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Basem M Alraddadi, Hanadi S Al-Salmi, Kara Jacobs-Slifka, Rachel B Slayton, Concepcion F Estivariz, Andrew I Geller, Hanan H Al-Turkistani, Sanaa S Al-Rehily, Haleema A Alserehi, Ghassan Y Wali, Abeer N Alshukairi, Esam I Azhar, Lia Haynes, David L Swerdlow, John A Jernigan, Tariq A Madani
Healthcare settings can amplify transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but knowledge gaps about the epidemiology of transmission remain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among healthcare personnel in hospital units that treated MERS-CoV patients. Participants were interviewed about exposures to MERS-CoV patients, use of personal protective equipment, and signs and symptoms of illness after exposure. Infection status was determined by the presence of antibodies against MERS-CoV...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Wanbo Tai, Guangyu Zhao, Shihun Sun, Yan Guo, Yufei Wang, Xinrong Tao, Chien-Te K Tseng, Fang Li, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in 2012, and it continues to threaten human health worldwide. No MERS vaccines are licensed for human use, reinforcing the urgency to develop safe and efficacious vaccines to prevent MERS. MERS-CoV spike protein forms a trimer, and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) serves as a vaccine target. Nevertheless, the protective efficacy of RBD in its native trimeric form has never been evaluated. In this study, a trimeric protein, RBD-Fd, was generated by fusing RBD with foldon trimerization motif...
October 14, 2016: Virology
Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are zoonotic pathogens that originated in wild animals. HCoVs have large genomes that encode a fixed array of structural and nonstructural components, as well as a variety of accessory proteins that differ in number and sequence even among closely related CoVs. Thus, in addition to recombination and mutation, HCoV genomes evolve through gene gains and losses. In this review we summarize recent findings on the molecular evolution of HCoV genomes, with special attention to recombination and adaptive events that generated new viral species and contributed to host shifts and to HCoV emergence...
September 30, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Hainv Gao, Hangping Yao, Shigui Yang, Lanjuan Li
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. In 2012, the infectious outbreak caused by MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia has spread to more than 1600 patients in 26 countries, resulting in over 600 deaths.Without a travel history, few clinical and radiological features can reliably differentiate MERS from SARS. But in real world, comparing with SARS, MERS presents more vaguely defined epidemiology, more severe symptoms, and higher case fatality rate. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field of MERS-CoV, especially its molecular virology, interspecies mechanisms, clinical features, antiviral therapies, and the further investigation into this disease...
October 1, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
M Malik, A A Elkholy, W Khan, S Hassounah, A Abubakar, N Tran Minh, P Mala
A literature review of publically available information was undertaken to summarize current understanding and gaps in knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including its origin, transmission, effective control measures and management. Major databases were searched and relevant published papers and reports during 2012-2015 were reviewed. Of the 2520 publications initially retrieved, 164 were deemed relevant. The collected results suggest that much remains to be discovered about MERS-CoV...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
A Abubakar, M Malik, R G Pebody, A A Elkholy, W Khan, A Bellos, P Mala
There are gaps in the knowledge about the burden of severe respiratory disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This literature review was therefore conducted to describe the burden of epidemicand pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the Region which may help in the development of evidence-based disease prevention and control policies. Relevant published and unpublished reports were identified from searches of various databases; 83 documents fulfilled the search criteria. The infections identified included: ARI, avian influenza A(H5N1), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
R J G Hulswit, C A M de Haan, B-J Bosch
Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens-sparked by the SARS and MERS outbreaks-revealed important principles of inter- and intraspecies tropism changes...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
E Kindler, V Thiel, F Weber
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Eu Suk Kim, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Hong Sang Oh, Eun Jung Kim, Eun Young Nam, Sun Hee Na, Moonsuk Kim, Kyoung Ho Song, Ji Hwan Bang, Sang Won Park, Hong Bin Kim, Nam Joong Kim, Myoung Don Oh
Clinical progression over time and cytokine profiles have not been well defined in patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. We included 17 patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV during the 2015 outbreak in Korea. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected prospectively. Serum cytokine and chemokine levels in serial serum samples were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients presented with fever. The median time to defervescence was 18 days...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Canping Huang, Jianxun Qi, Guang-Wen Lu, Qihui Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ying Wu, Yanfang Zhang, Jinghua Yan, George F Gao
The suggested bat-origin for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has revitalized the studies on other bat-derived coronaviruses for the interspecies transmission potential. Bat coronavirus (BatCoV) HKU9 is an important betacoronavirus (betaCoV) that is phylogenetically affiliated to the same genus as MERS-CoV. The bat-surveillance data indicated that BatCoV HKU9 has been widely spreading and circulating in bats. This highlights the necessity of characterizing the virus for its potential of crossing species barriers...
October 3, 2016: Biochemistry
Canping Huang, William J Liu, Wen Xu, Tao Jin, Yingze Zhao, Jingdong Song, Yi Shi, Wei Ji, Hao Jia, Yongming Zhou, Honghua Wen, Honglan Zhao, Huaxing Liu, Hong Li, Qihui Wang, Ying Wu, Liang Wang, Di Liu, Guang Liu, Hongjie Yu, Edward C Holmes, Lin Lu, George F Gao
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. Herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 (Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1), in the rectal swab samples of Rousettus leschenaulti bats by using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Hamzah A Mohd, Ziad A Memish, Sarah H Alfaraj, Donna McClish, Talal Altuwaijri, Marzouqah S Alanazi, Saleh A Aloqiel, Ahmed M Alenzi, Fahad Bafaqeeh, Amal M Mohamed, Kamel Aldosari, Sameeh Ghazal
BACKGROUND: A case control study to better characterize the clinical features, laboratory, and radiological abnormalities associated with MERS-CoV infection in order to help with early identification of this syndrome from other respiratory infections. METHODS: Eighty patients admitted to a hospital in Riyadh, diagnosed with MERS-CoV infection based on RT-PCR were matched on age, sex, and the presence of a co-morbid condition on a basis of 1:2 to other patients admitted with respiratory symptoms and tested negative for MERS-CoV on RT-PCR...
September 24, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jianping Sha, Yuan Li, Xiaowen Chen, Yan Hu, Yajin Ren, Xingyi Geng, Zhiruo Zhang, Shelan Liu
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first isolated in 2012. The largest known outbreak outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea in 2015. As of 29 June 2016, 1769 laboratory-confirmed cases (630 deaths; 35.6 % case fatality rate [CFR]) had been reported from 26 countries, particularly in the Middle East. However, the CFR for hospital outbreaks was higher than that of family clusters in the Middle East and Korea. Here, we compared the mortality rates for 51 nosocomial outbreaks in the Middle East and one outbreak of MERS-CoV in South Korea...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Virology
Nicksy Gumede, Sheick Oumar Coulibaly, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Jean-Bosco Ndihokubwayo, Peter Nsubuga, Joseph Okeibunor, Annick Dosseh, Mbaye Salla, Richard Mihigo, Pascal Mkanda, Charles Byabamazima
BACKGROUND: The laboratory has always played a very critical role in diagnosis of the diseases. The success of any disease programme is based on a functional laboratory network. Health laboratory services are an integral component of the health system. Efficiency and effectiveness of both clinical and public health functions including surveillance, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, research and health promotion are influenced by reliable laboratory services. The establishment of the African Regional polio laboratory for the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has contributed in supporting countries in their efforts to strengthen laboratory capacity...
October 10, 2016: Vaccine
C Chidiac, T Ferry
Emergence of many emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases have occurred over the past decade, some of which are major public threat. SARS, MERS-CoV, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1), Ebola virus disease have raised concerns because of their virulence, their mortality, and/or their modality of transmission, or their impact on maternofoetal transmission (Zika virus). The witness of these emergences have conducted health authorities to have policies and plans and to imagine new organizations for health systems in order to identify any case of highly communicable virulent disease for immediate isolation, and adequate management...
September 16, 2016: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Isra Al-Turaiki, Mona Alshahrani, Tahani Almutairi
BACKGROUND: Recently, the outbreak of MERS-CoV infections caused worldwide attention to Saudi Arabia. The novel virus belongs to the coronaviruses family, which is responsible for causing mild to moderate colds. The control and command center of Saudi Ministry of Health issues a daily report on MERS-CoV infection cases. The infection with MERS-CoV can lead to fatal complications, however little information is known about this novel virus. In this paper, we apply two data mining techniques in order to better understand the stability and the possibility of recovery from MERS-CoV infections...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Arinjay Banerjee, Noreen Rapin, Megan Miller, Philip Griebel, Yan Zhou, Vincent Munster, Vikram Misra
It is speculated that bats are important reservoir hosts for numerous viruses, with 27 viral families reportedly detected in bats. Majority of these viruses have not been isolated and there is little information regarding their biology in bats. Establishing a well-characterized bat cell line supporting the replication of bat-borne viruses would facilitate the analysis of virus-host interactions in an in vitro model. Currently, few bat cell lines have been developed and only Tb1-Lu, derived from Tadarida brasiliensis is commercially available...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Adeyemi O Adedeji, Hilary Lazarus
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5'-to-3' direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand...
September 2016: MSphere
Rapeepun Soonnarong, Ilada Thongpan, Sunchai Payungporn, Chanpim Vuthitanachot, Viboonsuk Vuthitanachot, Preeyaporn Vichiwattana, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus causes respiratory infections in humans. To determine the prevalence of human coronavirus (HCoV) infection among patients with influenza-like illness, 5833 clinical samples from nasopharyngeal swabs and aspirates collected between January 2012 and December 2013 were examined. RESULTS: HCoV was found in 46 (0.79 %) samples. There were 19 (0.32 %) HCoV-HKU1, 19 (0.32 %) HCoV-NL63, 5 (0.09 %) HCoV-229E, and 3 (0.05 %) HCoV-OC43. None of the sample tested positive for MERS-CoV...
2016: SpringerPlus
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