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N-acetyl-cysteine bipolar

Wolfgang Marx, Genevieve Moseley, Michael Berk, Felice Jacka
Mental illness, including depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder, accounts for a significant proportion of global disability and poses a substantial social, economic and heath burden. Treatment is presently dominated by pharmacotherapy, such as antidepressants, and psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy; however, such treatments avert less than half of the disease burden, suggesting that additional strategies are needed to prevent and treat mental disorders. There are now consistent mechanistic, observational and interventional data to suggest diet quality may be a modifiable risk factor for mental illness...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
José Capece, Federico Pavlovsky
Identifying compulsive consumption of marijuana in association with another mental disorder (attentional defcit disorder, bipolar disorder, depression or psychosis) presents the challenge of clarifying validated therapeutic strategies, especially within the teen population, in which it shows the highest prevalence. The ever-increasing prevalence and the need for regional treatments, demand that we approach this health matter as a public health issue. The ideological con?icts related to the necessary decriminalization of consumption and the current debate on the medical use of marijuana often confuse the urgent need to establish effective therapeutic strategies for the population affected by this mental disorder...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Jerome Sarris
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to detail a summary of the current evidence in this area, to better inform clinical practice. Our recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses of nutrient pharmacotherapies in the treatment unipolar depression revealed primarily positive results for replicated studies testing S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe), methylfolate, omega-3 (EPA or ethyl-EPA), and Vitamin D; with supportive isolated studies found for creatine and an amino acid combination. Mixed results were found for zinc, folic acid, Vitamin C, and tryptophan; and non-significant study results for inositol...
August 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
M Rapado-Castro, S Dodd, A I Bush, G S Malhi, D R Skvarc, Z X On, M Berk, O M Dean
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are predictors of functional outcome in patients with psychosis. While conventional antipsychotics are relatively effective on positive symptoms, their impact on negative and cognitive symptoms is limited. Recent studies have established a link between oxidative stress and neurocognitive deficits in psychosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor with glutamatergic properties, has shown efficacy on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively...
April 2017: Psychological Medicine
Adriana Mary Nunes Costa Okamura, Patrícia Xavier L Gomes, Gersilene V de Oliveira, Fernanda Yvelize R de Araújo, Viviane S Tomaz, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Francisca Cléa F de Sousa, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas de Lucena, Danielle Macêdo
Kindling is a form of behavioral sensitization that is related to the progression of several neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder. We recently demonstrated that female periadolescent rats are more vulnerable to nicotine (NIC)-induced kindling than their male counterparts. Furthermore, we evidenced that decreases in brain antioxidative defenses may contribute to this gender difference. Here we aimed to determine the preventive effects of the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) against NIC-kindling in female periadolescent rats...
June 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Astrid Waterdrinker, Michael Berk, Kamalesh Venugopal, Marta Rapado-Castro, Alyna Turner, Olivia M Dean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Ziada Ayorech, Derek K Tracy, David Baumeister, Giovanni Giaroli
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has emerged as a potentially important factor - and thus putative pharmacological target - in the pathology of bipolar disorders. However to date no systematic evaluations of the efficacy of add on anti-inflammatory treatment for the depressive and manic episodes have been carried out. METHODS: Sixteen articles were ultimately identified - by computer searches of databases (including PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE), supplemented by hand searches and personal communication - as meeting study inclusion criteria...
March 15, 2015: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ruchir Patel, Nena Auraha, Herman Dyal, Juan Fernandez, Waheeda Nazneen
Cardiovascular Student/Resident Case Report Posters ISESSION TYPE: Medical Student/Resident Case ReportPRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 28, 2014 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PMINTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by expulsion of intracellular contents of striated muscle following direct insult to sarcoplasmic reticulum or exhaustion of myocyte ATP. This in turn causes electrolyte abnormalities including hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia which can produce EKG changes that rarely mimic an ST elevation myocardial infarction...
October 1, 2014: Chest
Sarah W Yip, Marc N Potenza
Preclinical and clinical research implicate several neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of gambling disorder (GD). In particular, neurobiological research suggests alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic functioning. The relative efficacy of medications targeting these systems remains a topic of ongoing research, and there is currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication with an indication for GD. Considering co-occurring disorders may be particularly important when devising a treatment plan for GD: extant data suggest that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may by the most effective form of current pharmacotherapy for GD, particularly for individuals with a co-occurring substance-use disorder (SUD) or with a family history of alcoholism...
June 1, 2014: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Kumiko Ishikawa, Kanako Tohyama, Shinya Mitsuhashi, Shinsaku Maruta
Because the mitotic kinesin Eg5 is essential for the formation of bipolar spindles during eukaryotic cell division, it has been considered as a potential target for cancer treatment. A number of specific and potent inhibitors of Eg5 are known. S-trityl-L-cysteine is one of the inhibitors of Eg5 whose molecular mechanism of inhibition was well studied. The trityl group of S-trityl-L-cysteine was shown to be a key moiety required for potent inhibition. In this study, we synthesized a novel photochromic S-trityl-L-cysteine analogue, 4-(N-(2-(N-acetylcysteine-S-yl) acetyl) amino)-4'- (N-(2-(N-(triphenylmethyl)amino)acetyl)amino)azobenzene (ACTAB), composed of a trityl group, azobenzene and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which exhibits cis-trans photoisomerization in order to photocontrol the function of Eg5...
April 2014: Journal of Biochemistry
Kumiko Ishikawa, Yuhki Tamura, Shinsaku Maruta
Kinesin Eg5 is a plus-end-directed microtubule-based motor that is essential for bipolar spindle formation during eukaryotic cell division. Loop L5 of mitotic kinesin Eg5 is a key region determining ATPase activity and motor function. Photochromic molecules undergo reversible isomerization in response to ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. We introduced three kinds of photochromic molecules, 4-phenylazomaleinanil (PAM), 4-(N-(2-iodoacetyl)amino)-4'-(N-(2-(N-(triphenylmethyl)amino)acetyl)amino)azobenzene (IATAB) and 3,3-dimethyl-1-(2-(2-iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-3H-1,2-dihydroindole-2-spiro-2'-(2H)-6'-nitrochromene (IASP) into L5 to control the Eg5 ATPase activity using light irradiation...
March 2014: Journal of Biochemistry
Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Olivia M Dean, Ashley I Bush, David L Copolov, Gin S Malhi, Kristy Kohlmann, Susan Jeavons, Ian Schapkaitz, Murray Anderson-Hunt, Michael Berk
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative imbalance has emerged as a treatment target in bipolar disorder. As very limited data are available on the clinical use of antioxidants for mania, we report here results from a post hoc and exploratory subgroup analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). METHODS: This was a placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial assessing the effect of NAC over 24 weeks in mania or hypomania. Symptomatic and functional outcomes were collected over the study period...
June 2013: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Olivia M Dean, Ashley I Bush, David L Copolov, Kristy Kohlmann, Susan Jeavons, Ian Schapkaitz, Murray Anderson-Hunt, Michael Berk
AIMS: Bipolar disorder is characterized by progressive changes in cognition with declines in executive functioning, memory and sustained attention. Current pharmacotherapies for bipolar disorder target mood symptoms but have not addressed these cognitive changes resulting in euthymic individuals who still experience cognitive deficits. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has been shown to have effects on antioxidant status, glutamate transmission, inflammation and neurogenesis. Adjunctive treatment with NAC improves the symptoms experienced by those with bipolar disorder, particularly depression, and it was hypothesized that cognition may also be improved following NAC treatment...
October 2012: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Michael Berk, Olivia M Dean, Sue M Cotton, Clarissa S Gama, Flavio Kapczinski, Brisa Fernandes, Kristy Kohlmann, Susan Jeavons, Karen Hewitt, Kirsteen Moss, Christine Allwang, Ian Schapkaitz, Heidi Cobb, Ashley I Bush, Seetal Dodd, Gin S Malhi
BACKGROUND: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a glutathione precursor that has been shown to have antidepressant efficacy in a placebo-controlled trial. The current study aimed to investigate the maintenance effects of NAC following eight weeks of open-label treatment for bipolar disorder. METHOD: The efficacy of a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial of 2 g/day NAC as adjunct maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder was examined. Participants (n = 149) had a Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Score of ≥12 at trial entry and, after eight weeks of open-label NAC treatment, were randomized to adjunctive NAC or placebo, in addition to treatment as usual...
2012: BMC Medicine
Andrew A Nierenberg, Christine Kansky, Brian P Brennan, Richard C Shelton, Roy Perlis, Dan V Iosifescu
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar patients frequently relapse within 12 months of their previous mood episode, even in the context of adequate treatment, suggesting that better continuation and maintenance treatments are needed. Based on recent research of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, we review the evidence for mitochondrial dysregulation and selected mitochondrial modulators (MM) as potential treatments. METHODS: We reviewed the literature about mitochondrial dysfunction and potential MMs worthy of study that could improve the course of bipolar disorder, reduce subsyndromal symptoms, and prevent subsequent mood episodes...
January 2013: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
P V Magalhães, O M Dean, A I Bush, D L Copolov, D Weisinger, G S Malhi, K Kohlmann, S Jeavons, I Schapkaitz, M Anderson-Hunt, M Berk
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is intricately associated with chronic clinical conditions. Medical comorbidity is not only more prevalent in mood disorders, but is associated with increased costs, cognitive impairment and, ultimately, premature mortality. Oxidative stress and inflammation may mediate part of this association. To further investigate the association between medical comorbidity status and clinical improvement with adjuvant N acetyl cysteine (NAC) in the context of a placebo-controlled trial...
April 27, 2012: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Jerome Sarris, David Mischoulon, Isaac Schweitzer
OBJECTIVE:   Studies using augmentation of pharmacotherapies with nutraceuticals in bipolar disorder (BD) have been conducted and preliminary evidence in many cases appears positive. To date, however, no specialized systematic review of this area has been conducted. We present the first systematic review of clinical trials using nutrient-based nutraceuticals in combination with standard pharmacotherapies to treat BD. A subsequent aim of this report was to discuss posited underlying mechanisms of action...
August 2011: Bipolar Disorders
Pantelis Livanos, Basil Galatis, Hartmut Quader, Panagiotis Apostolakos
In this study, the effects of disturbance of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis on the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton in interphase and mitotic root-tip cells of Triticum turgidum and Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated. Reduced ROS levels were obtained by treatment with diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and N-acetyl-cysteine, whereas menadione was applied to achieve ROS overproduction. Both increased and low ROS levels induced: (a) Macrotubule formation in cells with low ROS levels and tubulin paracrystals under oxidative stress...
January 2012: Cytoskeleton
Olivia M Dean, Maarten van den Buuse, Michael Berk, David L Copolov, Christine Mavros, Ashley I Bush
Oxidative stress and reduced brain levels of glutathione have been implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of glutathione and has additional effects on glutamate neurotransmission, neurogenesis and inflammation. While NAC treatment has shown benefits in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Similarly, the interaction between oxidative stress and altered dopaminergic activities in psychiatric illness is not yet characterized...
July 25, 2011: Neuroscience Letters
Randy A Sansone, Lori A Sansone
N-acetyl-cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, N-acetyl cysteine, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine are all designations for the same compound, which is abbreviated as NAC. NAC is a precursor to the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately plays two key metabolic roles. Through its metabolic contribution to glutathione production, cysteine participates in the general antioxidant activities of the body. Through its role as a modulator of the glutamatergic system, cysteine influences the reward-reinforcement pathway. Because of these functions, NAC may exert a therapeutic effect on psychiatric disorders allegedly related to oxidative stress (e...
January 2011: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
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