause of mortality around the world. Although continuous advances in the science of oncology and cancer research are now leading to improved outcomes for many cancer patients, novel cancer treatment options are strongly demanded. Naturally occurring compounds from a variety of vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants have been shown to exhibit various anticancer properties in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies and represent an attractive research area for the development of new therapeutic strategies to fight cancer...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anna Nigri, Eleonora Catricalà, Stefania Ferraro, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Ludovico D'Incerti, Davide Sattin, Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Silvana Franceschetti, Giorgio Marotta, Riccardo Benti, Matilde Leonardi, Stefano F Cappa
There is a growing interest in the use of functional imaging to assess brain activity in the absence of behavioural responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). In the present study, we applied a hierarchical auditory stimulation paradigm to functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) in a group of long-term DOC adult patients. Brain response to pairs of pseudowords, of unrelated words and of semantically related words, i.e. stimuli differing in lexical status (words vs. pseudowords) and semantic relatedness (related vs...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
A Leyte-Manrique, U Hernández-Salinas, A Ramírez-Bautista, V Mata-Silva, J C Marshall
Studies on habitat use have often helped explain observed variation in morphology, behavior, and reproductive characteristics among populations within a single species. Here we analyze morphological and ecological characteristics of individuals from the Sceloporus grammicus species complex from seven different localities (El Cerezo: CER, Pachuca: PAC, Huichapan: HUI, Emiliano Zapata: EZA, San Miguel Regla: SMR, La Mojonera: LMJ, and La Manzana: LMZ) in the state of Hidalgo, and one locality (Cahuacán) in the State of México...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Manan Sharma, Russell Reynnells
Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Joele Viallon, Philippe Moussay, Edgar Flores, Robert Ian Wielgosz
Elevated values of ground-level ozone damage health, vegetation and building materials and are the subject of air quality regulations. Levels are monitored by networks using mostly Ultraviolet (UV) absorption instruments, with traceability to Standard Reference Photometers, relying on the UV absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined the ozone cross-section at this wavelength based on gas phase titration (GPT) measurements. This is a well-known chemical method using the reaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen monoxide (NO) resulting in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen (O2)...
October 11, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Alexander Klotz, Jens Georg, Lenka Bučinská, Satoru Watanabe, Viktoria Reimann, Witold Januszewski, Roman Sobotka, Dieter Jendrossek, Wolfgang R Hess, Karl Forchhammer
The molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in the transition of microbial cells from a resting state to the active vegetative state are critically relevant for solving problems in fields ranging from microbial ecology to infection microbiology. Cyanobacteria that cannot fix nitrogen are able to survive prolonged periods of nitrogen starvation as chlorotic cells in a dormant state. When provided with a usable nitrogen source, these cells re-green within 48 hr and return to vegetative growth. Here we investigated the resuscitation of chlorotic Synechocystis sp...
October 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Judith Hempel, Christopher N Schädle, Jasmin Sprenger, Annerose Heller, Reinhold Carle, Ralf M Schweiggert
Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Silvia Casarotto, Angela Comanducci, Mario Rosanova, Simone Sarasso, Matteo Fecchio, Martino Napolitani, Andrea Pigorini, Adenauer G Casali, Pietro D Trimarchi, Melanie Boly, Olivia Gosseries, Olivier Bodart, Francesco Curto, Cristina Landi, Maurizio Mariotti, Guya Devalle, Steven Laureys, Giulio Tononi, Marcello Massimini
Objective Validating objective, brain-based indices of consciousness in behaviorally unresponsive patients represents a challenge due to the impossibility of obtaining independent evidence through subjective reports. Here we address this problem by first validating a promising metric of consciousness - the perturbational complexity index (PCI) - in a benchmark population who could confirm the presence or absence of consciousness through subjective reports, and then applying the same index to patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC)...
September 22, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Laëtitia Riva-Roveda, Brigitte Escale, Catherine Giauffret, Claire Périlleux
BACKGROUND: European Flint maize inbred lines are used as a source of adaptation to cold in most breeding programs in Northern Europe. A deep understanding of their adaptation strategy could thus provide valuable clues for further improvement, which is required in the current context of climate change. We therefore compared six inbreds and two derived Flint x Dent hybrids for their response to one-week at low temperature (10 °C day/7 or 4 °C night) during steady-state vegetative growth...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Anita M Nucci, Suvi M Virtanen, Susa Sorkio, Sonja Bärlund, David Cuthbertson, Ulla Uusitalo, Margaret L Lawson, Marja Salonen, Carol L Berseth, Anne Ormisson, Eveliina Lehtonen, Erkki Savilahti, Dorothy J Becker, John Dupré, Jeffrey P Krischer, Mikael Knip, Hans K Åkerblom
Differences in breastfeeding, other milk feeding and complementary feeding patterns were evaluated in infants at increased genetic risk with and without maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk is an international nutritional primary prevention double-blinded randomized trial to test whether weaning to extensively hydrolyzed vs. intact cow's milk protein formula will decrease the development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D. Infant diet was prospectively assessed at two visits and seven telephone interviews between birth and 8 months...
October 7, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Yi-Chun Lin, Alyce D Fly
BACKGROUND: We attempted to determine effects of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) on variety and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake by students in schools from different locales. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2011-2012 Indiana FFVP Student Survey completed by 4229 fourth-sixth graders. Effects were studied within 2 groups, 39 city and suburb schools, and 12 town and rural schools. Differences in students' responses over time to 2 items measuring variety and 10 items measuring fruit and vegetable intake frequency were determined with multilevel regression models...
November 2016: Journal of School Health
Natoshia M Askelson, Elizabeth H Golembiewski, Barbara Baquero, Elizabeth T Momany, Julia Friberg, Doris Montgomery
Subject recruitment is a challenge for researchers and evaluators, particularly with populations that are traditionally hard to reach and involve in research, such as low-income and minority groups. However, when the evaluation sample does not reflect a program's intended audience, the discrepancy may lead to evaluation results that are not valid for that audience. We conducted evaluation activities for a state Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) intervention that promotes consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) in low-income areas...
September 28, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
E A Fletcher, S A McNaughton, K E Lacy, D W Dunstan, V Carson, J Salmon
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that TV viewing is associated with body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. However, it is unclear whether dietary intake mediates these relationships. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in adolescents (12-19 years) participating in the 2003-2006 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. BMI z scores (zBMI) (n = 3,161) and MetS (n = 1,379) were calculated using age- and sex-specific criteria for adolescents...
September 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
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