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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217942/the-association-between-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-and-liver-enzymes-aspartate-and-alanine-transaminases-in-tehran-iran
#1
Mehdi Mollahosseini, Elnaz Daneshzad, Mohammad Hossein Rahimi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Zhila Maghbooli, Khadijeh Mirzaei
Background: Intake of fiber and antioxidants and following hypocaloric diets has beneficial effects on reduction of the liver enzymes. Fruits and vegetables are low in calorie and rich in fiber and antioxidants. There are few studies about special dietary effects on liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetables intake and liver function enzymes. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 Tehrani healthy adults...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217755/pollen-differentiation-as-well-as-pollen-tube-guidance-and-discharge-are-independent-of-the-presence-of-gametes
#2
Barbara Glöckle, Wojciech J Urban, Shiori Nagahara, Ellen D Andersen, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Paul E Grini, Arp Schnittger
After meiosis, an unequal cell division generates the male gamete lineage in flowering plants. The generative cell will undergo a second division, giving rise to the two gametes, i.e. the sperm cells. The other cell will develop into the vegetative cell that plays a crucial role in pollen tube formation and sperm delivery. Recently, the vegetative cell has been implicated to be important for programming of the chromatin state in sperm cells and/or the resulting fertilization products. Blocking the initial unequal division genetically, we first highlight that the default differentiation state after male meiosis is a vegetative fate consistent with earlier work...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213314/field-grown-mir156-transgenic-switchgrass-reproduction-yield-global-gene-expression-analysis-and-bioconfinement
#3
Chelsea R Johnson, Reginald J Millwood, Yuhong Tang, Jiqing Gou, Robert W Sykes, Geoffrey B Turner, Mark F Davis, Yi Sang, Zeng-Yu Wang, C Neal Stewart
Background: Genetic engineering has been effective in altering cell walls for biofuel production in the bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). However, regulatory issues arising from gene flow may prevent commercialization of engineered switchgrass in the eastern United States where the species is native. Depending on its expression level, microRNA156 (miR156) can reduce, delay, or eliminate flowering, which may serve to decrease transgene flow. In this unique field study of transgenic switchgrass that was permitted to flower, two low (T14 and T35) and two medium (T27 and T37) miR156-overexpressing 'Alamo' lines with the transgene under the control of the constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin 1 promoter, along with nontransgenic control plants, were grown in eastern Tennessee over two seasons...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211775/potential-to-curb-the-environmental-burdens-of-american-beef-consumption-using-a-novel-plant-based-beef-substitute
#4
Benjamin Goldstein, Rebekah Moses, Norman Sammons, Morten Birkved
The food demands of the United States (US) impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210465/25%C3%A2-years-of-eu-quality-schemes-for-agricultural-products-and-foodstuffs-across-eu-member-states
#5
REVIEW
Tânia G Albuquerque, M Beatriz P P Oliveira, Helena S Costa
Nowadays consumers are increasing their attention to the quality and origin of products they consume. EU quality schemes are associated with a label, which was introduced to allow consumers to perform an informed choice and to protect producers from unfair practices. This paper provides an overview of the last 25 years of EU quality schemes (Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG)) on agricultural products and foodstuffs across the 28 EU Member States...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210029/photoacoustic-spectroscopy-applied-to-the-direct-detection-of-bioactive-compounds-in-agaricus-brasiliensis-mycelium
#6
Fernando Maia de Oliveira, João Benhur Mokochinski, Yohandra Reyes Torres, Herta Stutz Dalla Santa, Pedro Pablo González-Borrero
This paper describes the application of the photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) for detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium. The mycelium was cultivated by solid-state fermentation and by submerged fermentation. Vegetal residues from food industry were used as substrates for fermentation: apple pomace (Malus domestica), wheat (Triticum aestivum), peel and pomace of pineapple (Ananas comosus), malt (Hordeum vulgare) and grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Dry and ground samples of biomass were directly put into the PA cell...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209270/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-patients-with-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-combined-behavioral-and-event-related-potential-evidence
#7
Ye Zhang, Weiqun Song, Jubao Du, Su Huo, Guixiang Shan, Ran Li
Background: The electrophysiological evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy of multiple transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions on consciousness improvement in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOCs) has not been firmly established. Objectives: To assess the effects of repeated tDCS in patients with prolonged DOCs by Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score and event-related potential (ERP). Method: Using a sham-controlled randomized double-blind design, 26 patients were randomly assigned to either a real [five vegetative state (VS) and eight minimally conscious state (MCS) patients] or sham (six VS and seven MCS patients) stimulation group...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206895/minimally-conscious-state-or-cortically-mediated-state
#8
Lionel Naccache
Durable impairments of consciousness are currently classified in three main neurological categories: comatose state, vegetative state (also recently coined unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) and minimally conscious state. While the introduction of minimally conscious state, in 2002, was a major progress to help clinicians recognize complex non-reflexive behaviours in the absence of functional communication, it raises several problems. The most important issue related to minimally conscious state lies in its criteria: while behavioural definition of minimally conscious state lacks any direct evidence of patient's conscious content or conscious state, it includes the adjective 'conscious'...
December 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205627/exacerbated-grassland-degradation-and-desertification-in-central-asia-during-2000-2014
#9
Geli Zhang, Chandrashekhar M Biradar, Xiangming Xiao, Jinwei Dong, Yuting Zhou, Yuanwei Qin, Yao Zhang, Fang Liu, Mingjun Ding, Richard J Thomas
Grassland degradation and desertification is a complex process, including both state conversion (e.g., grasslands to deserts) and gradual within-state change (e.g., greenness dynamics). Existing studies hardly separated the two components and analyzed it as a whole based on time series vegetation index data, which however cannot provide a clear and comprehensive picture for grassland degradation and desertification. Here we proposed an integrated assessment strategy, by considering both state conversion and within-state change of grasslands, to investigate grassland degradation and desertification process in Central Asia...
December 2, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205039/comparison-of-two-static-in-vitro-digestion-methods-for-screening-bioaccessibility-of-carotenoids-in-fruits-vegetables-and-animal-products
#10
Daniele Bobrowski Rodrigues, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante, Mark L Failla
In vitro digestion methods are routinely used to assess the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and other dietary lipophilic compounds. Here, we compared the recovery of carotenoids and their efficiency of micellarization in digested fruits, vegetables, egg yolk, salmon and mixed vegetable salad with and without the animal products using the static INFOGEST method (Maniekus et al. Food Funct. 2014, 5, 1113-1124) and the procedure of Failla et al. (Food Funct. 2014, 5, 1101-1112) modified to simulate conditions for the fed state...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201134/multi-feature-machine-learning-model-for-automatic-segmentation-of-green-fractional-vegetation-cover-for-high-throughput-field-phenotyping
#11
Pouria Sadeghi-Tehran, Nicolas Virlet, Kasra Sabermanesh, Malcolm J Hawkesford
Background: Accurately segmenting vegetation from the background within digital images is both a fundamental and a challenging task in phenotyping. The performance of traditional methods is satisfactory in homogeneous environments, however, performance decreases when applied to images acquired in dynamic field environments. Results: In this paper, a multi-feature learning method is proposed to quantify vegetation growth in outdoor field conditions. The introduced technique is compared with the state-of the-art and other learning methods on digital images...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198842/prevalence-of-and-differences-in-salad-bar-implementation-in-rural-versus-urban-arizona-schools
#12
Michelle Blumenschine, Marc Adams, Meg Bruening
BACKGROUND: Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools...
November 30, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196525/mapping-local-and-global-variability-in-plant-trait-distributions
#13
Ethan E Butler, Abhirup Datta, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Ming Chen, Kirk R Wythers, Farideh Fazayeli, Arindam Banerjee, Owen K Atkin, Jens Kattge, Bernard Amiaud, Benjamin Blonder, Gerhard Boenisch, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Kerry A Brown, Chaeho Byun, Giandiego Campetella, Bruno E L Cerabolini, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Joseph M Craine, Dylan Craven, Franciska T de Vries, Sandra Díaz, Tomas F Domingues, Estelle Forey, Andrés González-Melo, Nicolas Gross, Wenxuan Han, Wesley N Hattingh, Thomas Hickler, Steven Jansen, Koen Kramer, Nathan J B Kraft, Hiroko Kurokawa, Daniel C Laughlin, Patrick Meir, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Yusuke Onoda, Josep Peñuelas, Quentin Read, Lawren Sack, Brandon Schamp, Nadejda A Soudzilovskaia, Marko J Spasojevic, Enio Sosinski, Peter E Thornton, Fernando Valladares, Peter M van Bodegom, Mathew Williams, Christian Wirth, Peter B Reich
Our ability to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to a changing environment depends on quantifying vegetation functional diversity. However, representing this diversity at the global scale is challenging. Typically, in Earth system models, characterization of plant diversity has been limited to grouping related species into plant functional types (PFTs), with all trait variation in a PFT collapsed into a single mean value that is applied globally. Using the largest global plant trait database and state of the art Bayesian modeling, we created fine-grained global maps of plant trait distributions that can be applied to Earth system models...
December 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192798/does-nutrition-education-with-fruit-and-vegetable-supplementation-increase-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-and-improve-anthropometrics-of-overweight-or-obese-people-of-varying-socioeconomic-status
#14
Kerrie Honrath, Meredith G Wagner, Yeong Rhee
Fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake is inadequate and obesity is more prevalent among adults of lower socioeconomic status (SES) in the United States. The effect of nutrition education and F/V supplementation on F/V intake and anthropometrics of overweight or obese adults of varying SES was determined. F/V intake was not different between the nutrition education and F/V supplementation groups. Individuals with a graduate degree had significant improvements in fruit intake. Few of the improvements in anthropometrics seen were significant...
December 1, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190302/light-from-dark-a-relictual-troglobite-reveals-a-broader-ancestral-distribution-for-kimulid-harvestmen-opiliones-laniatores-kimulidae-in-south-america
#15
Abel Pérez-González, F Sara Ceccarelli, Bruno G O Monte, Daniel N Proud, Márcio Bernardino DaSilva, Maria E Bichuette
A new troglobitic harvestman, Relictopiolus galadriel gen. nov et sp. nov., is described from Olhos d'Água cave, Itacarambi, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Morphological characters, including male genitalia and exomorphology, suggest that this species belongs to the family Kimulidae, and it appears to share the greatest similarities with Tegipiolus pachypus. Bayesian inference analyses of a molecular dataset strongly support the inclusion of this species in Kimulidae and confirm the hypothesized sister-group relationship between R...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186840/foodborne-norovirus-state-of-affairs-in-the-eu-rapid-alert-system-for-food-and-feed
#16
Elias P Papapanagiotou
The European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (EU RASFF) database is an invaluable instrument for analyzing notifications involving norovirus in food. The aim of this work was to carry out a thorough research of the alert and border rejection notifications submitted in the RASFF database from its onset until 31 August 2017. Some conclusions of interest were: (i) Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Norway have contributed the majority of alert notifications as notifying countries, (ii) France and Serbia have been cited more often in alert notifications as countries of origin, (iii) Italy and Spain have submitted the majority of border rejection notifications, (iv) Third Countries implicated more frequently in border rejection notifications for norovirus in bivalve molluscs were Vietnam and Tunisia, whereas in fruits and vegetables were China and Serbia, (v) "risk dispersion" from norovirus-contaminated food was narrow since, in just over half of all alert notifications and all of the border rejection notifications, only up to three countries were involved, and (vi) both raw (oysters and berries) and cooked (mussels) food products can present a health risk to consumers...
November 25, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186057/development-of-spectral-disease-indices-for-flavescence-dor%C3%A3-e-grapevine-disease-identification
#17
Hania Al-Saddik, Jean-Claude Simon, Frederic Cointault
Spectral measurements are employed in many precision agriculture applications, due to their ability to monitor the vegetation's health state. Spectral vegetation indices are one of the main techniques currently used in remote sensing activities, since they are related to biophysical and biochemical crop variables. Moreover, they have been evaluated in some studies as potentially beneficial for detecting or differentiating crop diseases. Flavescence Dorée (FD) is an infectious, incurable disease of the grapevine that can produce severe yield losses and, hence, compromise the stability of the vineyards...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185627/strategies-for-enhancing-the-implementation-of-school-based-policies-or-practices-targeting-risk-factors-for-chronic-disease
#18
REVIEW
Luke Wolfenden, Nicole K Nathan, Rachel Sutherland, Sze Lin Yoong, Rebecca K Hodder, Rebecca J Wyse, Tessa Delaney, Alice Grady, Alison Fielding, Flora Tzelepis, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Benjamin Parmenter, Peter Butler, John Wiggers, Adrian Bauman, Andrew Milat, Debbie Booth, Christopher M Williams
BACKGROUND: A number of school-based policies or practices have been found to be effective in improving child diet and physical activity, and preventing excessive weight gain, tobacco or harmful alcohol use. Schools, however, frequently fail to implement such evidence-based interventions. OBJECTIVES: The primary aims of the review are to examine the effectiveness of strategies aiming to improve the implementation of school-based policies, programs or practices to address child diet, physical activity, obesity, tobacco or alcohol use...
November 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182381/a-validation-of-the-polish-version-of-the-coma-recovery-scale-revised-crsr
#19
Marek Binder, Urszula Górska, Anna Wójcik-Krzemień, Krzysztof Gociewicz
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the validity of the Polish version of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). METHODS AND DESIGN: Two trained raters, A and B, administered CRS-R on a group of 20 patients with severe brain injury (median age ± SD, 38.0 ± 14.39 years). Both rater A and rater B completed their assessment on day 1, and rater A repeated their assessment on day 2. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were evaluated with an intra-class correlation coefficient and Spearman rank correlation...
November 28, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179092/rheology-of-particle-water-oil-three-phase-dispersions-electrostatic-vs-capillary-bridge-forces
#20
Mihail T Georgiev, Krassimir D Danov, Peter A Kralchevsky, Theodor D Gurkov, Denitsa P Krusteva, Luben N Arnaudov, Simeon D Stoyanov, Eddie G Pelan
HYPOTHESIS: Particle/water/oil three-phase capillary suspensions possess the remarkable property to solidify upon the addition of minimal amount of the second (dispersed) liquid. The hardening of these suspensions is due to capillary bridges, which interconnect the particles (pendular state). Electrostatic repulsion across the oily phase, where Debye screening by electrolyte is missing, could also influence the hardness of these suspensions. EXPERIMENTS: We present data for oil-continuous suspensions with aqueous capillary bridges between hydrophilic SiO2 particles at particle volume fractions 35-45%...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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