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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023767/do-they-stay-or-do-they-go-acoustic-monitoring-of-whale-sharks-at-ningaloo-marine-park-western-australia
#1
B M Norman, J M Whitty, S J Beatty, S D Reynolds, D L Morgan
Whale sharks Rhincodon typus were monitored via acoustic transmitters at the northern end of Western Australia's Ningaloo Marine Park to establish the extent to which the species inhabits the region beyond the whale-shark ecotourism industry season, which usually extends from March to August in each year. Despite the vast majority (c. 98%) of photographic submissions of R. typus from Ningaloo Reef being between March and August, acoustic detections from the tagged R. typus at Ningaloo were recorded in all months of the year, but do not preclude the occurrence of extended absences...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989750/feeding-the-world-s-largest-fish-highly-variable-whale-shark-residency-patterns-at-a-provisioning-site-in-the-philippines
#2
Jordan A Thomson, Gonzalo Araujo, Jessica Labaja, Emer McCoy, Ryan Murray, Alessandro Ponzo
Provisioning wildlife for tourism is a controversial yet widespread practice. We analysed the residency patterns of juvenile whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in Oslob, Philippines, where provisioning has facilitated a large shark-watching operation since 2011. We identified 208 individual sharks over three years, with an average of 18.6 (s.d. = 7.8, range = 6-43) individuals sighted per week. Weekly shark abundance varied seasonally and peak-season abundance (approx. May-November) increased across years...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946861/erratum-to-draft-sequencing-and-assembly-of-the-genome-of-the-world-s-largest-fish-the-whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-smith-1828
#3
Timothy D Read, Robert A Petit, Sandeep J Joseph, Tauqeer Alam, M Ryan Weil, Maida Ahmad, Ravila Bhimani, Jocelyn S Vuong, Chad P Haase, D Harry Webb, Milton Tan, Alistair D M Dove
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934371/some-like-it-hot-repeat-migration-and-residency-of-whale-sharks-within-an-extreme-natural-environment
#4
David P Robinson, Mohammed Y Jaidah, Steffen S Bach, Christoph A Rohner, Rima W Jabado, Rupert Ormond, Simon J Pierce
The Arabian Gulf is the warmest sea in the world and is host to a globally significant population of the whale shark Rhincodon typus. To investigate regional whale shark behaviour and movements, 59 satellite-linked tags were deployed on whale sharks in the Al Shaheen area off Qatar from 2011-14. Four different models of tag were used throughout the study, each model able to collect differing data or quantities of data. Retention varied from one to 227 days. While all tagged sharks crossed international maritime boundaries, they typically stayed within the Arabian Gulf...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882212/diet-composition-and-trophic-ecology-of-northeast-pacific-ocean-sharks
#5
Joseph J Bizzarro, Aaron B Carlisle, Wade D Smith, Enric Cortés
Although there is a general perception of sharks as large pelagic, apex predators, most sharks are smaller, meso- and upper-trophic level predators that are associated with the seafloor. Among 73 shark species documented in the eastern North Pacific (ENP), less than half reach maximum lengths >200cm, and 78% occur in demersal or benthic regions of the continental shelf or slope. Most small (≤200cm) species (e.g., houndsharks) and demersal, nearshore juveniles of larger species (e.g., requiem sharks) consume small teleosts and decapod crustaceans, whereas large species in pelagic coastal and oceanic environments feed on large teleosts and squids...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854201/association-of-whale-sharks-rhincodon-typus-with-thermo-biological-frontal-systems-of-the-eastern-tropical-pacific
#6
John P Ryan, Jonathan R Green, Eduardo Espinoza, Alex R Hearn
Satellite tracking of 27 whale sharks in the eastern tropical Pacific, examined in relation to environmental data, indicates preferential occupancy of thermo-biological frontal systems. In these systems, thermal gradients are caused by wind-forced circulation and mixing, and biological gradients are caused by associated nutrient enrichment and enhanced primary productivity. Two of the frontal systems result from upwelling, driven by divergence in the current systems along the equator and the west coast of South America; the third results from wind jet dynamics off Central America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842669/dna-analysis-of-traded-shark-fins-and-mobulid-gill-plates-reveals-a-high-proportion-of-species-of-conservation-concern
#7
Dirk Steinke, Andrea M Bernard, Rebekah L Horn, Paul Hilton, Robert Hanner, Mahmood S Shivji
Continuously increasing demand for plant and animal products causes unsustainable depletion of biological resources. It is estimated that one-quarter of sharks and rays are threatened worldwide and although the global fin trade is widely recognized as a major driver, demand for meat, liver oil, and gill plates also represents a significant threat. This study used DNA barcoding and 16 S rRNA sequencing as a method to identify shark and ray species from dried fins and gill plates, obtained in Canada, China, and Sri Lanka...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817569/long-term-assessment-of-whale-shark-population-demography-and-connectivity-using-photo-identification-in-the-western-atlantic-ocean
#8
Jennifer A McKinney, Eric R Hoffmayer, Jason Holmberg, Rachel T Graham, William B Driggers, Rafael de la Parra-Venegas, Beatriz E Galván-Pastoriza, Steve Fox, Simon J Pierce, Alistair D M Dove
The predictable occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, has been well documented in several areas. However, information relating to their migratory patterns, residency times and connectivity across broad spatial scales is limited. In the present study photo-identification data is used to describe whale shark population structure and connectivity among known aggregation sites within the Western Central Atlantic Ocean (WCA). From 1999 to 2015, 1,361 individuals were identified from four distinct areas: the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico (n = 1,115); Honduras (n = 146); northern Gulf of Mexico, United States (n = 112), and Belize (n = 49)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812572/population-characteristics-of-a-large-whale-shark-aggregation-inferred-from-seawater-environmental-dna
#9
Eva Egelyng Sigsgaard, Ida Broman Nielsen, Steffen Sanvig Bach, Eline D Lorenzen, David Philip Robinson, Steen Wilhelm Knudsen, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Mohammed Al Jaidah, Ludovic Orlando, Eske Willerslev, Peter Rask Møller, Philip Francis Thomsen
Population genetics is essential for understanding and managing marine ecosystems, but sampling remains challenging. We demonstrate that high-throughput sequencing of seawater environmental DNA can provide useful estimates of genetic diversity in a whale shark (Rhincodon typus) aggregation. We recover similar mitochondrial haplotype frequencies in seawater compared to tissue samples, reliably placing the studied aggregation in a global genetic context and expanding the applications of environmental DNA to encompass population genetics of aquatic organisms...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795217/animals-living-in-polluted-environments-are-a-potential-source-of-anti-tumor-molecule-s
#10
REVIEW
Shareni Jeyamogan, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Despite advances in therapeutic interventions and supportive care, the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer have remained significant. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful anti-tumor agents. The search for new anti-tumor compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in polluted environments are a potent source of anti-tumor agents. Under polluted milieus, species such as crocodiles, feed on rotten meat, are exposed to heavy metals, endure high levels of radiation, and are among the very few species to survive the catastrophic Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event with a prolonged lifespan...
August 9, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709399/draft-sequencing-and-assembly-of-the-genome-of-the-world-s-largest-fish-the-whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-smith-1828
#11
Timothy D Read, Robert A Petit, Sandeep J Joseph, Md Tauqeer Alam, M Ryan Weil, Maida Ahmad, Ravila Bhimani, Jocelyn S Vuong, Chad P Haase, D Harry Webb, Milton Tan, Alistair D M Dove
BACKGROUND: The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) has by far the largest body size of any elasmobranch (shark or ray) species. Therefore, it is also the largest extant species of the paraphyletic assemblage commonly referred to as fishes. As both a phenotypic extreme and a member of the group Chondrichthyes - the sister group to the remaining gnathostomes, which includes all tetrapods and therefore also humans - its genome is of substantial comparative interest. Whale sharks are also listed as an endangered species on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of threatened species and are of growing popularity as both a target of ecotourism and as a charismatic conservation ambassador for the pelagic ecosystem...
July 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484673/oceanic-adults-coastal-juveniles-tracking-the-habitat-use-of-whale-sharks-off-the-pacific-coast-of-mexico
#12
Dení Ramírez-Macías, Nuno Queiroz, Simon J Pierce, Nicolas E Humphries, David W Sims, Juerg M Brunnschweiler
Eight whale sharks tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags off the Gulf of California, Mexico, were tracked for periods of 14-134 days. Five of these sharks were adults, with four females visually assessed to be pregnant. At least for the periods they were tracked, juveniles remained in the Gulf of California while adults moved offshore into the eastern Pacific Ocean. We propose that parturition occurs in these offshore waters. Excluding two juveniles that remained in the shallow tagging area for the duration of tracking, all sharks spent 65 ± 20...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274762/are-whale-sharks-exposed-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-and-plastic-pollution-in-the-gulf-of-california-mexico-first-ecotoxicological-investigation-using-skin-biopsies
#13
Maria Cristina Fossi, Matteo Baini, Cristina Panti, Matteo Galli, Begoña Jiménez, Juan Muñoz-Arnanz, Letizia Marsili, Maria Grazia Finoia, Dení Ramírez-Macías
The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is an endangered species that may be exposed to micro- and macro-plastic ingestion as a result of their filter-feeding activity, particularly on the sea surface. In this pilot project we perform the first ecotoxicological investigation on whale sharks sampled in the Gulf of California exploring the potential interaction of this species with plastic debris (macro-, micro-plastics and related sorbed contaminants). Due to the difficulty in obtaining stranded specimens of this endangered species, an indirect approach, by skin biopsies was used for the evaluation of the whale shark ecotoxicological status...
September 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116055/the-development-of-an-intermediate-duration-tag-to-characterize-the-diving-behavior-of-large-whales
#14
Bruce R Mate, Ladd M Irvine, Daniel M Palacios
The development of high-resolution archival tag technologies has revolutionized our understanding of diving behavior in marine taxa such as sharks, turtles, and seals during their wide-ranging movements. However, similar applications for large whales have lagged behind due to the difficulty of keeping tags on the animals for extended periods of time. Here, we present a novel configuration of a transdermally attached biologging device called the Advanced Dive Behavior (ADB) tag. The ADB tag contains sensors that record hydrostatic pressure, three-axis accelerometers, magnetometers, water temperature, and light level, all sampled at 1 Hz...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018629/the-ecological-connectivity-of-whale-shark-aggregations-in-the-indian-ocean-a-photo-identification-approach
#15
Samantha Andrzejaczek, Jessica Meeuwig, David Rowat, Simon Pierce, Tim Davies, Rebecca Fisher, Mark Meekan
Genetic and modelling studies suggest that seasonal aggregations of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at coastal sites in the tropics may be linked by migration. Here, we used photo-identification (photo-ID) data collected by both citizen scientists and researchers to assess the connectedness of five whale shark aggregation sites across the entire Indian Ocean at timescales of up to a decade. We used the semi-automated program I(3)S (Individual Interactive Identification System) to compare photographs of the unique natural marking patterns of individual whale sharks collected from aggregations at Mozambique, the Seychelles, the Maldives, Christmas Island (Australia) and Ningaloo Reef (Australia)...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783634/whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-seasonal-occurrence-abundance-and-demographic-structure-in-the-mid-equatorial-atlantic-ocean
#16
Bruno C L Macena, Fábio H V Hazin
Whale sharks are generally associated with environmental factors that drive their movements to specific locations where food availability is high. Consequently, foraging is believed to be the main reason for the formation of whale shark aggregations. Feeding aggregations occur mainly in nearshore areas and are composed primarily of immature individuals. Conversely, aggregations of mature adults are rarely observed, and their occurrence is correlated with oceanic environments. Despite an increase in the number of whale shark studies, information on mating and parturition grounds is still lacking...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536505/biomimetic-optimization-research-on-wind-noise-reduction-of-an-asymmetric-cross-section-bar
#17
Yingchao Zhang, Weijiang Meng, Bing Fan, Wenhui Tang
BACKGROUND: In this paper, we used the principle of biomimetics to design two-dimensional and three-dimensional bar sections, and used computational fluid dynamics software to numerically simulate and analyse the aerodynamic noise, to reduce drag and noise. METHODS: We used the principle of biomimetics to design the cross-section of a bar. An owl wing shape was used for the initial design of the section geometry; then the feathered form of an owl wing, the v-shaped micro-grooves of a shark's skin, the tubercles of a humpback whale's flipper, and the stripy surface of a scallop's shell were used to inspire surface features, added to the initial section and three-dimensional shape...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420091/association-between-toenail-mercury-and-metabolic-syndrome-is-modified-by-selenium
#18
Kyong Park, Eunmin Seo
BACKGROUND: Although Asian populations consume relatively large amounts of fish and seafood and have a high prevalence of metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the association between chronic mercury exposure and metabolic syndrome and its effect modification by selenium. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in the Yeungnam area. Participants included 232 men and 269 women, aged 35 years or older, who had complete data regarding demographic, lifestyle, diet, toenail mercury and selenium levels, and health...
July 12, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401632/population-structure-of-a-whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-aggregation-in-the-red-sea
#19
J E M Cochran, R S Hardenstine, C D Braun, G B Skomal, S R Thorrold, K Xu, M G Genton, M L Berumen
The presence of whale sharks Rhincodon typus were recorded around Shib Habil, a small, coastal reef off the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2015. A total of 267 suitable photographs resulting in the identification of 136 individuals, were documented from 305 encounters. Sharks were divided evenly between the sexes with no evidence of temporal or spatial segregation. All individuals were immature based on size estimates and, for males, juvenile clasper morphology. Scars were reported for 57% of R...
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362839/population-structure-abundance-and-movement-of-whale-sharks-in-the-arabian-gulf-and-the-gulf-of-oman
#20
David P Robinson, Mohammed Y Jaidah, Steffen Bach, Katie Lee, Rima W Jabado, Christoph A Rohner, Abi March, Simone Caprodossi, Aaron C Henderson, James M Mair, Rupert Ormond, Simon J Pierce
Data on the occurrence of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman were collected by dedicated boat surveys and via a public-sightings scheme during the period from 2011 to 2014. A total of 422 individual whale sharks were photo-identified from the Arabian Gulf and the northern Gulf of Oman during that period. The majority of sharks (81%, n = 341) were encountered at the Al Shaheen area of Qatar, 90 km off the coast, with the Musandam region of Oman a secondary area of interest. At Al Shaheen, there were significantly more male sharks (n = 171) than females (n = 78; X2 = 17...
2016: PloS One
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