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confocal cornea

Q F Liang, C Gao, H Liang, B Li, X H Du, Antoine Labbe
Objective: To observe the characteristics of pterygium with in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and understand pterygium activity with the density of inflammatory cells, formation of new blood vessels, and the number of activated keratocytes within the stroma. Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. Thirty-six pterygia from 28 patients were analyzed in this study. A pterygium activity score was obtained by summing four scores of ocular discomfort, pterygium hyperemia, keratitis, and the presence of Fuchs patches...
October 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Marina Hovakimyan, Oliver Stachs, Olmiere Céline, Rudolf F Guthoff
PURPOSE: Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) is associated with massive cellular damage, the long-term clinical consequences of which have still to be elucidated. In this study, we seek to determine whether matrix-based regenerating agent (RGTA) therapy has a positive influence on stromal regeneration after CXL. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups of 6. CXL of the right cornea was performed in both groups, followed by topical corneal application of one drop of vehicle or one drop of RGTA...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
Ömür Ö Uçakhan, Betül Bayraktutar
PURPOSE: To evaluate the morphological features of the corneal limbus as measured by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) following standard and accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus. METHODS: Patients with progressive keratoconus scheduled to undergo standard CXL (group 1; 31 patients, 3 mW/cm, 370 nm, 30 minutes), or accelerated CXL (group 2; 20 patients, 9 mW/cm, 370 nm, 10 minutes) in the worse eye were included in this prospective study...
October 5, 2016: Cornea
Raghu Raj Singh Thakur, Ismaiel A Tekko, Farhan Al-Shammari, Ahlam A Ali, Helen McCarthy, Ryan F Donnelly
In this study, dissolving microneedles (MNs) were used to enhance ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. MNs were fabricated using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer of various molecular weights (MWs) containing three model molecules of increasing MW, namely fluorescein sodium and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (with MW of 70 k and 150 k Da). Arrays (3 × 3) of PVP MNs with conical shape measuring about 800 μm in height with a 300 μm base diameter, containing the model drugs, were fabricated and characterized for their fracture forces, insertion forces (in the sclera and cornea), depth of penetration (using OCT and confocal imaging), dissolution time and in vitro permeation...
October 5, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Evgeny Kushnerev, Susan G Shawcross, Shankari Sothirachagan, Fiona Carley, Arun Brahma, Julian M Yates, M Chantal Hillarby
Purpose: The corneal epithelium is sloughed off surface of the eye by the action of blinking and is continually replaced by division and maturation of the limbal stem cells (LSCs). In the case of injury or disease, LSCs can be lost or damaged to a point at which the corneal epithelial layer is no longer maintained. leading to LSC deficiencies (LSCDs). When this occurs, the opaque conjunctiva overgrows the anterior surface of the eye, leading to vision impairment or loss. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are promising candidates as autologous LSC substitutes...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Silvia Pescina, Marina Sala, Cristina Padula, Maria Carmina Scala, Antonia Spensiero, Silvana Belletti, Rita Gatti, Ettore Novellino, Pietro Campiglia, Patrizia Santi, Sara Nicoli, Carmine Ostacolo
The role of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) has been challenged in recent years for drug delivery to ocular tissues for the targeting of both anterior and posterior segments. The enhancement of trans-corneal transport for anterior segment targeting is a very important issue possibly leading to important outcomes on efficacy and to the opportunity of topical administration of molecules with unfavorable penetration properties. The aim of the present work was the design and synthesis of new CPPs, deriving from the structure of PEP-1 peptide...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Katrin Wacker, Jay W McLaren, Katrina M Kane, Keith H Baratz, Sanjay V Patel
Purpose: To assess corneal hydration control across a range of severity of Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) by measuring the percent recovery per hour (PRPH) of central corneal thickness after swelling the cornea and to determine its association with corneal morphologic parameters. Methods: Twenty-three corneas of 23 phakic FECD patients and 8 corneas of 8 healthy control participants devoid of guttae were graded (modified Krachmer scale). Effective endothelial cell density (ECDe) was determined from the area of guttae and local cell density in confocal microscopy images...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ernesto Maddaloni, Francesco Sabatino
In vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM) is a novel, reproducible, easy and noninvasive technique that allows the study of the different layers of the cornea at a cellular level. As cornea is the most innervated organ of human body, several studies investigated the use of corneal confocal microscopy to detect diabetic neuropathies, which are invalidating and deadly complications of diabetes mellitus. Corneal nerve innervation has been shown impaired in subjects with diabetes and a close association between damages of peripheral nerves due to the diabetes and alterations in corneal sub-basal nerve plexus detected by IVCCM has been widely demonstrated...
September 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
Qihua Le, Yan Chen, Yujing Yang, Jianjiang Xu
BACKGROUND: To compare corneal epithelial thickness (CET) and limbal epithelial thickness (LET) measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and in vivo confocal microscope (IVCM) in normal subjects, and evaluate the consistency between them. METHODS: Thirty-eight normal subjects (17 men and 21 women) were enrolled in this study. AS-OCT was performed at central cornea and the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal limbus. Then followed by IVCM examination performed at the same location...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Pedram Hamrah, Yashar Seyed-Razavi, Takefumi Yamaguchi
Corneal immunoimaging and neuroimaging approaches facilitate in vivo analyses of the cornea, including high-resolution imaging of corneal immune cells and nerves. This approach facilitates the analyses of underlying immune and nerve alterations not detected by clinical slit-lamp examination alone. In this review, we describe recent work performed in our translational ocular immunology center with a focus on "bench-to-bedside" and "bedside-to-bench" research. The ability to visualize dendritiform immune cells (DCs) in patients with laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), recently discovered in the central murine cornea, has allowed us to demonstrate their utility as a potential surrogate biomarker for inflammatory ocular surface diseases...
November 2016: Cornea
Takaaki Hattori, Hiroki Takahashi, Reza Dana
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that normally play a critical role in stimulating T-cell-dependent immune responses. However, tolerogenic DCs (CD11cMHC-IICD80CD86) induce immune tolerance by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs: CD4CD25Foxp3). Although tolerogenic DCs are used to treat autoimmune diseases and to prevent transplantation rejection, the mechanisms by which they regulate alloimmunity are poorly understood. Here, we review our previous studies aiming to elucidate the mechanisms involved in immune rejection of corneal allografts using a corneal transplant model...
November 2016: Cornea
Takefumi Yamaguchi, Pedram Hamrah, Jun Shimazaki
This review summarizes the recent literature regarding corneal imaging in human subjects using in vivo confocal microscopy. It also covers the recent literature on corneal immune cells, nerves, and tear cytokine levels in ocular surface diseases as well as corneal immune privilege. The significance of interactions between corneal immune cells and nerves in health, neurotrophic keratopathy, and infectious keratitis is discussed. Furthermore, bilateral alterations of immune cells and nerves in clinically unilateral corneal diseases and the link to changes of tear cytokines or neuropeptide levels in contralateral eyes are described...
November 2016: Cornea
Edward Lum, Blanka Golebiowski, Helen A Swarbrick
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in corneal subbasal nerve fiber density and orientation during a 3-month orthokeratology (OK) lens wear period and their relationship with concurrent changes in corneal sensitivity. METHODS: Sixteen subjects wore overnight OK lenses for 90 days and were assessed at baseline, Day 30, and Day 90. Nerve images at the corneal apex and temporal mid-periphery were captured from the right eye only using in vivo confocal microscopy and analyzed to calculate nerve fiber density (NFD) and global nerve fiber orientation (GNFO)...
September 8, 2016: Ocular Surface
Ahmad Kheirkhah, Yureeda Qazi, Michael A Arnoldner, Kunal Suri, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To compare densities of corneal epithelial dendritic cells (DCs), corneal subbasal nerves, and conjunctival epithelial immune cells (EICs) between patients with dry eye disease (DED) with and without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: This study included 54 patients who had moderate to severe DED either associated with (n = 33) or without (n = 21) chronic GVHD. In addition to evaluating clinical parameters of DED, images obtained by laser-scanning IVCM of the central cornea and superior tarsal conjunctiva were analyzed to measure densities of corneal epithelial DCs, corneal subbasal nerves, and conjunctival EICs...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Janine Leckelt, Pedro Guimarães, Annett Kott, Alfredo Ruggeri, Oliver Stachs, Simone Baltrusch
Small fiber neuropathy is one of the most common and painful long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. Examination of the subbasal corneal nerve plexus is a promising surrogate marker of diabetic neuropathy. To investigate the efficacy, reliability and reproducibility of in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM), we used thy1-YFP mice, which express yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) in nerve fibers. Four weeks after multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin, thy1-YFP mice showed manifest diabetes...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Jianliang Liu, Juanjuan Sun, Yumei Diao, Aijun Deng
BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Wen-Ya Qiu, Li-Bin Zheng, Fei Pan, Bei-Bei Wang, Yu-Feng Yao
BACKGROUND: Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy (RBCD) was consistently reported as a corneal dystrophy only affected Bowman's layer and superficial corneal stroma, and superficial keratectomy was a recommendation surgery for treatment in literatures. The study reported new histopathological and ultrastructural findings in RBCD caused by the Arg124Leu mutation of transforming growth factor induced (TGFBI) gene in a four-generation Chinese pedigree. METHODS: Subjects including eight patients and seven unaffected family members received slit-lamp biomicroscopy and photography...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Shumoos Al-Fahdawi, Rami Qahwaji, Alaa S Al-Waisy, Stanley Ipson, Rayaz A Malik, Arun Brahma, Xin Chen
Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common types of diabetes that can affect the cornea. An accurate analysis of the nerve structures can assist the early diagnosis of this disease. This paper proposes a robust, fast and fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for corneal confocal microscope images. The segmentation part consists of three main steps. First, a preprocessing step is applied to enhance the visibility of the nerves and remove noise using anisotropic diffusion filtering, specifically a Coherence filter followed by Gaussian filtering...
October 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Atsushi Shiraishi, Xiaodong Zheng, Yuri Sakane, Yuko Hara, Yasuhito Hayashi
PURPOSE: To determine the morphological characteristics of the cornea in eyes with posterior corneal vesicles (PCV) determined by in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). In addition, to compare the morphological characteristics of the corneas of eyes with PCV to those of eyes with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD). METHODS: Three males and three females aged 17-75 years who were diagnosed with PCV by slit-lamp biomicroscopic findings were studied. The slit-lamp findings, specular microscopic images, corneal endothelial cell densities (CDs), central corneal thickness, and IVCM images were evaluated...
September 1, 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Bengi Demirayak, Nurşen Yüksel, Onur Sinan Çelik, Cansu Subaşı, Gökhan Duruksu, Z Seda Unal, Demir Kürşat Yıldız, Erdal Karaöz
In the present study, we investigate and compare the efficacy of bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) in corneal wound healing. A penetrating injury was created in the right corneas of Wistar rats (n = 40). Ten microliters of phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) containing 2 × 10(5) green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled bone-marrow-derived MSCs to group 1 (n = 15), 10 μl of PBS containing 2 × 10(5) GFP-labeled adipose-tissue-derived MSCs to group 2 (n = 15), 10 μl PBS was injected into anterior chamber in group 3 (n = 10, control)...
October 2016: Experimental Eye Research
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