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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133179/stage-related-central-corneal-epithelial-transformation-in-congenital-aniridia-associated-keratopathy
#1
Neil Lagali, Bogumil Wowra, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Tor Paaske Utheim, Per Fagerholm, Edward Wylegala
PURPOSE: To relate central corneal epithelial phenotype to degree of keratopathy in a limbal stem cell deficient population. METHODS: 37 patients (67 eyes) with aniridia-associated keratopathy (AAK) underwent corneal examination including slit lamp biomicroscopy to determine the Grade of AAK, Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry, and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) to assess morphology of the central corneal epithelium and subepithelial region. RESULTS: AAK Grade ranged from 1 (limbal involvement only) to 4 (total conjunctivalisation), with progression from Grade 1 occurring after the age of 20...
November 10, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129651/dendritic-cells-in-the-cornea-during-herpes-simplex-viral-infection-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Min S Kwon, Nicole A Carnt, Naomi R Truong, Ushasree Pattamatta, Andrew J White, Chameen Samarawickrama, Anthony L Cunningham
Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1), which primarily infects eyelids, corneas or conjunctiva. HSV-1- through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates pro-inflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with HSV is critical...
November 9, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127432/corneal-endothelial-cell-loss-3-years-after-successful-descemet-stripping-automated-endothelial-keratoplasty-in-the-cornea-preservation-time-study-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Jonathan H Lass, Beth Ann Benetz, David D Verdier, Loretta B Szczotka-Flynn, Allison R Ayala, Wendi Liang, Anthony J Aldave, Steven P Dunn, Tyrone McCall, Shahzad I Mian, Lisa C Navarro, Sanjay V Patel, Sudeep Pramanik, George O Rosenwasser, Kevin W Ross, Mark A Terry, Craig Kollman, Robin L Gal, Roy W Beck
Importance: Demonstrating that endothelial cell loss following Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) is independent of donor cornea preservation time (PT) could increase the pool of corneal tissue available for keratoplasty. Objective: To determine whether endothelial cell loss 3 years after successful DSAEK is related to PT. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial included 40 clinical sites (70 surgeons) in the United States, with donor corneas provided by 23 US eye banks...
November 10, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117318/lamin-cleavage-a-reliable-marker-for-studying-staurosporine-induced-apoptosis-in-corneal-tissue
#4
Siddharth Mahajan, Daniel Thieme, Marta Czugala, Friedrich E Kruse, Thomas A Fuchsluger
Purpose: The aims of this study were to identify a robust apoptosis marker suitable for both quantification and back-to-back analyses of programmed cell death and to define specific upstream targets for apoptosis in corneal cells. Methods: Apoptotic cleavage of initiator caspases and their downstream targets such as lamins and poly-ADP ribose polymerase was investigated in human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC-12), keratocytes (HCK), epithelial cells (HCEp), and full-thickness corneas using Western blotting and confocal microscopy following apoptosis induction with staurosporine...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109893/correlation-of-corneal-endothelial-cell-density-with-corneal-tomographic-parameters-in-eyes-with-keratoconus
#5
Banu Bozkurt, Mevlüt Yılmaz, Ali Meşen, Ümit Kamış, Bengü Ekinci Köktekir, Süleyman Okudan
Objectives: To examine changes in corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) in different stages of keratoconus and evaluate its correlation with corneal tomographic parameters. Materials and Methods: Two hundred six patients with keratoconus were enrolled in the study. Corneal topography was performed by Sirius (CSO, Italy), which has a rotating Scheimpflug camera and a Placido disc topographer. Automatic endothelial analysis was done with the non-contact endothelial microscope (20x probe) of Confoscan-4 (NIDEK, Japan)...
October 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102929/three-dimensional-laser-scanning-confocal-analysis-of-conjunctival-microcysts-in-glaucomatous-patients-before-and-after-trabeculectomy
#6
Silvio DI Staso, Luca Agnifili, Angela DI Gregorio, Hilary Climastone, Emilio Galassi, Vincenzo Fasanella, Marco Ciancaglini
BACKGROUND/AIM: In glaucoma, conjunctival epithelial microcysts (CEM) have been extensively investigated by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. In the present case series, we examined eight glaucomatous patients undergoing trabeculectomy to obtain a 3-dimensional (3-D) characterization of CEM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Image acquisition was performed in z-scan automatic volume mode by Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III/Rostock Cornea Module and a series of 40 images of 300×300 μm (384×384 pixels) to a maximum depth of 40 μm were acquired throughout the upper bulbar conjunctiva before (at the site planned for surgery) and eight weeks after trabeculectomy...
November 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101151/laser-scanning-in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-ivcm-for-evaluating-human-corneal-sub-basal-nerve-plexus-parameters-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#7
Manikkuwadura Eranda Harshan De Silva, Alexis Ceecee Zhang, Amalia Karahalios, Holly Rose Chinnery, Laura Elizabeth Downie
INTRODUCTION: Laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) enables non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the cornea. In recent years, there has been a vast increase in researchers using laser scanning IVCM to image and quantify corneal nerve parameters. However, a range of methodological approaches have been adopted. The primary aim of this systematic review is to critically appraise the reported method(s) of primary research studies that have used laser scanning IVCM to quantify corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) parameters in humans, and to examine corneal nerve parameters in healthy individuals...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095506/subacute-effects-of-rose-bengal-green-light-cross-linking-on-rabbit-thin-corneal-stability-and-safety
#8
Ti Wang, Lu Zhu, Jingyin Zhu, Yinbo Peng, Nianci Shen, Yan Yu, Min Yao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the subacute effects of Rose Bengal (RB) and 532 nm green light-induced photochemical crosslinking (RB-PCL) on rabbit thin corneal stability and safety in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabbit thin corneal models with 250 μm thickness were created by photorefractive keratectomy surgery. Photochemical crosslinking with green light (wavelength 532 nm) at an illumination intensity of 0.4 W/cm(2) for 250 s (100 J/cm(2) ) was performed, followed by antibiotic treatment and slit lamp monitoring for four weeks...
November 2, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082447/impact-of-herpetic-stromal-immune-keratitis-in-corneal-biomechanics-and-innervation
#9
Manuel Ángel Marcos-Fernández, Sara Sánchez Tabernero, Jose María Herreras, David José Galarreta
PURPOSE: To study corneal innervation in eyes with history of herpetic keratitis and its correlation with corneal sensitivity and biomechanical properties. METHODS: A total of 56 eyes were included, of which 16 had a history of unilateral immune stromal herpetic keratitis, 16 were their contralateral eyes, and 20 were healthy controls. Structural analysis of corneal nerve plexus was performed by confocal microscopy. Biomechanical properties were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer...
October 29, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077583/phenotypic-characterization-of-corneal-endothelial-dystrophy-in-german-shorthaired-and-wirehaired-pointers-using-in-vivo-advanced-corneal-imaging-and-histopathology
#10
Olivia R Shull, Christopher M Reilly, Lola B Davis, Christopher J Murphy, Sara M Thomasy
PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal morphology using ultrasonic pachymetry (USP), Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in 2 related canine breeds-German shorthaired pointers (GSHPs) and German wirehaired pointers (GWHPs)-with and without corneal endothelial dystrophy (CED). This condition is characterized by premature endothelial cell degeneration leading to concomitant corneal edema and is similar to Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy...
October 25, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066264/a-pilot-study-on-corneal-langerhans-cells-in-keratoconus
#11
Preeji S Mandathara, Fiona J Stapleton, Jim Kokkinakis, Mark D P Willcox
PURPOSE: To report the density and morphology of cells that are analogous to corneal Langerhans cells and their associations in keratoconus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included a convenience sample of keratoconus subjects aged between 18-65 years. Corneal topography, assessment of ocular symptoms, tear variables, corneal sensitivity, in-vivo confocal microscopy were performed. The number of Langerhans cells were manually counted and averaged across three central corneal images...
October 21, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062042/contributions-of-myd88-dependent-receptors-and-cd11c-positive-cells-to-corneal-epithelial-barrier-function-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Matteo M E Metruccio, Connie Tam, David J Evans, Anna L Xie, Michael E Stern, Suzanne M J Fleiszig
Previously we reported that corneal epithelial barrier function against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was MyD88-dependent. Here, we explored contributions of MyD88-dependent receptors using vital mouse eyes and confocal imaging. Uninjured IL-1R (-/-) or TLR4 (-/-) corneas, but not TLR2 (-/-), TLR5 (-/-), TLR7 (-/-), or TLR9 (-/-), were more susceptible to P. aeruginosa adhesion than wild-type (3.8-fold, 3.6-fold respectively). Bacteria adherent to the corneas of IL-1R (-/-) or TLR5 (-/-) mice penetrated beyond the epithelial surface only if the cornea was superficially-injured...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060143/noninvasive-evaluation-of-corneal-viscoelasticity-based-on-displacement-in-response-to-acoustic-radiation-force
#13
Zhen Lv, Qing-Min Wang, Fu-Long Liu, Peng-Peng Zhang, Xue-Hua Gao, Yanrong Guo, Xin-Yu Zhang
Noninvasive assessment of corneal mechanical properties in vivo will help to the understanding of the pathogenesis and early diagnosis of ectatic corneal disorders. This study presented a noninvasive method that assesses the corneal biomechanical properties by exciting the cornea with acoustic radiation force and monitoring its displacement using a dual-frequency confocal transducer. A 3.85-MHz pushing element was used to induce localized tissue displacement, and the displacement was detected by the 12.8-MHz detecting elements using pulse-echo methods...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053558/in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-reveals-corneal-reinnervation-after-treatment-of-neurotrophic-keratopathy-with-corneal-neurotization
#14
Simon S M Fung, Joseph Catapano, Uri Elbaz, Ronald M Zuker, Gregory H Borschel, Asim Ali
PURPOSE: To document the presence and location of new sensory nerve fibers after corneal neurotization using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in 2 patients with neurotrophic keratopathy (NK). METHODS: Two patients with unilateral advanced NK received corneal neurotization to surgically reinnervate the cornea. IVCM was used to identify subbasal nerve fibers and document corneal reinnervation. In 1 patient (case 1), IVCM was performed before and after corneal neurotization; in the second patient (case 2), IVCM was performed after neurotization and corneal transplantation...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016406/visualization-of-immune-responses-in-the-cornea
#15
Victor L Perez
The eye has become a useful site for the investigation and understanding of local and systemic immune responses. The ease of access and transparency of the cornea permits direct visualization of ocular structures, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels, allowing for the tracking of normal and pathological biological processes in real time. As a window to the immune system, we have used the eye to dissect the mechanisms of corneal inflammatory reactions that include innate and adaptive immune responses. We have identified that the ocular microenvironment regulates these immune responses by recruiting different populations of inflammatory cells to the cornea through local production of selected chemokines...
November 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991851/quantitative-analysis-of-endothelial-cell-loss-in-preloaded-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-grafts
#16
Meraf A Wolle, David L DeMill, Lauren Johnson, Stephen I Lentz, Maria A Woodward, Shahzad I Mian
PURPOSE: Availability of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (pDMEK) tissue may increase acceptance of DMEK in surgical management of endothelial disease. The goal of this study was to determine the safety of pDMEK grafts for 24 hours before surgery by analyzing endothelial cell loss (ECL) using 2 image analysis software programs. METHODS: A total of 18 cadaveric corneas were prepared for DMEK using a standardized technique and loaded in a modified Jones tube injector...
November 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990996/subbasal-nerve-plexus-changes-in-chronic-migraine
#17
Rohit Shetty, Rashmi Deshmukh, Rushad Shroff, Charmy Dedhiya, Chaitra Jayadev
PURPOSE: Migraine is a multifactorial disorder that presents with unilateral headache and several sensory symptoms. Photophobia is one of the ophthalmic manifestations that cause significant morbidity. The trigeminal pathway that innervates the cornea in the form of afferents has been implicated in photophobia associated with chronic migraine. This study investigates changes in the corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SBNP) in chronic migraine patients with and without photophobia. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with migraine and photophobia (group 1), 24 patients with migraine without photophobia (group 2), and 24 age- and sex-matched controls (group 3) were studied...
October 5, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990988/case-report-in-vivo-confocal-microscopic-appearance-of-corneal-argyrosis
#18
Mengliang Wu, Xiaochun Wang, Tingting Shao, Yan Wang
SIGNIFICANCE: This report details the natural history of corneal argyrosis over 3 years using in vivo confocal microscopy to document regression of hyperreflective deposits, as well as effects on corneal nerves and endothelial cell morphology. PURPOSE: To report the in vivo confocal microscopic features and clinical characteristics of a case of bilateral corneal argyrosis. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old man referred to us 3 months following cautery of the palpebral conjunctiva of both eyes with a silver nitrate stick was observed over the course of 3 years, during which slit-lamp photography and in vivo confocal microscopy were performed...
November 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985226/scaling-and-maintenance-of-corneal-thickness-during-aging
#19
Takenori Inomata, Alireza Mashaghi, Jiaxu Hong, Takeshi Nakao, Reza Dana
Corneal thickness is tightly regulated by its boundary endothelial and epithelial layers. The regulated set-point of corneal thickness likely shows inter-individual variations, changes by age, and response to stress. Using anterior segment-optical coherence tomography, we measure murine central corneal thickness and report on body size scaling of murine central corneal thickness during aging. For aged-matched mice, we find that corneal thickness depends on sex and strain. To shed mechanistic insights into these anatomical changes, we measure epithelial layer integrity and endothelial cell density during the life span of the mice using corneal fluorescein staining and in vivo confocal microscopy, respectively and compare their trends with that of the corneal thickness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966630/neurotrophic-factors-and-corneal-nerve-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Marta Sacchetti, Alessandro Lambiase
The cornea has unique features that make it a useful model for regenerative medicine studies. It is an avascular, transparent, densely innervated tissue and any pathological changes can be easily detected by slit lamp examination. Corneal sensitivity is provided by the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve that elicits protective reflexes such as blinking and tearing and exerts trophic support by releasing neuromediators and growth factors. Corneal nerves are easily evaluated for both function and morphology using standard instruments such as corneal esthesiometer and in vivo confocal microscope...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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