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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363826/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-skin-manifestations
#1
Qiang Ju, Christos C Zouboulis
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin...
June 30, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349986/from-dioxin-toxicity-of-human-ah-receptor-to-putative-physiologic-functions-in-homeostasis-of-stem-progenitor-cells
#2
Karl Walter Bock
Despite decades of intensive research physiologic Ah receptor (AHR) functions are not yet elucidated. Challenges include marked species differences and dependence of AHR function on the cell type and cellular context. Hints to physiologic functions may be derived (i) from feedback loops between endogenous ligands and substrates of major target enzymes such as CYP1A1 and UGT1A1, and (ii) from dioxin toxicity in human individuals. For example, dioxin-mediated chloracne is probably due to dysregulated homeostasis of sebocyte stem/progenitor cells...
June 24, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801687/toward-elucidation-of-dioxin-mediated-chloracne-and-ah-receptor-functions
#3
REVIEW
Karl Walter Bock
Target cells and molecular targets responsible for dioxin-mediated chloracne, the hallmark of dioxin toxicity, are reviewed. The dioxin TCDD accumulates in sebum, and thereby persistently activates the Ah receptor (AhR), expressed in bipotential stem/progenitor cells of the sebaceous gland. AhR operates in cooperation with other transcription factors including c-Myc, Blimp1 and ß-Catenin/TCF: c-Myc stimulates exit of stem cells from quiescence to proliferating sebocyte progenitors; Blimp1 is a major c-Myc repressor, and ß-Catenin/TCF represses sebaceous gland differentiation and stimulates differentiation to interfollicular epidermis...
July 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26440531/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-in-acne-vulgaris-skin-a-case-series-from-the-region-of-naples-italy
#4
Gabriella Fabbrocini, Gürkan Kaya, Patricia Caseiro Silverio, Valerio De Vita, Aysin Kaya, Fabienne Fontao, Olivier Sorg, Jean-Hilaire Saurat
BACKGROUND: Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants present in the environment. They exert their biological effects by binding to an intracellular receptor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Activation of AhR leads to the induction of cytochrome p450 1A1 (CYP1A1). Expression of CYP1A1 in human skin is a key marker for AhR activation, and it may induce comedogenesis resulting in acne-like lesions known as chloracne/metabolising acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas (MADISH). The contribution of this pathway in patients seen in a busy acne clinic is unknown...
2015: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26382236/tobacco-smoke-and-chloracne-an-old-story-comes-to-light
#5
COMMENT
Olivier Sorg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26360246/occluded-cigarette-smoke-exposure-causing-localized-chloracne-like-comedones
#6
Andrew T Patterson, Frances T Tian, Dirk M Elston, Benjamin H Kaffenberger
Many environmental acne disorders, including chloracne and oil acne, were previously thought to occur predominantly in occupational settings following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Cigarette smoke has also been shown to contain a large number of these toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components and strictly correlates with noninflammatory acneiform lesion development in postadolescent patients. We report a case of localized open comedones associated with occluded cigarette smoke exposure near the nasal cavity due to infrequently changed gauze following rhinectomy...
2015: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26210237/skin-diseases-associated-with-agent-orange-and-other-organochlorine-exposures
#7
REVIEW
Andrew T Patterson, Benjamin H Kaffenberger, Richard A Keller, Dirk M Elston
Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects...
January 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26194098/pcdd-and-pcdf-exposures-among-fishing-community-through-intake-of-fish-and-shellfish-from-the-straits-of-malacca
#8
Azrina Azlan, Nurul Nadiah Mohamad Nasir, Norashikin Shamsudin, Hejar Abdul Rahman, Hock Eng Khoo, Muhammad Rizal Razman
BACKGROUND: Exposure to PCDD/PCDF (dioxin and furan) through consumption of fish and shellfish is closely related to the occurrence of skin diseases, such as chloracne and hyperpigmentation. This study aimed to determine the exposure of PCDD/PCDF and its congeners in fish and shellfish obtained from different regions of the Straits of Malacca among the fishing community. METHODS: The risk of fish and shellfish consumption and exposure to PCDD/PCDF among fishermen living in coastal areas of the Straits were evaluated based on a cross-sectional study involving face to face interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and administration of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ)...
July 21, 2015: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25733915/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-a-review-of-its-role-in-the-physiology-and-pathology-of-the-integument-and-its-relationship-to-the-tryptophan-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Rowland Noakes
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, of which the most widely recognized ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and the most widely recognized effect, chloracne. Adverse effects of manipulation were most recently and graphically demonstrated by the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2004. However, recent research has revealed a receptor with wide-ranging, and at times, paradoxical actions. It was arguably among the first biological receptors to be utilized by dermatologists, dating from the time of topical tar preparations as a therapeutic agent...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25618441/tcdd-induced-activation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-regulates-the-skin-stem-cell-population
#10
Chirag Mandavia
The environmental toxin 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo p-dioxin (TCDD) plays an important role in the development of chloracne. Chloracne is characterized by hyperkeratosis of the interfollicular squamous epithelium and metaplasia of sebaceous glands. Dysregulation of keratinocyte terminal differentiation leading to accelerated formation of the cornified envelope as a result of TCDD-mediated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation has been implicated as one of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the development of chloracne...
March 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25539704/sorafenib-associated-facial-acneiform-eruption
#11
Philip R Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that targets tumor cell angiogenesis and proliferation. Drug-associated cutaneous adverse events, such as alopecia and hand-foot skin reaction, occur frequently. Sorafenib-related side effects affecting hair, nails, and skin are summarized and the characteristics of sorafenib-treated patients who developed acneiform facial lesions are reviewed to present the clinical features of these individuals. CASE REPORT: A man with sorafenib-associated facial acneiform lesions mimicking those of chloracne is described...
March 2015: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25397879/application-of-pharmacokinetic-modelling-for-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-exposure-assessment
#12
P Ruiz, L L Aylward, M Mumtaz
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and mono- and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) are identified as a family or group of organic compounds known as 'dioxins' or dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs). The most toxic member of this group is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(p)-dioxin (TCDD). Historically, DLCs have caused a variety of negative human health effects, but a disfiguring skin condition known as chloracne is the only health effect reported consistently. As part of translational research to make computerized models accessible to health risk assessors, the Concentration- and Age-Dependent Model (CADM) for TCDD was recoded in the Berkeley Madonna simulation language...
2014: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24521743/the-emerging-role-of-nrf2-in-dermatotoxicology
#13
COMMENT
Nguan S Tan, Walter Wahli
The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is best known for its role in resistance to oxidant stress. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Nrf2-prolonged genetic activation is shown with devastating effects on skin homeostasis. The study provides novel molecular insights into poison-induced chloracne and metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas or MADISH.
April 2014: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24503019/activation-of-nrf2-in-keratinocytes-causes-chloracne-madish-like-skin-disease-in-mice
#14
Matthias Schäfer, Ann-Helen Willrodt, Svitlana Kurinna, Andrea S Link, Hany Farwanah, Alexandra Geusau, Florian Gruber, Olivier Sorg, Aaron J Huebner, Dennis R Roop, Konrad Sandhoff, Jean-Hilaire Saurat, Erwin Tschachler, Marlon R Schneider, Lutz Langbein, Wilhelm Bloch, Hans-Dietmar Beer, Sabine Werner
The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging...
April 2014: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24469173/association-between-agent-orange-exposure-and-nonmelanotic-invasive-skin-cancer-a-pilot-study
#15
Mark W Clemens, Andrew L Kochuba, Mary Ella Carter, Kevin Han, Jun Liu, Karen Evans
BACKGROUND: Agent Orange, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, has been shown to cause indirect DNA damage, producing malignancies. However, its connection to nonmelanotic invasive skin cancer is unclear. This study investigated whether 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin exposure increases the incidence of this cancer. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 100 consecutive male patients with Fitzpatrick skin types I through IV who enrolled in the Agent Orange registry at the Veterans Affairs Hospital of Washington, D...
February 2014: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24239782/ahr-signalling-and-dioxin-toxicity
#16
REVIEW
Olivier Sorg
Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in 1953 or Seveso in 1976, to the Agent Orange used during the war of Vietnam, and more recently to the poisoning of the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko. These persistent organic pollutants are by-products of industrial activity and bind to an intracellular receptor, AhR, with a high potency. In humans, exposure to dioxins, in particular 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a cutaneous syndrome known as chloracne, consisting in the development of many small skin lesions (hamartoma), lasting for 2-5 years...
October 15, 2014: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24161567/induction-of-a-chloracne-phenotype-in-an-epidermal-equivalent-model-by-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-is-dependent-on-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-and-is-not-reproduced-by-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-knock-down
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Alison R Forrester, Martina S Elias, Emma L Woodward, Mark Graham, Faith M Williams, Nick J Reynolds
BACKGROUND: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and causes chloracne in humans. The pathogenesis and role of AhR in chloracne remains incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the development of the chloracne-like phenotype in a human epidermal equivalent model and identify potential biomarkers. METHODS: Using primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), we studied AhR activation by XRE-luciferase, AhR degradation and CYP1A1 induction...
January 2014: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23370907/the-human-ah-receptor-hints-from-dioxin-toxicities-to-deregulated-target-genes-and-physiological-functions
#18
REVIEW
Karl Walter Bock
Marked species differences of dioxin toxicity prompted the review of three well-studied human dioxin toxicities (chloracne, inflammation and cancer) and deregulated Ah receptor (AhR) target genes to obtain hints as to the physiological functions of this receptor. Dioxin here stands for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Microarray analysis of dermal cysts from a dioxin-poisoned patient revealed, in addition to induced CYP1A1, increased expression of gremlin, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins...
June 2013: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23292295/accidental-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcb-in-waste-cargo-after-heavy-seas-global-waste-transport-as-a-source-of-pcb-exposure
#19
Lygia Therese Budnik, Ralf Wegner, Ulrich Rogall, Xaver Baur
OBJECTIVES: After cargo with PCB-containing transformer oil waste was damaged in heavy seas, the vessel crew exposed to PCB developed itching and acne-form eruption of the skin. The objective of our study was to analyse this work-related incident and its effects on health. METHODS: Air and wipe test samples were taken in the ship for analysis of PCB (28/52/101/138/153/180); clinical investigations of all seafarers (n = 6) included lung function, chest X-ray, clinical chemistry and biomonitoring (plasma PCBs, chlorophenols in urine) measured after a latency of 7 weeks...
February 2014: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23152189/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-is-an-essential-step-in-the-mechanism-of-action-to-accelerate-human-keratinocyte-differentiation
#20
Lawrence H Kennedy, Carrie Hayes Sutter, Sandra Leon Carrion, Quynh T Tran, Sridevi Bodreddigari, Elizabeth Kensicki, Robert P Mohney, Thomas R Sutter
Chloracne is commonly observed in humans exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); yet, the mechanism of toxicity is not well understood. Using normal human epidermal keratinocytes, we investigated the mechanism of TCDD-mediated enhancement of epidermal differentiation by integrating functional genomic, metabolomic, and biochemical analyses. TCDD increased the expression of 40% of the genes of the epidermal differentiation complex found on chromosome 1q21 and 75% of the genes required for de novo ceramide biosynthesis...
March 2013: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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