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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354394/effects-of-timely-control-intervention-on-the-spread-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection
#1
Ilsu Choi, Dong Ho Lee, Yongkuk Kim
Objectives: The 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in Korea caused major economic and social problems. The control intervention was conducted during the MERS-CoV outbreak in Korea immediately after the confirmation of the index case. This study investigates whether the early risk communication with the general public and mass media is an effective preventive strategy. Methods: The SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered) model with estimated parameters for the time series data of the daily MERS-CoV incidence in Korea was considered from May to December 2015...
December 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348656/quantifying-the-risk-and-cost-of-active-monitoring-for-infectious-diseases
#2
Nicholas G Reich, Justin Lessler, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
During outbreaks of deadly emerging pathogens (e.g., Ebola, MERS-CoV) and bioterror threats (e.g., smallpox), actively monitoring potentially infected individuals aims to limit disease transmission and morbidity. Guidance issued by CDC on active monitoring was a cornerstone of its response to the West Africa Ebola outbreak. There are limited data on how to balance the costs and performance of this important public health activity. We present a framework that estimates the risks and costs of specific durations of active monitoring for pathogens of significant public health concern...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346682/receptor-usage-of-a-novel-bat-lineage-c-betacoronavirus-reveals-evolution-of-mers-related-coronavirus-spike-proteins-for-human-dpp4-binding
#3
Susanna K P Lau, Libiao Zhang, Hayes K H Luk, Lifeng Xiong, Xingwen Peng, Kenneth S M Li, Xiangyang He, Pyrear Su-Hui Zhao, Rachel Y Y Fan, Antonio C P Wong, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Jian-Piao Cai, Jasper F W Chan, Yinyan Sun, Dongyan Jin, Honglin Chen, Terrence C K Lau, Raven K H Kok, Wenhui Li, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo
Although bats are known to harbor MERS-CoV-related viruses, the role of bats in the evolutionary origin and pathway remains obscure. We identified a novel MERS-CoV-related betacoronavirus, Hp-BatCoV HKU25, from Chinese pipistrelle bats. While being closely related to MERS-CoV in most genome regions, its spike protein occupies a phylogenetic position between that of Ty-BatCoV HKU4 and Pi-BatCoV HKU5. Since Ty-BatCoV HKU4 but not Pi-BatCoV HKU5 can utilize MERS-CoV receptor, hDPP4, for cell entry, we tested the ability of Hp-BatCoV HKU25 to bind and utilize hDPP4...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339515/mers-cov-and-h5n1-influenza-virus-antagonize-antigen-presentation-by-altering-the-epigenetic-landscape
#4
Vineet D Menachery, Alexandra Schäfer, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Hugh D Mitchell, Amie J Eisfeld, Kevin B Walters, Carrie D Nicora, Samuel O Purvine, Cameron P Casey, Matthew E Monroe, Karl K Weitz, Kelly G Stratton, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Lisa E Gralinski, Thomas O Metz, Richard D Smith, Katrina M Waters, Amy C Sims, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Ralph S Baric
Convergent evolution dictates that diverse groups of viruses will target both similar and distinct host pathways to manipulate the immune response and improve infection. In this study, we sought to leverage this uneven viral antagonism to identify critical host factors that govern disease outcome. Utilizing a systems-based approach, we examined differential regulation of IFN-γ-dependent genes following infection with robust respiratory viruses including influenza viruses [A/influenza/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1-VN1203) and A/influenza/California/04/2009 (H1N1-CA04)] and coronaviruses [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV)]...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337997/event-based-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-bangladesh-among-pilgrims-and-travelers-from-the-middle-east-an-update-for-the-period-2013-2016
#5
A K M Muraduzzaman, Manjur Hossain Khan, Rezina Parveen, Sharmin Sultana, Ahmed Nawsher Alam, Arifa Akram, Mahmudur Rahman, Tahmina Shirin
INTRODUCTION: Every year around 150,000 pilgrims from Bangladesh perform Umrah and Hajj. Emergence and continuous reporting of MERS-CoV infection in Saudi Arabia emphasize the need for surveillance of MERS-CoV in returning pilgrims or travelers from the Middle East and capacity building of health care providers for disease containment. The Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control & Research (IEDCR) under the Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family welfare (MoHFW), is responsible for MERS-CoV screening of pilgrims/ travelers returning from the Middle East with respiratory illness as part of its outbreak investigation and surveillance activities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336306/mers-cov-spillover-at-the-camel-human-interface
#6
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Andrew Rambaut, Trevor Bedford
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus from camels causing significant mortality and morbidity in humans in the Arabian Peninsula. The epidemiology of the virus remains poorly understood, and while case-based and seroepidemiological studies have been employed extensively throughout the epidemic, viral sequence data have not been utilised to their full potential. Here we use existing MERS-CoV sequence data to explore its phylodynamics in two of its known major hosts, humans and camels...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334709/-molecular-epidemiological-study-of-human-coronavirus-oc43-in-shanghai-from-2009-2016
#7
Y J Yang, Y W Hu
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of Human coronavirus (HCoV), the patterns of emergence and circulation, and the genotype distribution of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) from November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai. Methods: A total of 6 059 respiratory specimens, including pharyngeal swab, sputum, nasopharyngeal aspirates and alveolar lavage fluid, as well as relative clinical data were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections from seven sentinel hospitals during November, 2009 to April, 2016 in Shanghai...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330690/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-severe-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#8
Mohammed S Alshahrani, Anees Sindi, Fayez Alshamsi, Awad Al-Omari, Mohamed El Tahan, Bayan Alahmadi, Ahmed Zein, Naif Khatani, Fahad Al-Hameed, Sultan Alamri, Mohammed Abdelzaher, Amenah Alghamdi, Faisal Alfousan, Adel Tash, Wail Tashkandi, Rajaa Alraddadi, Kim Lewis, Mohammed Badawee, Yaseen M Arabi, Eddy Fan, Waleed Alhazzani
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and is characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure. The objective of this study is to compare the outcomes of MERS-CoV patients before and after the availability of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a rescue therapy in severely hypoxemic patients who failed conventional strategies. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively on MERS-CoV patients with refractory respiratory failure from April 2014 to December 2015 in 5 intensive care units (ICUs) in Saudi Arabia...
January 10, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329754/comparison-of-cepheid%C3%A2-xpert-flu-and-roche-realtime-ready-influenza-a-h1n1-detection-set-for-detection-of-influenza-a-h1n1
#9
Ali A Rabaan, Ali M Bazzi, Sana A Alshaikh
OBJECTIVE: To compare two influenza polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. METHODS: A total of 749 suspected MERS-CoV patients presenting at Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Saudi Arabia, each submitted a clinical sample for influenza A reflex testing using the on-site Cepheid® Xpert Flu assay and at the Ministry of Health laboratory by the Roche PCR assay. RESULTS: There was 92.12% overall agreement between the two methods. Specificity of the Cepheid® Xpert Flu was 95...
December 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299855/the-persistent-prevalence-and-evolution-of-cross-family-recombinant-coronavirus-gccdc1-among-a-bat-population-a-two-year-follow-up
#10
Joseph O Obameso, Hong Li, Hao Jia, Min Han, Shiyan Zhu, Canping Huang, Yuhui Zhao, Min Zhao, Yu Bai, Fei Yuan, Honglan Zhao, Xia Peng, Wen Xu, Wenjie Tan, Yingze Zhao, Kwok-Yung Yuen, William J Liu, Lin Lu, George F Gao
Bats are connected with the increasing numbers of emerging and re-emerging viruses that may break the species barrier and spread into the human population. Coronaviruses are one of the most common viruses discovered in bats, which were considered as the natural source of recent human-susceptible coronaviruses, i.e. SARS-COV and MERS-CoV. Our previous study reported the discovery of a bat-derived putative cross-family recombinant coronavirus with a reovirus gene p10, named as Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1. In this report, through a two-year follow-up of a special bat population in one specific cave of south China, we illustrate that Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 persistently circulates among bats...
December 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299151/analysis-of-the-codon-usage-pattern-in-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#11
Ye Chen, Quanming Xu, Xiaomin Yuan, Xinxin Li, Ting Zhu, Yanmei Ma, Ji-Long Chen
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which first broken out in Jeddah in 2012, causes a severe acute respiratory illness with a high mortality rate. To better understand the molecular characteristics of isolated MERS-CoV genomes, we first analysed the codon usage pattern of the zoonotic MERS-CoV strains comprehensively to gain an insight into the mechanism of cross-species transmission. We found that MERS human/camel isolates showed a low codon usage bias. Both mutation and nature selection pressure have contributed to this low codon usage bias, with the former being the main determining factor...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289665/disulfiram-can-inhibit-mers-and-sars-coronavirus-papain-like-proteases-via-different-modes
#12
Min-Han Lin, David C Moses, Chih-Hua Hsieh, Shu-Chun Cheng, Yau-Hung Chen, Chiao-Yin Sun, Chi-Yuan Chou
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) emerged in southern China in late 2002 and caused a global outbreak with a fatality rate around 10% in 2003. Ten years later, a second highly pathogenic human CoV, MERS-CoV, emerged in the Middle East and has spread to other countries in Europe, North Africa, North America and Asia. As of November 2017, MERS-CoV had infected at least 2102 people with a fatality rate of about 35% globally, and hence there is an urgent need to identify antiviral drugs that are active against MERS-CoV...
December 28, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277291/adaptive-evolution-influences-the-infectious-dose-of-mers-cov-necessary-to-achieve-severe-respiratory-disease
#13
Madeline G Douglas, Jacob F Kocher, Trevor Scobey, Ralph S Baric, Adam S Cockrell
We recently established a mouse model (288-330+/+) that developed acute respiratory disease resembling human pathology following infection with a high dose (5 × 106 PFU) of mouse-adapted MERS-CoV (icMERSma1). Although this high dose conferred fatal respiratory disease in mice, achieving similar pathology at lower viral doses may more closely reflect naturally acquired infections. Through continued adaptive evolution of icMERSma1 we generated a novel mouse-adapted MERS-CoV (maM35c4) capable of achieving severe respiratory disease at doses between 103 and 105 PFU...
December 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273879/correction-to-simultaneous-detection-of-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-and-related-bat-coronaviruses-by-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr
#14
Ji Yeong Noh, Sun-Woo Yoon, Doo-Jin Kim, Moo-Seung Lee, Ji-Hyung Kim, Woonsung Na, Daesub Song, Dae Gwin Jeong, Hye Kwon Kim
Unfortunately, the concentration unit of plasmids was published incorrectly in the original publication of the article. The concentration unit, 'copies/ml' should be corrected to 'copies/μl'. This changes do not affect to the analytic sensitivity of the method because the detection limits of 50-100 copies/μL and 5-100 copies/μL using pUC57-SARS-pS2 (a template for SARS-CoV) and pGEM-MERS-S2 (a template for MERS-CoV), respectively, were as sensitive as other real-time PCR methods [1].
December 22, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261430/investigating-the-effects-of-mass-media-exposure-on-the-uptake-of-preventive-measures-by-hong-kong-residents-during-the-2015-mers-outbreak-the-mediating-role-of-interpersonal-communication-and-the-perception-of-concern
#15
Ramona Ludolph, Peter J Schulz, Ling Chen
In 2015, South Korea experienced the largest outbreak to date of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) outside the Middle East. Fears related to a potential spread of the disease led to an increased alert level as well as heightened media coverage in the neighboring Hong Kong. A cross-sectional survey (N = 533) among residents of Hong Kong was conducted to assess the relationships between the effects of outbreak-related mass media coverage, interpersonal communication, the perceived level of concern in one's close environment, and the uptake of preventive measures...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258862/broad-spectrum-antiviral-activity-of-the-eif4a-inhibitor-silvestrol-against-corona-and-picornaviruses
#16
Christin Müller, Falk W Schulte, Kerstin Lange-Grünweller, Wiebke Obermann, Ramakanth Madhugiri, Stephan Pleschka, John Ziebuhr, Roland K Hartmann, Arnold Grünweller
Coronaviruses (CoV) and picornaviruses are plus-strand RNA viruses that use 5' cap-dependent and cap-independent strategies, respectively, for viral mRNA translation initiation. Here, we analyzed the effects of the plant compound silvestrol, a specific inhibitor of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4A, on viral translation using a dual luciferase assay and virus-infected primary cells. Silvestrol was recently shown to have potent antiviral activity in Ebola virus-infected human macrophages. We found that silvestrol is also a potent inhibitor of cap-dependent viral mRNA translation in CoV-infected human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells...
December 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258555/detection-and-full-genome-characterization-of-two-beta-cov-viruses-related-to-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-from-bats-in-italy
#17
Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Luca de Sabato, Guendalina Zaccaria, Arianna Boni, Enrica Sozzi, Alice Prosperi, Antonio Lavazza, Eleonora Cella, Maria Rita Castrucci, Massimo Cicozzi, Gabriele Vaccari
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which belongs to beta group of coronavirus, can infect multiple host species and causes severe diseases in humans. Multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. In this study, we describe the detection and full genome characterization of two CoVs closely related to MERS-CoV from two Italian bats, Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii. METHODS: Pool of viscera were tested by a pan-coronavirus RT-PCR...
December 19, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249267/coronaviruses-and-arteriviruses-display-striking-differences-in-their-cyclophilin-a-dependence-during-replication-in-cell-culture
#18
Adriaan H de Wilde, Jessika C Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Corrine Beugeling, Udayan Chatterji, Danielle de Jong, Philippe Gallay, Karoly Szuhai, Clara C Posthuma, Eric J Snijder
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is an important host factor in the replication of a variety of RNA viruses. Also the replication of several nidoviruses was reported to depend on CypA, although possibly not to the same extent. These prior studies are difficult to compare, since different nidoviruses, cell lines and experimental set-ups were used. Here, we investigated the CypA dependence of three distantly related nidoviruses that can all replicate in Huh7 cells: the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV), the alphacoronavirus human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), and the betacoronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)...
December 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246504/a-recombinant-vsv-vectored-mers-cov-vaccine-induces-neutralizing-antibody-and-t-cell-responses-in-rhesus-monkeys-after-single-dose-immunization
#19
Renqiang Liu, Jinliang Wang, Yu Shao, Xijun Wang, Huilei Zhang, Lei Shuai, Jinying Ge, Zhiyuan Wen, Zhigao Bu
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a highly threatening zoonotic pathogen since its outbreak in 2012. Similar to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV belongs to the coronavirus family and can induce severe respiratory symptoms in humans, with an average case fatality rate of 35% according to the World Health Organization. Spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV is immunogenic and can induce neutralizing antibodies, thus is a potential major target for vaccine development. Here we constructed a chimeric virus based on the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the G gene was replaced by MERS-CoV S gene (VSVΔG-MERS)...
December 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239484/inactivation-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-human-plasma-using-amotosalen-and-ultraviolet-a-light
#20
Salwa I Hindawi, Anwar M Hashem, Ghazi A Damanhouri, Sherif A El-Kafrawy, Ahmed M Tolah, Ahmed M Hassan, Esam I Azhar
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. Although the potential for MERS-CoV transmission through blood transfusion is not clear, MERS-CoV was recognized as a pathogen of concern for the safety of the blood supply especially after its detection in whole blood, serum, and plasma of infected individuals. Here we investigated the efficacy of amotosalen and ultraviolet A light (UVA) to inactivate MERS-CoV in fresh-frozen plasma (FFP)...
December 14, 2017: Transfusion
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