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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730654/extensive-wildfires-climate-change-and-an-abrupt-state-change-in-subalpine-ribbon-forests-colorado
#1
W John Calder, Bryan Shuman
Ecosystems may shift abruptly when the effects of climate change and disturbance interact, and landscapes with regularly patterned vegetation may be especially vulnerable to abrupt shifts. Here we use a fossil pollen record from a regularly patterned ribbon forest (alternating bands of forests and meadows) in Colorado to examine whether past changes in wildfire and climate produced abrupt vegetation shifts. Comparing the percentages of conifer pollen with sedimentary δ(18) O data (interpreted as an indicator of temperature or snow accumulation) indicates a first-order linear relationship between vegetation composition and climate change with no detectable lags over the past 2500 years (r = 0...
July 21, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730528/sulforaphane-promotes-mitochondrial-protection-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide-by-an-nrf2-dependent-mechanism
#2
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Flávia de Bittencourt Brasil, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau
Sulforaphane (SFN; C6H11NOS2) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, kale, and radish. SFN exhibits antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities in different cell types. However, it was not previously demonstrated whether and how this natural compound would exert mitochondrial protection experimentally. Therefore, we investigated here the effects of a pretreatment (for 30 min) with SFN at 5 μM on mitochondria obtained from human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 300 μM for 24 h...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728060/clinical-neurophysiology-of-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-from-diagnostic-stimulation-to-therapeutic-neuromodulation
#3
REVIEW
Aldo Ragazzoni, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Damian Cruse, G Bryan Young, Carlo Miniussi, Simone Rossi
The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727744/climate-change-and-sugarcane-expansion-increase-hantavirus-infection-risk
#4
Paula Ribeiro Prist, María Uriarte, Katia Fernandes, Jean Paul Metzger
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721680/evaluation-of-haplotype-diversity-of-achatina-fulica-lissachatina-bowdich-from-indian-sub-continent-by-means-of-16s-rdna-sequence-and-its-phylogenetic-relationships-with-other-global-populations
#5
Vijaya Sai Ayyagari, Krupanidhi Sreerama
Achatina fulica (Lissachatina fulica) is one of the most invasive species found across the globe causing a significant damage to crops, vegetables, and horticultural plants. This terrestrial snail is native to east Africa and spread to different parts of the world by introductions. India, a hot spot for biodiversity of several endemic gastropods, has witnessed an outburst of this snail population in several parts of the country posing a serious threat to crop loss and also to human health. With an objective to evaluate the genetic diversity of this snail, we have sampled this snail from different parts of India and analyzed its haplotype diversity by means of 16S rDNA sequence information...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712840/current-validity-of-diagnosis-of-permanent-vegetative-state-a-longitudinal-study-in-a-sample-of-patients-with-altered-states-of-consciousness
#6
E Noé, J Olaya, C Colomer, B Moliner, P Ugart, C Rodriguez, R Llorens, J Ferri
INTRODUCTION: Altered states of consciousness have traditionally been associated with poor prognosis. At present, clinical differences between these entities are beginning to be established. METHOD: Our study included 37 patients diagnosed with vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and 43 in a minimally conscious state (MCS) according to the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). All patients were followed up each month for at least 6 months using the CRS-R...
July 13, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710990/biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-and-health-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-aquatic-and-terrestrial-organisms-by-oil-extraction-industry-in-ogale-nigeria
#7
Sunny O Abarikwu, Eka B Essien, Oreva-Oghene Iyede, Kingsley John, Chidimma Mgbudom-Okah
Ogale community in Rivers State, Nigeria is characterized by crude-oil contamination of its land resources. The present study aimed to evaluate the health risk and metal (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni) contamination level of the vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis), snail (Achatina achatina) and the catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected from Ogale community. Samples collected from Elele Alimini community, a less polluted area was used as control. Oxidative damage was evaluated in tissues of snail and in the liver of catfish...
July 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704510/combining-global-land-cover-datasets-to-quantify-agricultural-expansion-into-forests-in-latin-america-limitations-and-challenges
#8
Florence Pendrill, U Martin Persson
While we know that deforestation in the tropics is increasingly driven by commercial agriculture, most tropical countries still lack recent and spatially-explicit assessments of the relative importance of pasture and cropland expansion in causing forest loss. Here we present a spatially explicit quantification of the extent to which cultivated land and grassland expanded at the expense of forests across Latin America in 2001-2011, by combining two "state-of-the-art" global datasets (Global Forest Change forest loss and GlobeLand30-2010 land cover)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704469/the-relationship-between-a-low-grain-intake-dietary-pattern-and-impulsive-behaviors-in-middle-aged-japanese-people
#9
Atsuhito Toyomaki, Minori Koga, Emiko Okada, Yukiei Nakai, Akane Miyazaki, Akiko Tamakoshi, Yoshinobu Kiso, Ichiro Kusumi
Several studies indicate that dietary habits are associated with mental health. We are interested in identifying not a specific single nutrient/food group but the population preferring specific food combinations that can be related to mental health. Very few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and multifaceted mental states using cluster analysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate population-level dietary patterns associated with mental state using cluster analysis. We focused on depressive state, sleep quality, subjective well-being, and impulsive behaviors using rating scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702907/vascular-plants-as-ecological-indicators-of-metals-in-alpine-vegetation-karkonosze-sw-poland
#10
Bronisław Wojtuń, Aleksandra Samecka-Cymerman, Ludwik Żołnierz, Adam Rajsz, Alexander J Kempers
Calluna vulgaris, Carex rigida, Deschampsia flexuosa, Nardus stricta and Vaccinium myrtillus are abundant in the vegetation of mountainous areas in Northern and Central Europe. Knowledge of their ability to accumulate increased amounts of metals could be useful in the evaluation of environmental pollution in the alpine tundra of high mountains. Additionally, this investigation may contribute to understanding the rate and direction of recent vegetation change in Karkonosze and similar types of environments. Our investigation revealed that Carex rigida, C...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702347/tdcs-modulates-cortical-excitability-in-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#11
Yang Bai, Xiaoyu Xia, Jiannan Kang, Yi Yang, Jianghong He, Xiaoli Li
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to be a promising technique for consciousness improvement for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). However, there has been no direct electrophysiological evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of tDCS on patients with DOC. Therefore, we aim to measure the cortical excitability changes induced by tDCS in patients with DOC, to find electrophysiological evidence supporting the therapeutic efficacy of tDCS on patients with DOC. In this study, we enrolled sixteen patients with DOC, including nine vegetative state (VS) and seven minimally conscious state (MCS) (six females and ten males)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702277/class-ii-members-of-the-poly-a-binding-protein-family-exhibit-distinct-functions-during-arabidopsis-growth-and-development
#12
Daniel R Gallie
The poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) binds to the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs and contributes to their stability and translational efficiency. In plants, PABP is expressed from an unusually large gene family grouped into 3 classes that expanded during the evolution of land plants. Subsequent to expansion of the family, members diverged in their primary sequence and in expression. Further expansion of the family and divergence of its members in the Brassicaceae demonstrate the continued dynamic evolution of PABP in plants...
2017: Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700665/solution-conformations-of-zika-ns2b-ns3pro-and-its-inhibition-by-natural-products-from-edible-plants
#13
Amrita Roy, Liangzhong Lim, Shagun Srivastava, Yimei Lu, Jianxing Song
The recent Zika viral (ZIKV) epidemic has been associated with severe neurological pathologies such as neonatal microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome but unfortunately no vaccine or medication is effectively available yet. Zika NS2B-NS3pro is essential for the proteolysis of the viral polyprotein and thereby viral replication. Thus NS2B-NS3pro represents an attractive target for anti-Zika drug discovery/design. Here, we have characterized the solution conformations and catalytic parameters of both linked and unlinked Zika NS2B-NS3pro complexes and found that the unlinked complex manifested well-dispersed NMR spectra...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699098/effects-of-a-2014-statewide-policy-change-on-cash-value-voucher-redemptions-for-fruits-vegetables-among-participants-in-the-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and-children-wic
#14
Janice O Okeke, Ruwani M Ekanayake, Melissa L Santorelli
Purpose In 2014, the New Jersey Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began requiring WIC-authorized stores to stock at least two fresh fruits and two fresh vegetables. We aimed to evaluate the effect of this policy change on fruit and vegetable purchases among WIC-participating households and to assess variation by household access to a healthy food store such as a supermarket or large grocery store. Description Households with continuous WIC enrollment from June 2013 to May 2015 were included (n = 16,415)...
July 12, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698460/adults-and-children-in-low-income-households-that-participate-in-cost-offset-community-supported-agriculture-have-high-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption
#15
Karla L Hanson, Jane Kolodinsky, Weiwei Wang, Emily H Morgan, Stephanie B Jilcott Pitts, Alice S Ammerman, Marilyn Sitaker, Rebecca A Seguin
This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2-12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 (n = 41) and February 2016 (n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables...
July 8, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696403/preschool-and-school-meal-policies-an-overview-of-what-we-know-about-regulation-implementation-and-impact-on-diet-in-the-uk-sweden-and-australia
#16
REVIEW
Patricia Jane Lucas, Emma Patterson, Gary Sacks, Natassja Billich, Charlotte Elizabeth Louise Evans
School meals make significant contributions to healthy dietary behaviour, at a time when eating habits and food preferences are being formed. We provide an overview of the approaches to the provision, regulation, and improvement of preschool and primary school meals in the UK, Sweden, and Australia, three countries which vary in their degree of centralisation and regulation of school meals. Sweden has a centralised approach; all children receive free meals, and a pedagogical approach to meals is encouraged...
July 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696049/increased-nutritional-value-in-food-crops
#17
Nieves Goicoechea, M Carmen Antolín
Modern agriculture and horticulture must combine two objectives that seem to be almost mutually exclusive: to satisfy the nutritional needs of an increasing human population and to minimize the negative impact on the environment. These two objectives are included in the Goal 2 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations: 'End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture'. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693674/the-imperative-for-regenerative-agriculture
#18
Christopher J Rhodes
A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded...
March 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691173/successes-and-challenges-in-school-meal-reform-qualitative-insights-from-food-service-directors
#19
Yuka Asada, Margaret Ziemann, Lara Zatz, Jamie Chriqui
BACKGROUND: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to gain insight into successful implementation strategies. METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with FSDs (N = 9) from high schools that had achieved HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) status...
August 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690807/the-landscape-of-fear-as-an-emergent-property-of-heterogeneity-contrasting-patterns-of-predation-risk-in-grassland-ecosystems
#20
Fidelis Akunke Atuo, Timothy John O'Connell
The likelihood of encountering a predator influences prey behavior and spatial distribution such that non-consumptive effects can outweigh the influence of direct predation. Prey species are thought to filter information on perceived predator encounter rates in physical landscapes into a landscape of fear defined by spatially explicit heterogeneity in predation risk. The presence of multiple predators using different hunting strategies further complicates navigation through a landscape of fear and potentially exposes prey to greater risk of predation...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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