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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432925/structure-of-the-s1-subunit-c-terminal-domain-from-bat-derived-coronavirus-hku5-spike-protein
#1
Xue Han, Jianxun Qi, Hao Song, Qihui Wang, Yanfang Zhang, Ying Wu, Guangwen Lu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Yi Shi, George F Gao
Accumulating evidence indicates that MERS-CoV originated from bat coronaviruses (BatCoVs). Previously, we demonstrated that both MERS-CoV and BatCoV HKU4 use CD26 as a receptor, but how the BatCoVs evolved to bind CD26 is an intriguing question. Here, we solved the crystal structure of the S1 subunit C-terminal domain of HKU5 (HKU5-CTD), another BatCoV that is phylogenetically related to MERS-CoV but cannot bind to CD26. We observed that the conserved core subdomain and those of other betacoronaviruses (betaCoVs) have a similar topology of the external subdomain, indicating the same ancestor of lineage C betaCoVs...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421366/two-deletion-variants-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-found-in-a-patient-with-characteristic-symptoms
#2
Qian Xie, Yujuan Cao, Juan Su, Jie Wu, Xianbo Wu, Chengsong Wan, Mingliang He, Changwen Ke, Bao Zhang, Wei Zhao
Significant sequence variation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) has never been detected since it was first reported in 2012. A MERS patient came from Korea to China in late May 2015. The patient was 44 years old and had symptoms including high fever, dry cough with a little phlegm, and shortness of breath, which are roughly consistent with those associated with MERS, and had had close contact with individuals with confirmed cases of MERS.After one month of therapy with antiviral, anti-infection, and immune-enhancing agents, the patient recovered in the hospital and was discharged...
April 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420819/synonymous-and-biased-codon-usage-by-mers-cov-papain-like-and-3cl-proteases
#3
Mahmoud Kandeel, Abdallah Altaher
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) is a recently evolved fatal respiratory disease that poses a concern for a global epidemic. MERS CoV encodes 2 proteases, 3C-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro). These proteases share in processing MERS CoV polyproteins at different sites to yield 16 nonstructural proteins. In this work, we provide evidence that MERS CoV 3CLpro and PLpro are subject to different genetic and evolutionary influences that shape the protein sequence, codon usage pattern, and codon usage bias...
April 18, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418746/risk-and-outbreak-communication-lessons-from-taiwan-s-experiences-in-the-post-sars-era
#4
Yu-Chen Hsu, Yu-Ling Chen, Han-Ning Wei, Yu-Wen Yang, Ying-Hwei Chen
In addition to the impact of a disease itself, public reaction could be considered another outbreak to be controlled during an epidemic. Taiwan's experience with SARS in 2003 highlighted the critical role played by the media during crisis communication. After the SARS outbreak, Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) followed the WHO outbreak communication guidelines on trust, early announcements, transparency, informing the public, and planning, in order to reform its risk communication systems. This article describes the risk communication framework in Taiwan, which has been used to respond to the 2009-2016 influenza epidemics, Ebola in West Africa (2014-16), and MERS-CoV in South Korea (2015) during the post-SARS era...
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412285/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-vaccines-current-status-and-novel-approaches
#5
REVIEW
Nisreen Ma Okba, V Stalin Raj, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a cause of severe respiratory infection in humans, specifically the elderly and people with comorbidities. The re-emergence of lethal coronaviruses calls for international collaboration to produce coronavirus vaccines, which are still lacking to date. Ongoing efforts to develop MERS-CoV vaccines should consider the different target populations (dromedary camels and humans) and the correlates of protection. Extending on our current knowledge of MERS, vaccination of dromedary camels to induce mucosal immunity could be a promising approach to diminish MERS-CoV transmission to humans...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397938/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-in-children-dental-considerations
#6
Fares S Al-Sehaibany
As of January 2016, 1,633 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and 587 MERS-related deaths have been reported by the World Health Organization globally. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus  may occur sporadically in communities or may be transmitted within families or hospitals. The number of confirmed MERS-CoV cases among healthcare workers has been increasing. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus may also spread through aerosols generated during various dental treatments, resulting in transmission between patients and dentists...
April 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394582/multiplex-paper-based-colorimetric-dna-sensor-using-pyrrolidinyl-peptide-nucleic-acid-induced-agnps-aggregation-for-detecting-mers-cov-mtb-and-hpv-oligonucleotides
#7
Prinjaporn Tee-Ngam, Weena Siangproh, Adisorn Tuantranont, Tirayut Vilaivan, Orawon Chailapakul, Charles S Henry
The development of simple fluorescent and colorimetric assays that enable point-of-care DNA and RNA detection has been a topic of significant research because of the utility of such assays in resource limited settings. The most common motifs utilize hybridization to a complementary detection strand coupled with a sensitive reporter molecule. Here, apaper-based colorimetric assay for DNA detection based on pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA)-induced nanoparticle aggregationis reported as an alternative to traditional colorimetric approaches...
April 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393837/cryo-em-structures-of-mers-cov-and-sars-cov-spike-glycoproteins-reveal-the-dynamic-receptor-binding-domains
#8
Yuan Yuan, Duanfang Cao, Yanfang Zhang, Jun Ma, Jianxun Qi, Qihui Wang, Guangwen Lu, Ying Wu, Jinghua Yan, Yi Shi, Xinzheng Zhang, George F Gao
The envelope spike (S) proteins of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV determine the virus host tropism and entry into host cells, and constitute a promising target for the development of prophylactics and therapeutics. Here, we present high-resolution structures of the trimeric MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV S proteins in its pre-fusion conformation by single particle cryo-electron microscopy. The overall structures resemble that from other coronaviruses including HKU1, MHV and NL63 reported recently, with the exception of the receptor binding domain (RBD)...
April 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389142/efficacy-of-antibody-based-therapies-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-common-marmosets
#9
Neeltje van Doremalen, Darryl Falzarano, Tianlei Ying, Emmie de Wit, Trenton Bushmaker, Friederike Feldmann, Atsushi Okumura, Yanping Wang, Dana P Scott, Patrick W Hanley, Heinz Feldmann, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Vincent J Munster
Cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continue to be identified and with a lack of effective clinical treatment and no preventative strategies, treatment using convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a potential quick route to an intervention. Passive immunotherapy via either convalescent plasma or mAbs has proven to be effective for other infectious agents. Following infection with MERS-CoV, common marmosets were treated with high titer hyperimmune plasma or the mAb m336, at 6 and 48 h post inoculation...
April 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387845/identification-of-risk-factors-for-primary-mers-cov-infection-in-camel-workers-in-qatar-2013-2014-a-case-control-study
#10
Reina S Sikkema, Elmoubasher A B A Farag, Sayed Himatt, Adel K Ibrahim, Hamad Al-Romaihi, Salih A Al-Marri, Mohamed Al-Thani, Ahmed M H El-Sayed, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Bart L Haagmans, Marion P G Koopmans, Chantal B E M Reusken
The transmission routes and risk factors for zoonotic MERS-CoV infections are still unknown. We used the WHO questionnaire for MERS-CoV case-control studies to assess risk factors for human MERS-CoV seropositivity at a farm complex in Qatar. Nine camel workers with MERS-CoV antibodies and 43 workers without antibodies were included. Some camel-related activities may pose a higher risk of MERS-CoV infection, as well as cross-border movements of camels, poor hand hygiene and overnight hospital stays with respiratory complaints ...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382915/risk-factors-for-mers-coronavirus-infection-in-dromedary-camels-in-burkina-faso-ethiopia-and-morocco-2015
#11
Eve Miguel, Véronique Chevalier, Gelagay Ayelet, Med Nadir Ben Bencheikh, Hiver Boussini, Daniel Kw Chu, Ikhlass El Berbri, Ouaffa Fassi-Fihri, Bernard Faye, Getnet Fekadu, Vladimir Grosbois, Bryan Cy Ng, Ranawaka Apm Perera, T Y So, Amadou Traore, François Roger, Malik Peiris
Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12...
March 30, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378546/clinical-and-epidemiologic-characteristics-of-spreaders-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-korea
#12
Chang Kyung Kang, Kyoung Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Ji Hwan Bang, Eu Suk Kim, Sang Won Park, Hong Bin Kim, Nam Joong Kim, Sung Il Cho, Jong Koo Lee, Myoung Don Oh
Nosocomial transmission is an important characteristic of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Risk factors for transmission of MERS-CoV in healthcare settings are not well defined. During the Korean outbreak in 2015, 186 patients had laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Those suspected as a source of viral transmission were categorized into the spreader groups (super-spreader [n = 5] and usual-spreader [n = 10]) and compared to the non-spreader group (n = 171). Body temperature of ≥ 38...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377531/further-evidence-for-bats-as-the-evolutionary-source-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#13
S J Anthony, K Gilardi, V D Menachery, T Goldstein, B Ssebide, R Mbabazi, I Navarrete-Macias, E Liang, H Wells, A Hicks, A Petrosov, D K Byarugaba, K Debbink, K H Dinnon, T Scobey, S H Randell, B L Yount, M Cranfield, C K Johnson, R S Baric, W I Lipkin, J A K Mazet
The evolutionary origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are unknown. Current evidence suggests that insectivorous bats are likely to be the original source, as several 2c CoVs have been described from various species in the family Vespertilionidae Here, we describe a MERS-like CoV identified from a Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus bat sampled in Uganda (strain PREDICT/PDF-2180), further supporting the hypothesis that bats are the evolutionary source of MERS-CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is closely related to MERS-CoV across much of its genome, consistent with a common ancestry; however, the spike protein was highly divergent (46% amino acid identity), suggesting that the two viruses may have different receptor binding properties...
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364363/preface-emerging-viruses-from-early-detection-to-intervention
#14
Giuseppe Ippolito, Giovanni Rezza
In the last decades, several viruses emerged, as the consequence of cross-species passage from animal reservoirs to human being. Emerging infections always represent a significant challenge for public health system as knowledge about specific pathogens are generally little while and no/few effective interventions are available. In this volume we explored special aspects of emerging infectious diseases including: the application of the theory of focality of diseases to infective syndrome; the human-animal inter-face focusing on influenza; the role of bats as main reservoir of emerging and novel human pathogens; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemiology and clinical presentation; immediate impact on human health of the last Zika virus outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas; the role and potential application of animal models for the study of emerging infections, to improve disease knowledge and for developing therapeutic drugs during ongoing outbreak...
April 1, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351702/effects-of-operational-decisions-on-the-diffusion-of-epidemic-disease-a-system-dynamics-modeling-of-the-mers-cov-outbreak-in-south-korea
#15
Nina Shin, Taewoo Kwag, Sangwook Park, Yon Hui Kim
We evaluated the nosocomial outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus (CoV) in the Republic of Korea, 2015, from a healthcare operations management perspective. Establishment of healthcare policy in South Korea provides patients' freedom to select and visit multiple hospitals. Current policy enforces hospitals preference for multi-patient rooms to single-patient rooms, to lower financial burden. Existing healthcare systems tragically contributed to 186 MERS outbreak cases, starting from single "index patient" into three generations of secondary infections...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348590/patterns-of-human-respiratory-viruses-and-lack-of-mers-coronavirus-in-patients-with-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-southwestern-province-of-saudi-arabia
#16
Ahmed A Abdulhaq, Vinod Kumar Basode, Anwar M Hashem, Ahmed S Alshrari, Nassrin A Badroon, Ahmed M Hassan, Tagreed L Alsubhi, Yahia Solan, Saleh Ejeeli, Esam I Azhar
We undertook enhanced surveillance of those presenting with respiratory symptoms at five healthcare centers by testing all symptomatic outpatients between November 2013 and January 2014 (winter time). Nasal swabs were collected from 182 patients and screened for MERS-CoV as well as other respiratory viruses using RT-PCR and multiplex microarray. A total of 75 (41.2%) of these patients had positive viral infection. MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples. Human rhinovirus (hRV) was the most detected pathogen (40...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348219/mouse-adapted-mers-coronavirus-causes-lethal-lung-disease-in-human-dpp4-knockin-mice
#17
Kun Li, Christine L Wohlford-Lenane, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Jung-Eun Park, James T Earnest, Thomas B Bair, Amber M Bates, Kim A Brogden, Heather A Flaherty, Tom Gallagher, David K Meyerholz, Stanley Perlman, Paul B McCray
The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012, caused by a zoonotically transmitted coronavirus (CoV). Over 1,900 cases have been reported to date, with ∼36% fatality rate. Lack of autopsies from MERS cases has hindered understanding of MERS-CoV pathogenesis. A small animal model that develops progressive pulmonary manifestations when infected with MERS-CoV would advance the field. As mice are restricted to infection at the level of DPP4, the MERS-CoV receptor, we generated mice with humanized exons 10-12 of the mouse Dpp4 locus...
March 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333616/cross-sectional-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-dromedary-camels-and-other-mammals-in-egypt-august-2015-to-january-2016
#18
Mohamed Ali, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Kandeil, Mahmoud Shehata, Basma Elsokary, Mokhtar Gomaa, Naglaa Hassan, Ahmed El Sayed, Ahmed El-Taweel, Heba Sobhy, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Ihab El Masry, Abebe Wossene Wolde, Peter Daszak, Maureen Miller, Sophie VonDobschuetz, Emma Gardner, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Yilma Jobre Makonnen
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84...
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332641/the-sample-of-choice-for-detecting-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-asymptomatic-dromedary-camels-using-real-time-reversetranscription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#19
K A Mohran, E A B Farag, C B E Reusken, V S Raj, M M Lamers, S D Pas, J Voermans, S L Smits, M M Alhajri, F Alhajri, H E Al-Romaihi, H Ghobashy, M M El-Maghraby, S H S Al Dhahiry, N Al-Mawlawi, A M El-Sayed, M Al-Thani, S A Al-Marri, B L Haagmans, M P G Koopmans
The newly identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease, particularly in people with comorbidities, requires further investigation. Studies in Qatar and elsewhere have provided evidence that dromedary camels are a reservoir for the virus, but the exact modes of transmission of MERS-CoV to humans remain unclear. In February 2014, an assessment was made of the suitability and sensitivity of different types of sample for the detection of MERSCoV by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for three gene targets: UpE (upstream of the E gene), the N (nucleocapsid) gene and open reading frame (ORF) 1a...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332568/immunogenicity-of-candidate-mers-cov-dna-vaccines-based-on-the-spike-protein
#20
Sawsan S Al-Amri, Ayman T Abbas, Loai A Siddiq, Abrar Alghamdi, Mohammad A Sanki, Muhanna K Al-Muhanna, Rowa Y Alhabbab, Esam I Azhar, Xuguang Li, Anwar M Hashem
MERS-coronavirus is a novel zoonotic pathogen which spread rapidly to >25 countries since 2012. Its apparent endemicity and the wide spread of its reservoir host (dromedary camels) in the Arabian Peninsula highlight the ongoing public health threat of this virus. Therefore, development of effective prophylactic vaccine needs to be urgently explored given that there are no approved prophylactics or therapeutics for humans or animals to date. Different vaccine candidates have been investigated but serious safety concerns remain over protein or full-length spike (S) protein-based vaccines...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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