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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894373/cognitive-effects-of-adjunctive-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-psychosis
#1
M Rapado-Castro, S Dodd, A I Bush, G S Malhi, D R Skvarc, Z X On, M Berk, O M Dean
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are predictors of functional outcome in patients with psychosis. While conventional antipsychotics are relatively effective on positive symptoms, their impact on negative and cognitive symptoms is limited. Recent studies have established a link between oxidative stress and neurocognitive deficits in psychosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor with glutamatergic properties, has shown efficacy on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812248/n-acetylcysteine-attenuates-nicotine-induced-kindling-in-female-periadolescent-rats
#2
Adriana Mary Nunes Costa Okamura, Patrícia Xavier L Gomes, Gersilene V de Oliveira, Fernanda Yvelize R de Araújo, Viviane S Tomaz, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Francisca Cléa F de Sousa, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas de Lucena, Danielle Macêdo
Kindling is a form of behavioral sensitization that is related to the progression of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder. We recently demonstrated that female periadolescent rats are more vulnerable to nicotine (NIC)-induced kindling than their male counterparts. Furthermore, we evidenced that decreases in brain antioxidative defenses may contribute to this gender difference. Here we aimed to determine the preventive effects of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against NIC-kindling in female periadolescent rats...
June 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26035204/effects-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-on-suicidal-ideation-in-bipolar-depression
#3
LETTER
Astrid Waterdrinker, Michael Berk, Kamalesh Venugopal, Marta Rapado-Castro, Alyna Turner, Olivia M Dean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25553408/taking-the-fuel-out-of-the-fire-evidence-for-the-use-of-anti-inflammatory-agents-in-the-treatment-of-bipolar-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Ziada Ayorech, Derek K Tracy, David Baumeister, Giovanni Giaroli
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has emerged as a potentially important factor - and thus putative pharmacological target - in the pathology of bipolar disorders. However to date no systematic evaluations of the efficacy of add on anti-inflammatory treatment for the depressive and manic episodes have been carried out. METHODS: Sixteen articles were ultimately identified - by computer searches of databases (including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE), supplemented by hand searches and personal communication - as meeting study inclusion criteria...
March 15, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25334111/severe-rhabdomyolysis-induced-electrolyte-abnormalities-mimicking-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#5
Ruchir Patel, Nena Auraha, Herman Dyal, Juan Fernandez, Waheeda Nazneen
Cardiovascular Student/Resident Case Report Posters ISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by expulsion of intracellular contents of striated muscle following direct insult to sarcoplasmic reticulum or exhaustion of myocyte ATP. This in turn causes electrolyte abnormalities including hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia which can produce EKG changes that rarely mimic an ST elevation myocardial infarction...
October 1, 2014: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24904757/treatment-of-gambling-disorders
#6
Sarah W Yip, Marc N Potenza
Preclinical and clinical research implicate several neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of gambling disorder (GD). In particular, neurobiological research suggests alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic functioning. The relative efficacy of medications targeting these systems remains a topic of ongoing research, and there is currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication with an indication for GD. Considering co-occurring disorders may be particularly important when devising a treatment plan for GD: extant data suggest that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may by the most effective form of current pharmacotherapy for GD, particularly for individuals with a co-occurring substance-use disorder (SUD) or with a family history of alcoholism...
June 1, 2014: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24451491/photocontrol-of-the-mitotic-kinesin-eg5-using-a-novel-s-trityl-l-cysteine-analogue-as-a-photochromic-inhibitor
#7
Kumiko Ishikawa, Kanako Tohyama, Shinya Mitsuhashi, Shinsaku Maruta
Because the mitotic kinesin Eg5 is essential for the formation of bipolar spindles during eukaryotic cell division, it has been considered as a potential target for cancer treatment. A number of specific and potent inhibitors of Eg5 are known. S-trityl-L-cysteine is one of the inhibitors of Eg5 whose molecular mechanism of inhibition was well studied. The trityl group of S-trityl-L-cysteine was shown to be a key moiety required for potent inhibition. In this study, we synthesized a novel photochromic S-trityl-L-cysteine analogue, 4-(N-(2-(N-acetylcysteine-S-yl) acetyl) amino)-4'- (N-(2-(N-(triphenylmethyl)amino)acetyl)amino)azobenzene (ACTAB), composed of a trityl group, azobenzene and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which exhibits cis-trans photoisomerization in order to photocontrol the function of Eg5...
April 2014: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24334276/photocontrol-of-mitotic-kinesin-eg5-facilitated-by-thiol-reactive-photochromic-molecules-incorporated-into-the-loop-l5-functional-loop
#8
Kumiko Ishikawa, Yuhki Tamura, Shinsaku Maruta
Kinesin Eg5 is a plus-end-directed microtubule-based motor that is essential for bipolar spindle formation during eukaryotic cell division. Loop L5 of mitotic kinesin Eg5 is a key region determining ATPase activity and motor function. Photochromic molecules undergo reversible isomerization in response to ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. We introduced three kinds of photochromic molecules, 4-phenylazomaleinanil (PAM), 4-(N-(2-iodoacetyl)amino)-4'-(N-(2-(N-(triphenylmethyl)amino)acetyl)amino)azobenzene (IATAB) and 3,3-dimethyl-1-(2-(2-iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-3H-1,2-dihydroindole-2-spiro-2'-(2H)-6'-nitrochromene (IASP) into L5 to control the Eg5 ATPase activity using light irradiation...
March 2014: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23493756/a-preliminary-investigation-on-the-efficacy-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-for-mania-or-hypomania
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Olivia M Dean, Ashley I Bush, David L Copolov, Gin S Malhi, Kristy Kohlmann, Susan Jeavons, Ian Schapkaitz, Murray Anderson-Hunt, Michael Berk
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative imbalance has emerged as a treatment target in bipolar disorder. As very limited data are available on the clinical use of antioxidants for mania, we report here results from a post hoc and exploratory subgroup analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). METHODS: This was a placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial assessing the effect of NAC over 24 weeks in mania or hypomania. Symptomatic and functional outcomes were collected over the study period...
June 2013: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23066769/effects-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-on-cognitive-function-in-bipolar-disorder
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Olivia M Dean, Ashley I Bush, David L Copolov, Kristy Kohlmann, Susan Jeavons, Ian Schapkaitz, Murray Anderson-Hunt, Michael Berk
AIMS: Bipolar disorder is characterized by progressive changes in cognition with declines in executive functioning, memory and sustained attention. Current pharmacotherapies for bipolar disorder target mood symptoms but have not addressed these cognitive changes resulting in euthymic individuals who still experience cognitive deficits. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has been shown to have effects on antioxidant status, glutamate transmission, inflammation and neurogenesis. Adjunctive treatment with NAC improves the symptoms experienced by those with bipolar disorder, particularly depression, and it was hypothesized that cognition may also be improved following NAC treatment...
October 2012: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22891797/maintenance-n-acetyl-cysteine-treatment-for-bipolar-disorder-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michael Berk, Olivia M Dean, Sue M Cotton, Clarissa S Gama, Flavio Kapczinski, Brisa Fernandes, Kristy Kohlmann, Susan Jeavons, Karen Hewitt, Kirsteen Moss, Christine Allwang, Ian Schapkaitz, Heidi Cobb, Ashley I Bush, Seetal Dodd, Gin S Malhi
BACKGROUND: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a glutathione precursor that has been shown to have antidepressant efficacy in a placebo-controlled trial. The current study aimed to investigate the maintenance effects of NAC following eight weeks of open-label treatment for bipolar disorder. METHOD: The efficacy of a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial of 2 g/day NAC as adjunct maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder was examined. Participants (n = 149) had a Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Score of ≥12 at trial entry and, after eight weeks of open-label NAC treatment, were randomized to adjunctive NAC or placebo, in addition to treatment as usual...
2012: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22711881/mitochondrial-modulators-for-bipolar-disorder-a-pathophysiologically-informed-paradigm-for-new-drug-development
#12
REVIEW
Andrew A Nierenberg, Christine Kansky, Brian P Brennan, Richard C Shelton, Roy Perlis, Dan V Iosifescu
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar patients frequently relapse within 12 months of their previous mood episode, even in the context of adequate treatment, suggesting that better continuation and maintenance treatments are needed. Based on recent research of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, we review the evidence for mitochondrial dysregulation and selected mitochondrial modulators (MM) as potential treatments. METHODS: We reviewed the literature about mitochondrial dysfunction and potential MMs worthy of study that could improve the course of bipolar disorder, reduce subsyndromal symptoms, and prevent subsequent mood episodes...
January 2013: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22212173/systemic-illness-moderates-the-impact-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
P V Magalhães, O M Dean, A I Bush, D L Copolov, D Weisinger, G S Malhi, K Kohlmann, S Jeavons, I Schapkaitz, M Anderson-Hunt, M Berk
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is intricately associated with chronic clinical conditions. Medical comorbidity is not only more prevalent in mood disorders, but is associated with increased costs, cognitive impairment and, ultimately, premature mortality. Oxidative stress and inflammation may mediate part of this association. To further investigate the association between medical comorbidity status and clinical improvement with adjuvant N acetyl cysteine (NAC) in the context of a placebo-controlled trial...
April 27, 2012: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22017215/adjunctive-nutraceuticals-with-standard-pharmacotherapies-in-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials
#14
REVIEW
Jerome Sarris, David Mischoulon, Isaac Schweitzer
OBJECTIVE:   Studies using augmentation of pharmacotherapies with nutraceuticals in bipolar disorder (BD) have been conducted and preliminary evidence in many cases appears positive. To date, however, no specialized systematic review of this area has been conducted. We present the first systematic review of clinical trials using nutrient-based nutraceuticals in combination with standard pharmacotherapies to treat BD. A subsequent aim of this report was to discuss posited underlying mechanisms of action...
August 2011: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21976360/disturbance-of-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-induces-atypical-tubulin-polymer-formation-and-affects-mitosis-in-root-tip-cells-of-triticum-turgidum-and-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Pantelis Livanos, Basil Galatis, Hartmut Quader, Panagiotis Apostolakos
In this study, the effects of disturbance of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis on the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton in interphase and mitotic root-tip cells of Triticum turgidum and Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated. Reduced ROS levels were obtained by treatment with diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and N-acetyl-cysteine, whereas menadione was applied to achieve ROS overproduction. Both increased and low ROS levels induced: (a) Macrotubule formation in cells with low ROS levels and tubulin paracrystals under oxidative stress...
January 2012: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21621586/n-acetyl-cysteine-restores-brain-glutathione-loss-in-combined-2-cyclohexene-1-one-and-d-amphetamine-treated-rats-relevance-to-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#16
Olivia M Dean, Maarten van den Buuse, Michael Berk, David L Copolov, Christine Mavros, Ashley I Bush
Oxidative stress and reduced brain levels of glutathione have been implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of glutathione and has additional effects on glutamate neurotransmission, neurogenesis and inflammation. While NAC treatment has shown benefits in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Similarly, the interaction between oxidative stress and altered dopaminergic activities in psychiatric illness is not yet characterized...
July 25, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21311702/getting-a-knack-for-nac-n-acetyl-cysteine
#17
Randy A Sansone, Lori A Sansone
N-acetyl-cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl cysteine, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine are all designations for the same compound, which is abbreviated as NAC. NAC is a precursor to the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately plays two key metabolic roles. Through its metabolic contribution to glutathione production, cysteine participates in the general antioxidant activities of the body. Through its role as a modulator of the glutamatergic system, cysteine influences the reward-reinforcement pathway. Because of these functions, NAC may exert a therapeutic effect on psychiatric disorders allegedly related to oxidative stress (e...
January 2011: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20868666/effects-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-treatment-on-glutathione-depletion-and-a-short-term-spatial-memory-deficit-in-2-cyclohexene-1-one-treated-rats
#18
Kwok Ho Christopher Choy, Olivia Dean, Michael Berk, Ashley I Bush, Maarten van den Buuse
Glutathione (GSH) is the primary antioxidant in the body and is present in high levels in the brain. Levels of GSH and other antioxidants are significantly altered in major psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that chronic treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor, improved symptoms in individuals with this illness. We previously showed in rats and mice that depletion of GSH by treatment with 2-cyclohexene-1-one (CHX) induced short-term spatial memory deficits in the Y-maze test...
December 15, 2010: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20800897/n-acetyl-cysteine-add-on-treatment-for-bipolar-ii-disorder-a-subgroup-analysis-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
P V Magalhães, O M Dean, A I Bush, D L Copolov, G S Malhi, K Kohlmann, S Jeavons, I Schapkaitz, M Anderson-Hunt, M Berk
BACKGROUND: The evidence base for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar II disorder is limited. In bipolar disorder, there is evidence for glutathione depletion and increased oxidative stress, as well as dysregulation of glutamate; N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has effects on both of these systems. Add-on NAC has been shown to have a significant benefit on depressive symptoms in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. In this report, we explore the effects of this compound in a subset of patients with bipolar II disorder from that trial...
March 2011: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19773711/nail-biting-stuff-the-effect-of-n-acetyl-cysteine-on-nail-biting
#20
Michael Berk, Sue Jeavons, Olivia M Dean, Seetal Dodd, Kirsteen Moss, Clarissa S Gama, Gin S Malhi
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a widely available nutraceutical with a variety of actions. As a precursor of cysteine and glutathione, it has antioxidant properties that may impact on mood and contribute to an effect on impulsivity and obsessive behaviour. Via its additional effect on glutamate via the cystine-glutamate exchange system, NAC has been shown to mediate impulsivity in preclinical models of addiction, reduce craving, and cue extinction. Further, by boosting glutathione, NAC acts as a potent antioxidant and has been shown in two positive, large-scale randomized placebo-controlled trials to affect negative symptoms in schizophrenia and depression in bipolar disorder...
July 2009: CNS Spectrums
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